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See detailGender, Work and Positive Actions: Evolution of the Representations of Equal Opportunities on the Belgian Labour Market
Cornet, Annie ULg; Rondeaux, Giseline ULg

Conference (1999, July)

Framework of the paper This paper focuses on the representation of equal opportunities in companies and non-profit organisations identified as having best practices in their human resources policies. Our ... [more ▼]

Framework of the paper This paper focuses on the representation of equal opportunities in companies and non-profit organisations identified as having best practices in their human resources policies. Our reflections are based on a inter-universities research made during 1998. Our primary focus is to study up to what point the actions posed last years under the topic of equality between men and women on the workplaces contributed to modify the representations and the practices of companies and non-profit organisations (such as hospitals, for example). Research process and questions To reach that goal, we broke up the research process into two parts: first : the evaluative processes aimed at encircling what in our cultural context could be compared to 'best practices' in an equal opportunity sense; second : to test up to what point this concept of equality of chances gets a coverage in the companies and to perceive if the mentality have evolved. The aim here is to see whether the actions set up by the Ministry of Labour and Employment under the topic "positive actions" could have modified the representations around this theme. Is there for example a shift towards the concept of management of diversity like in North America? In short, we tried to see whether, beyond concrete actions which have been undertaken, the values of companies themselves are changing and have evolved. Methods The methodology we used proceeds from a two-levels process : • the qualitative level : we made six case-studies in Belgian companies and non-profit organisations. In each case study, we interviewed employers as much as employees. To reach a certain representativity of the companies, we chose some selection criteria: multinational company versus local company, big company versus SME, secondary, tertiary or non-profit sector, predominantly masculine or feminine jobs, low or high qualifications requirements, etc. • the quantitative level : we made a large investigation by questionnaires on the national scale. We sent those questionnaires to the persons in charge of the Human Resources from 700 companies, and we carried out a statistical processing of the answers. In addition, we have broaden the perspective by identifying similar initiatives at the level of the European Community, and by exchanging theoretical and bibliographical informations through a transnational network. Results The research results reveal that, beyond the concrete actions undertaken, the representations of men and women on the labour market remain strongly linked to the perception of social roles, especially family ones. It seems that there is an agreement around the principle of equal opportunities, but which calls more upon values of equity and justice than of valorisation of women on the labour market or questioning the operating modes of companies. We used in particular Hofstede's concepts of autostereotypes and heterostereotypes within the framework of our analysis. The results of this analysis appear particularly interesting on what is identified as specific competencies, the advantages and the brakes of men and women at the professional level. They also question the opportunity of positive actions and the image these actions have for both men and women. [less ▲]

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See detailGender-related differences in MEN1 lesion occurrence and diagnosis: a cohort study of 734 cases from the Groupe d''etude des Tumeurs Endocrines
goudet, p; Bonithon-Kopp, C.; Murat, A. et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2011)

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See detailGene activation by varicella-zoster virus IE4 protein requires its dimerization and involves both the arginine-rich sequence, the central part, and the carboxyl-terminal cysteine-rich region
Baudoux, Laurence; Defechereux, Patricia; Rentier, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2000), 275(42), 32822-32831

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for those of heterologous viruses. Since most transcription factors ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for those of heterologous viruses. Since most transcription factors act as dimers, IE4 dimerization was studied using the mammalian two-hybrid system. Introduction of mutations in the IE4 open reading frame demonstrated that both the central region and the carboxyl-terminal cysteine-rich domain were important for efficient dimerization. Within the carboxyl-terminal domain, substitution of amino acids encompassing residues 443-447 totally abolished dimerization. Gene activation by IE4 was studied by transient transfection with an IE4 expression plasmid and a reporter gene under the control of either the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1, long terminal repeat or the VZV thymidine kinase promoter. Regions of IE4 important for dimerization were also shown to be crucial for transactivation. In addition, the arginine-rich domains Rb and Re of the amino-terminal region were also demonstrated to be important for transactivation, whereas the Ra domain as well as an acidic and bZIP-containing regions were shown to be dispensable for gene transactivation. A nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of IE4 has also been characterized, involving a nuclear localization signal identified within the Rb domain and a nuclear export mechanism partially depending on Crm-1. [less ▲]

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See detailGene activation cascade triggered by a single photoperiodic cycle inducing flowering in Sinapis alba
D'Aloia, Maria ULg; Tamseddak, Karim; Bonhomme, Delphine ULg et al

in The Plant Journal (2009), 59

Molecular genetic analyses in Arabidopsis disclosed a genetic pathway whereby flowering is induced by the photoperiod. This cascade is examined here within the time course of floral transition in the long ... [more ▼]

Molecular genetic analyses in Arabidopsis disclosed a genetic pathway whereby flowering is induced by the photoperiod. This cascade is examined here within the time course of floral transition in the long-day (LD) plant Sinapis alba induced by a single photoperiodic cycle. In addition to previously available sequences, the cloning of CONSTANS (SaCO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (SaFT) homologues allowed expression analyses to be performed to follow the flowering process step by step. A diurnal rhythm in SaCO expression in the leaves was observed and transcripts of SaFT were detected when light was given in phase with SaCO kinetics only. This occurred when day length was extended or when a short day was shifted towards a ‘photophile phase’. The steady-state level of SaFT transcripts in the various physiological situations examined was found to correlate like a rheostat with floral induction strength. Kinetics of SaFT activation were also consistent with previous estimations of translocation of florigen out of leaves, which could actually occur after the inductive cycle. In response to one 22-h LD, initiation of floral meristems by the shoot apical meristem (SAM) started about 2 days after activation of SaFT and was marked by expression of APETALA1 (SaAP1). Meanwhile, LEAFY (SaLFY) was first up-regulated in leaf primordia and in the SAM. FRUITFULL (SaFUL) was later activated in the whole SAM but excluded from floral meristems. These patterns are integrated with previous observations concerning upregulation of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SaSOC1) to provide a temporal and spatial map of floral transition in Sinapis. [less ▲]

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See detailGene activation therapy: from the BLV model to HAM/TSP patients.
Lezin, Agnes; Olindo, Stephane; Belrose, Gildas et al

in Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition) (2009), 1

HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) and BLV (bovine leukemia virus) are two related retroviruses infecting CD4+ and B lymphocytes in humans and ruminants, respectively. During infection, the host ... [more ▼]

HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) and BLV (bovine leukemia virus) are two related retroviruses infecting CD4+ and B lymphocytes in humans and ruminants, respectively. During infection, the host-pathogen interplay is characterized by very dynamic kinetics resulting in equilibrium between the virus, which attempts to proliferate, and the immune response, which seeks to exert tight control of the virus. A major determinant of disease induction by both viruses is the accumulation of provirus in peripheral blood. In the absence of viral proteins, virus infected cells escape recognition and destruction by the host immune response. We propose a novel therapeutic strategy based on transient activation of viral expression using epigenetic modulators; this exposes infected cells to the immune response and results in significant reductions in proviral loads. In the absence of satisfactory therapies, this viral gene-activation strategy might delay progression, or even be curative, for HTLV-1 induced myelopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). [less ▲]

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See detailThe gene encoding bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1, an inactive member of the aspartic proteinase family
Xie, S.; Green, J.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Gene (1995), 159(2), 193-197

Bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1) is a member of the aspartic proteinase family. It becomes detectable in maternal serum soon after implantation and is produced specifically in the ... [more ▼]

Bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1) is a member of the aspartic proteinase family. It becomes detectable in maternal serum soon after implantation and is produced specifically in the invasive binucleate cells of the placenta. As a result of a key mutation within its catalytic center, bPAG1 appears to be proteolytically inactive. Its gene consists of nine exons (size range 99-281 bp) and eight introns (87-1800 bp) organized in a manner very similar to those of proteolytically active mammalian aspartic proteinases. The transcription start point (tsp) is located 53 or 54 bp upstream from the start codon (ATG) and 19 bp downstream from a 5'-TATATAA sequence. Southern blot analyses have indicated the presence of two bPAG1 genes. By screening with an antiserum raised against bPAG1, a less common cDNA with 91% sequence identity to the bPAG1 transcript has been isolated from a placental cDNA library and presumably represents the second gene. At least eight other genes with sequences that hybridize relatively weakly to the bPAG1 probe are present in the bovine genome. Despite the similarities in the transcribed portion of the genes encoding PAG1, pepsinogen and other mammalian aspartic proteinases, the sequences upstream from the tsp of bPAG1 are unique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gene Encoding the Low-Affinity Penicillin-Binding Protein 3r in Enterococcus Hirae S185r Is Borne on a Plasmid Carrying Other Antibiotic Resistance Determinants
Raze, Dominique; Dardenne, Olivier ULg; Hallut, Séverine et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1998), 42(3), 534-539

Two plasmid-derived NcoI DNA fragments of 14 and 4.5 kb, respectively, have been isolated from the multidrug-resistant strain Enterococcus hirae S185R and analyzed. The 14-kb fragment contains two ... [more ▼]

Two plasmid-derived NcoI DNA fragments of 14 and 4.5 kb, respectively, have been isolated from the multidrug-resistant strain Enterococcus hirae S185R and analyzed. The 14-kb fragment contains two inverted (L and R) IS1216 insertion modules of the ISS1 family. These modules define a Tn5466 transposon-like structure that contains one copy of the methylase-encoding ermAM conferring erythromycin resistance and one copy of the adenylyl-transferase-encoding aadE conferring streptomycin resistance. Immediately on the left side of IS1216L there occurs a copy of pbp3r encoding the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP3r, itself preceded by a psr-like gene (psr3r) that controls the synthesis of PBP3r. ermAM, aadE, and the transposase gene (tnp) of IS1216R have the same polarities, and these are opposite those of psr3r, pbp3r, and the tnp gene of IS1216L. The 4.5-kb fragment is a copy of the 4.5-kb sequence at the 5' end of the 14-kb fragment, although it is not a restriction product of the 14-kb fragment. It contains three genes with the same polarity: psr3r, pbp3r, and tnp in an IS1216 element. Because of the very high degree of identity (99%) with the chromosomal psrfm and pbp5fm genes of Enterococcus faecium D63R, it is proposed that both the psr3r and pbp3r genes were transferred from an E.faecium strain and inserted in a plasmid of E. hirae. E. hirae is the first known bacterial species in which a low-affinity PBP-encoding gene has been found to be plasmid borne. [less ▲]

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See detailGene expression analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) lines during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection yields insights into differential immune responses
Rakus; Irnazarow, I.; Adamek, M. et al

in Developmental & Comparative Immunology (2012), 37

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See detailGene expression and genetic analysis during higher plants embryogenesis
Abid, Ghassen ULg; Jaquemin, Jean-Marie; Sassi, Khaled et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(4), 667-680

This review describes and discusses recent attempts to analyze the embryogenesis process in higher plants, through combination of descriptive, experimental, and genetic approach. Analysis of gene ... [more ▼]

This review describes and discusses recent attempts to analyze the embryogenesis process in higher plants, through combination of descriptive, experimental, and genetic approach. Analysis of gene expression profiles has permitted to build hypothesis concerning the induced mechanisms in early phases of embryogenesis in higher plants. Such mechanisms involve specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory pathways as well as diverse signal transduction processes at each stage of plant development. [less ▲]

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See detailGene expression data analysis using spatiotemporal blind source separation
Sainlez, Matthieu ULg; Absil, Pierre-Antoine; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

in Verleysen, Michel (Ed.) ESANN'2009 proceedings, European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks - Advances in Computational Intelligence and Learning. (2009, April)

We propose a “time-biased” and a “space-biased” method for spatiotemporal independent component analysis (ICA). The methods rely on computing an orthogonal approximate joint diagonalizer of a collection ... [more ▼]

We propose a “time-biased” and a “space-biased” method for spatiotemporal independent component analysis (ICA). The methods rely on computing an orthogonal approximate joint diagonalizer of a collection of covariance-like matrices. In the time-biased version, the time signatures of the ICA modes are imposed to be white, whereas the space-biased version imposes the same condition on the space signatures. We apply the two methods to the analysis of gene expression data, where the genes play the role of the space and the cell samples stand for the time. This study is a step towards addressing a question first raised by Liebermeister, on whether ICA methods for gene expression analysis should impose independence across genes or across cell samples. Our preliminary experiment indicates that both approaches have value, and that exploring the continuum between these two extremes can provide useful information about the interactions between genes and their impact on the phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailGene expression following hypoxia/ischemia injury
Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Armstrong, John N.; Currie, R. William

Poster (1994)

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See detailGene expression of antimicrobial peptides in colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease before and after first infliximab treatment.
Arijs, I.; Lemaire, K.; Quintens, R. et al

in Gut (2008), 57(Suppl II), 102-103

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See detailGene expression of the lipoxygenase pathway in a tomato species tolerant to salt stress
Ghars, Mohamed Ali ULg; Muhovski, Y.; Ghanem, M. et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailGene expression pattern of synovial cells from inflammatory and normal areas of osteoarthritis synovial membrane.
Lambert, Cécile ULg; Dubuc, Jean-Emile; Montell, Eulalia et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2014), sous presse

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the gene expression pattern of synovial cells from inflammatory (I) or normal/reactive (N/R) areas of a synovial membrane harvested from the same ... [more ▼]

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the gene expression pattern of synovial cells from inflammatory (I) or normal/reactive (N/R) areas of a synovial membrane harvested from the same osteoarthritis (OA) patient. Methods: Synovial tissues were obtained from 12 knee OA patients at the time of total knee replacement. The inflammatory status of the synovial membrane was characterized according to macroscopic criteria and sorted as N/R and I. Biopsies were cultured separately for 7 days. Microarray gene expression profiling between N/R and I areas was performed. Western blot and immunohistochemistry confirmed the identified genes that were differentially expressed. Results: 896 differentially expressed genes between N/R and I zones were identified. The key pathways were related to inflammation, cartilage metabolism, Wnt signaling and angiogenesis. In the inflammatory network, TREM1 and S100A9 were strongly up-regulated. MMP-3 and -9, cathepsin H and S were significantly up-regulated in the cartilage catabolism pathway, whereas the most up-regulated anabolism enzyme was HAS1. Wnt-5A and LRP5 were up-regulated whereas FZD2 and DKK3 were down-regulated in the Wnt signaling. Finally, STC1, a protein involved in angiogenesis was identified as the most up-regulated gene in I zones compared to N/R zones. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify different expression pattern between two areas of the synovial membrane in the same patient. These differences concern several key pathways involved in OA pathogenesis. This analysis also provides information regarding new genes and proteins as potential targets for the future therapeutic. (c) 2013 American College of Rheumatology. [less ▲]

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