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See detailFunctionalization of carbon xerogels for the preparation of Pd/C catalysts by grafting of Pd complex
Diverchy, C.; Hermans, S.; Job, Nathalie ULg et al

Poster (2010, July 11)

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See detailFunctionalization of carbon xerogels for the preparation of Pd/C catalysts by grafting of Pd complex
Diverchy, Chantal; Hermans, Sophie; Job, Nathalie ULg et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2010), 175

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See detailFunctionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by electrografting of polyacrylonitrile
Petrov, Petar; Lou, Xudong; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2004), 25(10), 987-990

As a result of their unique architecture and remarkable mechanical and electrical properties[1,2] carbon nanotubes (CNTs)[3] have great potential that remains, however, un-exploited because of poor ... [more ▼]

As a result of their unique architecture and remarkable mechanical and electrical properties[1,2] carbon nanotubes (CNTs)[3] have great potential that remains, however, un-exploited because of poor dispersibility in liquids and problems of processability, Major efforts have, therefore, been devoted towards any modification of the CNTs that could improve their handling[4,5] Typically, chemical modification of CNTs is based on severe oxidation processes that often damage the tubes[5] Mild and single-step electrochemical modification of CNTs is a valuable alternative to the oxidative treatment. There are several reports in the scientific literature on the electrochemical functionalization of CNTs by electroreduction of diazonium salts,[6-8] and on the halogenation of MWNTs by electrolysis However, the grafting of polymers instead of low-molecular-weight compounds onto CNTs by an electrochemical process is a possible strategy for dispersing CNTs in polymer matrices and improving the mechanical properties of CNT-based nanocomposites.. For the past few years, we have been interested in the electiografting of insulating polymer films onto cathodic surfaces, for example, nickel and glassy carbon, provided that the potential and solvent are properly selected.[10-15] These films are designated as "grafted films", because they have the unique property of remaining attached to the electrode surface even when they are prepared and kept in a solvent in which the polymer is highly soluble. The extension of this technique to CNTs has been explored with acrylonitrile as monomer. This communication aims at reporting the functionaliza-tion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by the electropolymerization of acrylonitrile. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionalization of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) by pendant hydroxyl, carboxylic acid and epoxide groups by atom transfer radical addition
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Lenoir, Sandrine ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Polymer (2005), 46(19), 8511-8518

A straightforward strategy is proposed for grafting hydroxyl, carboxylic acid and epoxide groups along poly (epsilon-caprolactone) chains. Statistical copolymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL ... [more ▼]

A straightforward strategy is proposed for grafting hydroxyl, carboxylic acid and epoxide groups along poly (epsilon-caprolactone) chains. Statistical copolymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) with alpha-chloro-epsilon-caprolactone (alpha-Cl-epsilon-CL) has been initiated by 2,2-dibutyl-2-stanna-1,3-dioxepane (DSDOP), followed by the atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) of but-3-en-1-ol, vinylacetic acid and 1,2-epoxyhex-5-ene, respectively, onto the alpha-chloro units of a poly(alpha-Cl-epsilon-CL-co-epsilon-CL) copolymer. alpha-Cl-epsilon-CL is easily prepared by the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-chlorocyclohexanone. The influence of the experimental conditions, i.e. temperature, solvent, catalyst, on the grafting yield has been discussed. Because ATRA is tolerant of the investigated functional groups, no protection/deprotection reaction is required, which is a major advantage of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionalization of poly(ε-caprolactone) and its macromolecular engineering
Riva, Raphaël ULg

Doctoral thesis (2007)

Macromolecular engineering is one of the most powerful tools to control the molecular parameters, including architecture of polymers, and to improve their performances or to impart them new properties ... [more ▼]

Macromolecular engineering is one of the most powerful tools to control the molecular parameters, including architecture of polymers, and to improve their performances or to impart them new properties. This contribution aims at reporting on a novel strategy for the macromolecular engineering of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) which is based on the use of functional ε-caprolactone, the α-chloro-ε-caprolactone (αClεCL). Indeed, αClεCL is a precursor of polymers and copolymers with εCL that bear pendant activated chlorides well suited to “grafting from” reaction. These (co)polyesters have been used as macroinitiators for the Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate leading to the corresponding graft copolymer. They have also been involved in an Atom Transfer Radical Addition (ATRA) reaction with a series of olefins bearing different functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxylic acid and epoxy group) in order to functionalize the polyester backbone without deleterious degradation. ATRA of PEO chains with an unsaturation end groups has also been carried out in order to prepare PCL-g-PEO of different compositions to be used as stabilizers of polyester nanoparticles. Combination of ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and the copper-catalyzed Huisgen’s [3+2] cycloaddition is a novel strategy for going a step further in the macromolecular engineering of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). This ‘click” reaction is very well-suited to the chemical modification of aliphatic polyesters because, its implementation under very mild conditions prevents chain degradation from occurring. Indeed, alkynes were cycloadded onto azide containing PCL at low temperature (35°C) in an organic solvent (DMF or THF). Originally, α-chloro-ε-caprolactone and ε-caprolactone were randomly copolymerized in toluene at room temperature followed by reaction of the activated chlorides with sodium azide. In order to make a wide range of functional aliphatic polyesters available, poly(α-azide-ε-caprolactone-co-ε-caprolactone) copolyesters were reacted with a series of alkynes substituted by a functional group, e.g., hydroxyl, acrylate and quaternary ammonium salts, This strategy turned out to be efficient to synthesize for instance hydrophilic, photo-cross-linkable and hydrosoluble PCL. Moreover, a variety of graft copolymers were prepared by both the “grafting from” and the “grafting onto” techniques. Indeed, an ATRP initiator was attached onto PCL followed by polymerization of vinyl monomers, whereas alkyne end–capped PEO was cycloadded onto azide-containing PCL with formation of amphiphilic PCL-g-PEO copolymers. Last but not least, the “click” chemistry was very instrumental in imparting an antimicrobial activity to PCL or for the preparation of new functionalized caprolactones. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionalization of traditional biodegradable polyesters
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg

Conference (2001, July 15)

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See detailFunctionalized plasmonic gold nanoparticles for optoacoustic cancer detection
Schol, Daureen ULg; Fleron, Maximilien ULg; Greisch, Jean-François et al

Poster (2008, September 12)

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See detailFunctionalized polypropylenes as efficient dispersing agents for carbon nanotubes in a polypropylene matrix; application to electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorber materials
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Huynen, Isabelle; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Polymer (2010), 51

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been dispersed within polypropylene with the purpose to prepare electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbers. In order to limit the reflectivity of the electromagnetic waves ... [more ▼]

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been dispersed within polypropylene with the purpose to prepare electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbers. In order to limit the reflectivity of the electromagnetic waves at the interface of the materials while achieving good absorbing properties, the CNTs concentration must be kept low (<3 wt%) which means that a perfect dispersion must be ensured. Since CNTs do not disperse well within apolar polymer matrices such as polypropylene, two compatibilizers bearing aromatic moieties, i.e. pyrene and pyridine, able to develop π-π interactions with the CNTs have been synthesized starting from polypropylene grafted by maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA). A masterbatch is first prepared by dispersion of CNTs within the compatibilizers by melt-mixing and coprecipitation followed by further dispersion within the PP matrix. Rheological and electromagnetic characterizations of the nanocomposites have demonstrated the efficiency of these compatibilizers to promote the dispersion of CNTs in PP and the good EMI shielding effectiveness of the PP matrix at a low CNTs concentration (2 wt%). [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionally active macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the skin of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; De Groote, Donat; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2010), 220(3), 201-7

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) probably results from a complex and specific immune cell reaction involving lymphocytes and macrophages. OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional role ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) probably results from a complex and specific immune cell reaction involving lymphocytes and macrophages. OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional role of macrophages in TEN. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on biopsies from early blisters developed in 9 TEN patients. The amount of extracellular myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by ELISA in TEN blister fluid and serum. Controls were blister fluids taken from 9 second-degree burns. In addition, 3-chlorotyrosine (a specific marker of MPO activity) was searched for using liquid mass chromatography both in TEN and burn blister fluids. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry revealed numerous CD68+ macrophages in 8/9 TEN patients; 5-20% of these cells and rare CD15+ neutrophils exhibited MPO immunoreactivity, while keratinocytes were negative. The amount of MPO was significantly higher in TEN blister fluid than in TEN serum, suggesting macrophage production of MPO in the skin. In addition, MPO was significantly more abundant in TEN blister fluid than in burn blister fluid. 3-Chlorotyrosine was detected in 7/9 TEN blister fluids, but in only 2/9 burn blister fluids. DISCUSSION: MPO produced by macrophages was functionally active in most TEN patients, leading to the production of hypochlorous acid, a potent oxidative compound that alters keratinocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionele analyse van een piek uit Spiennes (Neolithicum)
Rots, Veerle ULg

Report (2007)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailFunctionele en contrastieve aspecten van de woordvolgorde. Focusmarkering in het Frans en in het Nederlands
Rasier, Laurent ULg

in Fenoulhet, J. (Ed.) Neerlandistiek in contrast. Handelingen van het Zestiende Colloquium Neerlandicum (2007)

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See detailFunctioning of farm-grown timber value chains: Lessons from the smallholder-produced teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) poles value chain in Southern Benin
Aoudji, Augustin K.N.; Adégbidi, Anselme; Agbo, Valentin et al

in Forest Policy and Economics (2012), 15(February 2012), 98-107

The study examined the functioning of the smallholder-produced teak poles value chain in Southern Benin from an analytical perspective combining the governance structure, the institutional environment ... [more ▼]

The study examined the functioning of the smallholder-produced teak poles value chain in Southern Benin from an analytical perspective combining the governance structure, the institutional environment, and the distribution of consumer price among chain actors. The objective was to identify bottlenecks militating against improved functioning of the farm-grown timber value chains. A fieldwork was carried from August 2008 to September 2010, to identify the agents and the organisations involved in the value chain. Data were collected on the functions performed, the costs borne and the income received by each category of agent, the marketing channels within the value chain, the interactions among agents, the consumption of the product, and the role of the organisations connected to the value chain. This was done by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings, and structured interviews. In addition, data were collected on the institutional environment from both primary and secondary sources. The following agents were involved in the value chain: nurserymen, planters, local intermediaries, brokers, traders, and consumers. The forest service was the main governmental organisation involved in the functioning of the value chain. The governance structure in the value chain was driven by a mixture of government and the market. Various weaknesses were found in the forest policy, the forest regulation and their implementation. Planters’ share of consumer price was lower than traders’ return. The relevant policy options to address these issues were discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctioning Pituitary Adenomas
Beckers, Albert ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg

in Refetoff, Samuel; Weiss, Roy E (Eds.) Genetic diagnosis of endocrine disorders (2009)

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See detailFunctionlization and grafting of polylactide by click chemistry
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Croisier, Florence ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

Conference (2009, November 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (14 ULg)
See detailFunctionlization of biodegradable aliphatic polyesters by mannose-residue for the design of surface-modified polymeric nanoparticles
Rieger, Jutta ULg; Stoffelbach, François; Stoilova, Olya et al

Conference (2005, June 01)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg)