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See detailGROUND-BASED INFRARED MEASUREMENTS OF CARBONYL SULFIDE TOTAL COLUMN ABUNDANCES - LONG-TERM TRENDS AND VARIABILITY
RINSLAND, C. P.; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1992), 97(D5), 5995-6002

Total vertical column abundances of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) have been derived from time series of high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at the National Solar Observatory McMath solar ... [more ▼]

Total vertical column abundances of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) have been derived from time series of high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at the National Solar Observatory McMath solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, latitude 31.9-degrees-N, longitude 111.6-degrees-W), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, and at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (altitude 3.58 km, latitude 46.5-degrees-N, longitude 8.0-degrees-E), in the Swiss Alps. The analysis of both data sets is based on nonlinear least squares spectral fittings of narrow intervals centered on lines of the intense nu-3 band of OCS, the P(37) transition at 2045.5788 cm-1 and the P(15) transition at 2055.8609 cm-1, with a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. The Kitt Peak measurements, recorded on 30 different days between May 1977 and March 1991, show a 10% peak-to-peak seasonal cycle with a summer maximum and a winter minimum and a trend in the total column abundance equal to (0.1 +/- 0.2)% yr-1, 2-sigma. Jungfraujoch solar spectra recorded on 67 different days between October 1984 and April 1991 have been analyzed. The fitted trend in the Jungfraujoch total columns, (-0.1 +/- 0.5)% yr-1, 2-sigma, is consistent with the Kitt Peak trend results within the errors. The Jungfraujoch total columns show a more complex seasonal variation than noted in the Kitt Peak data. The mean of the daily averaged total columns, 8.44 x 10(15) molecules cm-2 above Kitt Peak and 6.41 x 10(15) molecules cm-2 above the Jungfraujoch station, correspond respectively to mean tropospheric mixing ratios of 0.54 +/- 0.04 and 0.52 +/- 0.04 parts per billion by volume; these values are consistent with previously reported remote and in situ measurements. Taken together, the results from the two sites indicate that there has been no significant change in the OCS total column abundance at northern mid-latitudes over the last decade. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-Based Infrared Measurements of HNO3 Total Column Abundances: Long-Term Trend and Variability
Rinsland, C.P.; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Demoulin, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1991), 96(D5), 9379-9389

The long-term trend and variability of the total column amount of atmospheric nitric acid (HNO3) have been investigated based on time series of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at two remote ... [more ▼]

The long-term trend and variability of the total column amount of atmospheric nitric acid (HNO3) have been investigated based on time series of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at two remote high-altitude sites, the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) in the Swiss Alps (altitude 3.6 km, latitude 46.5°N, longitude 8.0°E) and the National Solar Observatory McMath solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.1 km, latitude 31.9°N, longitude 111.6°W), southwest of Tucson, Arizona. The HNO3 v5 band Q branch at 879.1 cm-1 and three P branch manifolds near 869 cm-1 were analyzed using a nonlinear least squares spectral fitting technique and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. The ISSJ measurements evaluated in the present work consist of two solar spectra recorded with a grating spectrometer in June 1951 and a set of observations obtained with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer between June 1986 and June 1990. The modern ISSJ measurements show a ~20% peak-to-peak amplitude seasonal cycle with a winter maximum superimposed on significant variability and a summer minimum; the June results from 1986 to 1990 are both higher and lower than the two retrieved June 1951 HNO3 total column amounts. The fitted trend, (-0.16 +- 0.50) %/yr, 2 sigma, indicates that there has been no detectable change in the HNO3 total column over the last 4 decades. The Kitt Peak measurements, recorded with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer between December 1980 and June 1990, also show marked variability in the HNO3 total column, but in contrast to the ISSJ measurements, no obvious seasonal cycle is observed. The deduced trend in the total column above Kitt Peak, (-0.8 +- 1.6) %/yr, 2 sigma, is consistent with the ISSJ time series of measurements, in that no significant HNO3 long-term trend has been found. The sets of measurements from the two sites are compared with each other and with previously published results, with emphasis on the reported variability of HNO3 and the changes in the HNO3 total column with season and latitude. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space flights
Pougatchev, N. S.; Jones, N. B.; Connor, B. J. et al

in Journal Of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (1998), 103(D15), 19317-19325

Results of the comparison of carbon monoxide ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements with data obtained during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space (MAPS) flights are presented ... [more ▼]

Results of the comparison of carbon monoxide ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements with data obtained during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space (MAPS) flights are presented. Spectroscopic measurements were performed correlatively with April and October MAPS flights by nine research groups from Belgium, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, and the United States. Characterization of the techniques and error analysis were performed. The role of the CO a priori profile used in the retrieval was estimated. In most cases an agreement between spectroscopic and MAPS data is within estimated MAPS accuracy of +/-10%. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of carbonyl sulfide: Free tropospheric trends from a 24-year time series of solar absorption measurements
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D22),

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the ... [more ▼]

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer located in the U. S. National Solar Observatory McMath solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, lat. 31.9degreesN, long. 111.6degreesW), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, and were obtained on 167 days between May 1978 and February 2002, typically at 0.01-cm(-1) spectral resolution. A best fit to the time series shows an average mixing ratio of 566 pptv (1 pptv = 10(-12) per unit volume) between 2.09 and 10 km, a small but statistically significant long-term decrease equal to (-0.25 +/- 0.04)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, and a seasonal variation with a summer maximum, a winter minimum, and a peak amplitude of (1.3 +/- 0.4)%, 1 sigma, relative to the mean. Although a statistically significant decline and seasonal variation have been detected, both are exceedingly small. The present results confirm and extend earlier studies showing that the OCS free tropospheric abundance at northern midlatitudes has remained nearly constant over the last decades. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based Network of NDVI measurements for tracking temporal dynamics of canopy structure and vegetation phenology in different biomes
Soudani, K.; Hmimina, K.; Delpierre, N. et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2012), 123

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See detailGround-based observations of the beta Cephei CoRoT main target HD 180 642: abundance analysis and mode identification
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Uytterhoeven, K.; Morel, Thierry ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 506

The known β Cephei star HD 180 642 was observed by the CoRoT satellite in 2007. From the very high-precision light curve, its pulsation frequency spectrum could be derived for the first time (Degroote ... [more ▼]

The known β Cephei star HD 180 642 was observed by the CoRoT satellite in 2007. From the very high-precision light curve, its pulsation frequency spectrum could be derived for the first time (Degroote and collaborators). In this paper, we obtain additional constraints for forthcoming asteroseismic modeling of the target. Our results are based on both extensive ground-based multicolour photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. We determine T_eff = 24 500± 1000 K and log g = 3.45± 0.15 dex from spectroscopy. The derived chemical abundances are consistent with those for B stars in the solar neighbourhood, except for a mild nitrogen excess. A metallicity Z = 0.0099± 0.0016 is obtained. Three modes are detected in photometry. The degree â is unambiguously identified for two of them: â = 0 and â = 3 for the frequencies 5.48694 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and 0.30818 d[SUP]-1[/SUP], respectively. The radial mode is non-linear and highly dominant with an amplitude in the U-filter about 15 times larger than the strongest of the other modes. For the third frequency of 7.36673 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] found in photometry, two possibilities remain: â = 0 or 3. In the radial velocities, the dominant radial mode presents a so-called stillstand but no clear evidence of the existence of shocks is observed. Four low-amplitude modes are found in spectroscopy and one of them, with frequency 8.4079 d[SUP]-1[/SUP], is identified as (â ,m)=(3,2). Based on this mode identification, we finally deduce an equatorial rotational velocity of 38± 15 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Based on data gathered with the 1.2m Mercator telescope Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, the 90cm telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory, Spain, the 1.5 m telescope at San Pedro Mártir Observatory, Mexico, the 1m RCC and 50 cm telescope at the PiszkéstetÅ Mountain Station of Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, the 2.2 m ESO telescope (ESO Programme 077.D-0311; ESO Large Programme 178.D-0361) at La Silla, Chile, the 1.93 m and 1.52 m telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory, France. Current address: Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot; CEA, IRFU, SAp, centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based observations of the beta Cephei CoRoT main target HD 180642
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Uytterhoeven, K.; Aerts, C. et al

Conference (2008, July)

We present the preliminary results of a detailed study of ground-based photometric and spectroscopic observations dedicated to the β Cephei CoRoT main target HD 180642. Besides the non-linear dominant ... [more ▼]

We present the preliminary results of a detailed study of ground-based photometric and spectroscopic observations dedicated to the β Cephei CoRoT main target HD 180642. Besides the non-linear dominant radial mode several low-amplitude modes are detected in both kinds of datasets. Our aim is to derive the wavenumbers (ℓ,m) of these modes, as additional constraints to the CoRoT pulsation frequencies, for forthcoming asteroseismic modelling of the star. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based observations of the beta Cephei CoRoT main target HD 180642
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Uytterhoeven, K.; Aerts, C. et al

in Communications in Asteroseismology (2009), 158

We present the preliminary results of a detailed study of ground-based photometric and spectroscopic observations dedicated to the β Cephei CoRoT main target HD~180642. Besides the non-linear dominant ... [more ▼]

We present the preliminary results of a detailed study of ground-based photometric and spectroscopic observations dedicated to the β Cephei CoRoT main target HD~180642. Besides the non-linear dominant radial mode several low-amplitude modes are detected in both kinds of datasets. Our aim is to derive the wavenumbers (â ,m) of these modes, as additional constraints to the CoRoT pulsation frequencies, for forthcoming asteroseismic modelling of the star. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based photometric observations of the type A aurora of 17-18 December 1971
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

in Annales de Géophysique (1974), 30

Ground-based observations have been made during the event of 17-18 Dec. 1971 from northern Norway, using a tilting-filter photometer monitoring the intensities of N2(plus) 1.Neg., H-beta, 6300-A O-I, and ... [more ▼]

Ground-based observations have been made during the event of 17-18 Dec. 1971 from northern Norway, using a tilting-filter photometer monitoring the intensities of N2(plus) 1.Neg., H-beta, 6300-A O-I, and 5200-A N-I. The high 6300-A/N2(plus) 1.Neg ratio classes this event among type A auroras. The 6300-A/5200-A ratio varies during the night and remains higher than the usual value of nearly 20. These observations are compatible with a soft electron flux as the origin of the red line enhancement as illustrated by comparison with a model aurora. It is also found that N(2Do) is deactivated by collisions with electrons at a rate foreseen by theoretical calculations. An upper limit of about 40 seconds is derived for the N(2Do) effective lifetime, though no simple relationship gives a good fit to the observations. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based photometry of space-based transit detections: Photometric follow-up of the CoRoT mission
Deeg, H. J.; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Shporer, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 506

The motivation, techniques and performance of the ground-based photometric follow-up of transit detections by the CoRoT space mission are presented. Its principal raison d’être arises from the much higher ... [more ▼]

The motivation, techniques and performance of the ground-based photometric follow-up of transit detections by the CoRoT space mission are presented. Its principal raison d’être arises from the much higher spatial resolution of common ground-based telescopes in comparison to CoRoT’s cameras. This allows the identification of many transit candidates as arising from eclipsing binaries that are contaminating CoRoT’s lightcurves, even in low-amplitude transit events that cannot be detected with ground-based obervations. For the ground observations, “on” – “off” photometry is now largely employed, in which only a short timeseries during a transit and a section outside a transit is observed and compared photometrically. CoRoTplanet candidates’ transits are being observed by a dedicated team with access to telescopes with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 2 m. As an example, the process that led to the rejection of contaminating eclipsing binaries near the host star of the Super-Earth planet CoRoT-7b is shown. Experiences and techniques from this work may also be useful for other transit-detection experiments, when the discovery instrument obtains data with a relatively low angular resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA
Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2012), 5(2012), 3007-3027

Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ... [more ▼]

Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere) to 8 km (in the upper troposphere) and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model). We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-Target Tracking in Multiple Cameras Using Collaborative Particle Filters and Principal Axis-Based Integration
Du, Wei ULg; Hayet, Jean-Bernard; Verly, Jacques ULg et al

in IPSJ Transactions on Computer Vision and Applications (2009), 1

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See detailGroundwater - surface water interaction at the catchment scale - case studies in the Meuse basin
Bürger, Claudius M.; Watanabe, N.; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Davis, G. B.; Johntson, C. D.; Trefry, M. G. (Eds.) Groundwater Quality 2007 Securing Groundwater Quality in Urban and Industrial Environments (2007)

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See detailGroundwater flow and transport delivered for groundwater quality trend forecasting by TREND T2
Orban, Philippe ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg

Report (2006)

In the framework of Workpackage R3 Meuse, the Hydrogeology Group of the University of Liège (HGULg) develops a groundwater flow and transport model for the Geer sub-catchment (tributary of the Meuse ... [more ▼]

In the framework of Workpackage R3 Meuse, the Hydrogeology Group of the University of Liège (HGULg) develops a groundwater flow and transport model for the Geer sub-catchment (tributary of the Meuse) (Figure 1, Deliverable R3.16 (Orban et al 2006)). In the scope of TREND T2, the model will be used to develop trend forecasting tools. The objective of the deliverable is to describe new concepts for large-scale transport modelling, more particularly a modelling approach, the Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell (HFEMC) developed by HGULg and implemented in the 3D simulator SUFT3D. First steps for the application to the Geer basin are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater flow and transport model for the Flémalle cokery site
Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Brouyère, Serge ULg

Report (2008)

This deliverable describes the groundwater flow and transport model performed for the Flémalle test site. Calibration of the groundwater model has been done using both, zoning and pilot points approaches ... [more ▼]

This deliverable describes the groundwater flow and transport model performed for the Flémalle test site. Calibration of the groundwater model has been done using both, zoning and pilot points approaches, while model transport calibration has been performed using tracer tests carried out. Different scenarios of pollutant concentration and degradation constant rates have been simulated. Results point out that biodegradation is likely to occur, as evidenced by former studies within BGC in the scope of the AquaTerra project. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater flow modelling in the central zone of Hanoi, Vietnam
Jusseret, Simon; Vu, Thanh Tam; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Hydrogeology Journal (2009), 17(4), 915-934

On the basis of a review of the Quaternary sedimentary architecture in the area of Hanoi city (Vietnam), a numerical, deterministic and three-dimensional groundwater flow model has been built for a ... [more ▼]

On the basis of a review of the Quaternary sedimentary architecture in the area of Hanoi city (Vietnam), a numerical, deterministic and three-dimensional groundwater flow model has been built for a simulation between 1995 and 2004. The sedimentary architecture has been constructed on the basis of the data from 32 drillings covering the entire Quaternary sequence (but with little sedimentological detail), as well as hydrographical and hydrogeological data. Both steady- and transient-state conditions were tested. Results calculated by the model seem to indicate that the conceptual hypotheses adopted are reasonable for the modelled domain and period. The simulation allows for calculation of the regional groundwater flow trends. It is also used for assessing the relative importance of the various recharge sources of the shallow aquifer system in Hanoi, and for estimating the interactions between groundwater and the Red River. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater flow modelling of the regional aquifer of the Pampa del Tamarugal, northern Chile
Rojas, Rodrigo; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Hydrogeology Journal (2007), 15(3), 537-551

The Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA) is an important source of groundwater in northern Chile. In this study, a groundwater flow model of this aquifer is developed and calibrated for the period 1983-2004 ... [more ▼]

The Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA) is an important source of groundwater in northern Chile. In this study, a groundwater flow model of this aquifer is developed and calibrated for the period 1983-2004. The model reproduces the observed flow-field and the water balance components reasonably well. Five scenarios are defined to evaluate the response to different pumping situations. These scenarios show that groundwater heads will continue to decrease with the present pumping discharge rates. To account for variations in the model results due to uncertainties in average recharge rates, randomly generated recharge realizations with different levels of uncertainty are simulated. Evaporation flow rates and groundwater flowing out of the modelled area seem unaffected by the recharge uncertainty, whereas the storage terms can vary considerably. For the most intensive pumping scenario under the generated random recharge rates, it is unlikely that the cumulative discharged volume from the aquifer, at the end of the simulation period, will be larger than 12% of the estimated groundwater reserve. Fluctuations in simulated groundwater heads due to uncertainties in the average recharge values are more noticeable in certain areas. These fluctuations could explain unusual behaviour in the observed groundwater heads in these areas. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater issues create challenges for engineers
Dassargues, Alain ULg

Scientific conference (2012, June 15)

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See detailGroundwater model parameter identification using a combination of cone-penetration tests and borehole data
Rogiers, Bart; Schiltz, Marco; Beerten, Koen et al

in International Groundwater Symposium 2010, IAHR (2010, September)

In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel, Belgium, additional extensive site characterisation has been ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel, Belgium, additional extensive site characterisation has been performed in 2008. The gathered data now include 388 hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from 8 cored boreholes. Detailed characterisation of these cored boreholes, together with geophysical logging, enabled to identify various hydrostratigraphical units at 8 discrete locations in the research area. Various analyses were performed on the cores, yielding information on grain size, mineralogy, density and total porosity. Geophysical logging parameters were derived from gamma-ray and resistivity measurements. Subsequently, an extensive geotechnical logging campaign was performed in order to establish a 3D-model of the hydrostratigraphical units, based on a dense network of investigation points. About 180 cone penetration tests (CPTs) were executed and lithology was deduced in detail based on existing soil classi cation charts. As such, a description of the regional subsurface up to depths of nearly 50 m was established, and this information was integrated with the borehole data. Most importantly, the lateral extent, depth and thickness of a hydrogeologically important aquitard was identi fied. Based on the 2008 site characterisation results and their interpretation, an update of a ground- water fl ow model used in safety assessments was made. The CPT-based stratigraphic model and the hydraulic conductivity data determined at different scales were combined into a new 3D hydrostratigraphical model. The small-scale measurements (on 100 cm³ core samples) are compared with hydraulic conductivity values obtained from pumping tests and the large-scale parameters derived by inverse modelling. The performance of the original and the updated flow model are compared. The presented approach was succesfull in substantially decreasing the conceptual model and parameter uncertainty and resulted in an improved calibration of the groundwater flow model. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater modelling to predict the impact of a tunnel on the behaviour of a water table aquifer in urban conditions
Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Chilton, J. (Ed.) Groundwater in the Urban Environment : Problems, Processes and Management, Proc. of XXVII IAH Congress (1997)

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