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See detailFredrik Barth, os estudos sobre etnicidade e a ciência politica
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Lask, Tomke (Ed.) Fredrik Barth. O guru, o iniciador e outras variações antropológicas (2000)

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See detailFree Energy Rhythms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Dynamic Perspective with Implications for Ribosomal Biogenesis
Gross, A.; Li, Caroline M.; Remacle, Françoise ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2013), 52(9), 1641-1648

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See detailFree fatty acids regulate the uncoupling protein and alternative oxidase activities in plant mitochondria.
Sluse, Francis ULg; Almeida, A. M.; Jarmuszkiewicz, W. et al

in FEBS Letters (1998), 433

Two energy-dissipating systems, an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein, are known to exist in plant mitochondria. In tomato fruit mitochondria linoleic acid, a substrate for the uncoupling ... [more ▼]

Two energy-dissipating systems, an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein, are known to exist in plant mitochondria. In tomato fruit mitochondria linoleic acid, a substrate for the uncoupling protein, inhibited the alternative oxidase-sustained respiration and decreased the ADP/O ratio to the same value regardless of the level of alternative oxidase activity. Experiments with varying concentrations of linoleic acid have shown that inhibition of the alternative oxidase is more sensitive to the linoleic acid concentration than the uncoupling protein activation. It can be proposed that these dissipating systems work sequentially during the life of the plant cell, since a high level of free fatty acid-induced uncoupling protein activity excludes alternative oxidase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailFree Group and Recognizability
Raskin, Julien ULg

Poster (2013, September 09)

It is well known that recognizability has many algebraic properties. For example, a subset $L$ of the free monoid $\Sigma^*$ is recognizable if and only if there exists a finite monoid $M$, a subset $P ... [more ▼]

It is well known that recognizability has many algebraic properties. For example, a subset $L$ of the free monoid $\Sigma^*$ is recognizable if and only if there exists a finite monoid $M$, a subset $P$ of $M$ and a morphism $f : \Sigma^* \to M$ such that $L = f^{-1}(P)$. These properties allow us to easily define a concept of recognizability in non-free monoids or even in other algebraic structures, such as groups. Our aim is to study the recognizable subsets of the free group $F_X$ generated by $X$. A classical construction of the latter shows that it can be seen as a subset of the free monoid $(X \cup X')^*$, where $X'$ is a set of formal inverses of elements of $X$, endowed with an ad hoc operation. When $X$ is finite, it appears that $F_X$ is a recognizable language of this monoid. It is then natural to wonder if there is a link between recognizability in $F_X$ and recognizability in $(X \cup X')^*$. We show that every recognizable language of $F_X$ is recognizable in $(X \cup X')^*$, and that we can define a class of automata that recognize the recognizable languages of $F_X$. [less ▲]

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See detailFree Movement of Persons in the European Union - D. Martin & E. Guild
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in International Migration Review (1998), 32(4), 1084-1085

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See detailThe free movement of persons living with HIV/AIDS
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

Book published by OPOCE (1999)

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See detailFree radicals in astrophysics.
Swings, Polydore ULg

in Mémoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liège (1969), XVIII(3), 7-26

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See detailFree sialic acid storage disease mimicking cerebral palsy and revealed by blood smear examination.
Debray, François-Guillaume ULg; Lefebvre, Caroline ULg; Colinet, Stephanie et al

in Journal of Pediatrics (2011), 158(1), 1651651

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See detailFree tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above central Europe: Recent measurements from the Jungfraujoch station including the detection of elevated columns during 1998
Rinsland, C. P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2000), 105(D19), 24235-24249

Time series of free tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) column abundances have been derived from observations at the International Scientific Station of the ... [more ▼]

Time series of free tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) column abundances have been derived from observations at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) at 3.58-km altitude in the Swiss Alps (latitude 46.55 degreesN, 7.98 degreesE longitude). The free troposphere was assumed to extend from 3.58 to 11 km altitude, and the related columns were derived for all three molecules from high spectral resolution infrared solar spectra recorded between January 1995 and October 1999. The three molecules show distinct seasonal cycles with maxima during winter for CO and C2H6, and during spring for HCN. These seasonal changes are superimposed on interannual variations. The tropospheric columns of all three molecules were elevated during 1998. Increases were most pronounced for HCN with enhanced values throughout the year, up to a factor of 2 in January 1998 when compared to averages of the other years. The increased tropospheric columns coincide with the period of widespread wildfires during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997-1998. The emission enhancements above ISSJ are less pronounced, and they peaked after the increases measured above Mauna Loa (19.55 degreesN, 155.6 degreesW). Tropospheric trends for CO, C2H6, and HCN of (2.40 +/- 0.49), (0.47 +/- 0.64), and (7.00 +/- 1.61)% yr(-1)(1 sigma) were derived for January 1995 to October 1999. However, if 1998 measurements are excluded from the fit, CO and HCN trends that are not statistically significant, and a statistically significant decrease in the C2H6 tropospheric column, are inferred. Comparisons of the infrared CO columns with CO in situ surface measurements suggest that the CO free tropospheric vertical Volume mixing ratio profile generally decreases with altitude throughout the year. [less ▲]

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See detailFree tropospheric measurements of formic acid (HCOOH) from infrared ground-based solar absorption spectra: Retrieval approach, evidence for a seasonal cycle, and comparison with model calculations
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2004), 109(D18),

The seasonal variation of the free tropospheric volume mixing ratio of formic acid (HCOOH) has been derived from high-spectral-resolution solar absorption spectra recorded with the Fourier transform ... [more ▼]

The seasonal variation of the free tropospheric volume mixing ratio of formic acid (HCOOH) has been derived from high-spectral-resolution solar absorption spectra recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the U. S. National Solar Observatory facility on Kitt Peak (31.9degreesN, 111.6degreesE, 2.09 km altitude) at a typical spectral resolution of 0.005 cm(-1). The spectra have been analyzed with the SFIT2 algorithm, which is based on a semiempirical application of the optimal estimation method. Absorption by HCOOH is weak in these solar spectra, but successful retrievals have been obtained with a new procedure that fits the HCOOH nu(6) band Q branch at 1105 cm(-1) simultaneously with a window to account for a temperature-sensitive HDO line, which overlaps the HCOOH Q branch. After retaining only the best measurements from a database extending from June 1980 to October 2002 the retrievals show a seasonal variation, with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. Average 2.09-10 km volume mixing ratios binned in 3 month intervals range from a maximum of 792+/-323 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), or 10(-12), in July-September to a minimum of 313+/-175 pptv in October-December, with the uncertainties corresponding to statistical means from daily averages. The results are compared with previously reported measurements and model calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailFree-breathing accelerated gadolinium-enhanced MR Angiography in the Diagnosis of Renovascular Disease.
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Brisbois, Denis; Materne, Roland et al

in AJR. American journal of roentgenology (2009), 192(6), 1531-7

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of accelerated free-breathing and breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the main renal arteries compared with ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of accelerated free-breathing and breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the main renal arteries compared with digital subtraction angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal MR angiograms and catheter angiograms of 47 patients (19 men, 28 women; mean age, 68.1 +/- 15.1 years; range, 28-86 years) were reviewed. Thirty-one of the patients underwent free-breathing and 16 underwent breath-hold MR angiography with the same accelerated multiphase imaging protocol. Images were analyzed for examination quality, percentage narrowing of the main renal artery, and visibility of the branches. Diagnostic values of MR angiography were calculated with catheter angiography as the standard of reference. RESULTS: Sixty-five arteries, 24 of which (37%) had > 49% narrowing, were evaluated in the free-breathing group, and 37 arteries, six of which (16%) had > 49% narrowing, were evaluated in the breath-hold group. Comparison with digital subtraction angiography showed 100% (24/24) sensitivity and 95% (39/41) specificity for > 49% renal artery stenosis and 88% sensitivity (15/17) and 100% (48/48) specificity for > 74% renal artery stenosis in the free-breathing group. In the breath-hold group, sensitivity was 100% (6/6) and specificity 97% (30/31) for > 49% renal artery stenosis, and sensitivity was 100% (5/5) and specificity 100% (32/32) for > 74% renal artery stenosis. None of the examinations was nondiagnostic for the main renal arteries, but a smaller number of visible arterial tree subdivisions were found in the free-breathing group (average, 3.64 per patient) than in the breath-hold group (average, 5.87 per patient) (p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Like breath-hold examinations, accelerated free-breathing MR angiographic examinations are feasible and accurate in evaluation of the main renal arteries. [less ▲]

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See detailFreedom, Memory, and Identity: The Paradoxical Individual/Collective Dialectic in Steve Darnall and Alex Ross’s Graphic Novel 'Uncle Sam'
Dony, Christophe ULg

Conference (2012, March)

As his star-spangled costume and his usually firm posturing suggest, Uncle Sam impersonates the United States and symbolically reflects the nation’s most cherished values and ideals such as freedom ... [more ▼]

As his star-spangled costume and his usually firm posturing suggest, Uncle Sam impersonates the United States and symbolically reflects the nation’s most cherished values and ideals such as freedom, exceptionalism, and (masculine) strength. As such, he connects the projects of nationalism and patriotism with the scale of the individual. In other words, he embodies the American motto ‘out of many, one.’ Steve Darnall and Alex Ross’s rewriting of the character, however, strongly contrast with this dominant perception of Uncle Sam in their eponymous 1997 graphic novel. Their narrative shows a distressed and lunatic homeless man wandering the streets of an unknown American city. As he roams the streets, he undergoes an identity crisis that coincides with a crisis of memory, both of which complicate the relation between the symbolic individual body and the collective American unconscious. On the one hand, the character represents the values of freedom and democracy that the US government has strived to implement. On the other, he realizes that the paradigm of the nation cannot be understood as a monolithic entity, and that the plurality of voices that inhabit his persona – and, quite paradoxically, the country – cannot uphold this meta-narrative of American unity. In asking whether or not Uncle Sam is one of U.S., Darnall and Ross comment on the paradoxes of freedom and the myth of the melting pot. [less ▲]

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See detailFreefield vibrations due to dynamic loading on a tunnel embedded in a stratified medium
Clouteau, Didier; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Al-Hussaini, Tahmeed et al

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (2005), 283(1-2), 173-199

An efficient and modular numerical prediction model is developed to predict vibration and re-radiated noise in adjacent buildings fromexcitati on due to metro trains in tunnels for both newly built and ... [more ▼]

An efficient and modular numerical prediction model is developed to predict vibration and re-radiated noise in adjacent buildings fromexcitati on due to metro trains in tunnels for both newly built and existing situations. The three-dimensional dynamic tunnel–soil interaction problem is solved with a subdomain formulation, using a finite element formulation for the tunnel and a boundary element method for the soil. The periodicity of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transform, limiting the discretization effort to a single bounded reference cell. It is demonstrated in the paper how the boundary element method can efficiently be extended to deal with periodic media, reusing the available three-dimensional Green’s tensors for layered media. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with a numerical example, where the case of harmonic and transient point loading on the invert of a shallow cut-and-cover masonry tunnel in Paris is considered. The work described here was carried out under the auspices of the CONVURT project sponsored by the European Community. [less ▲]

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See detailA freehand-sketch environment for architectural design supported by a multi-agent system
Juchmes, Roland ULg; Leclercq, Pierre ULg; Azar, Sleiman

in Computers & Graphics (2005), 29(6),

This paper presents an on-line system for capturing and interpreting architectural sketches. The prototype is based on a multi-agent system, which enables real-time management of recognition scenarios. We ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an on-line system for capturing and interpreting architectural sketches. The prototype is based on a multi-agent system, which enables real-time management of recognition scenarios. We describe the different types of agents, their characteristics, the basic mechanisms involved in interpreting freehand architectural drawings and the collaboration modes between agents. Finally, we illustrate the general operations of the system by a short example. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe freeness problem for products of matrices defined on bounded languages
Charlier, Emilie ULg

in Actes des Journées Montoises d'Informatique Théorique (2014, September)

In this talk, I presented a joint work with Juha Honkala. We study the freeness problem for matrix semigroups. We show that the freeness problem is decidable for upper-triangular 2x2 matrices with ... [more ▼]

In this talk, I presented a joint work with Juha Honkala. We study the freeness problem for matrix semigroups. We show that the freeness problem is decidable for upper-triangular 2x2 matrices with rational entries when the products are restricted to certain bounded languages. We also show that this problem becomes undecidable for large enough matrices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe freeness problem over matrix semigroups and bounded languages
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Honkala, Juha

in Information & Computation (2014), 237

We study the freeness problem for matrix semigroups. We show that the freeness problem is decidable for upper-triangular 2 × 2 matrices with rational entries when the products are restricted to certain ... [more ▼]

We study the freeness problem for matrix semigroups. We show that the freeness problem is decidable for upper-triangular 2 × 2 matrices with rational entries when the products are restricted to certain bounded languages. [less ▲]

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See detailFreeze-dried poly(D,L-lactic acid) macroporous guidance scaffolds impregnated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the transected adult rat thoracic spinal cord
Patist, Carla M; Borgerhoff Mulder, Masha; Gautier, Sandrine et al

in Biomaterials (2004), 25(9), 1569-1582

The effects of poly(D,L-lactic acid) macroporous guidance scaffolds (foams) with or without brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on tissue sparing, neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ... [more ▼]

The effects of poly(D,L-lactic acid) macroporous guidance scaffolds (foams) with or without brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on tissue sparing, neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and behavioral improvements of the hindlimbs following implantation in the transected adult rat thoracic spinal cord were studied. The foams were embedded in fibrin glue containing acidic-fibroblast growth factor. One group of animals received fibrin glue with acidic-fibroblast growth factor only. The foams were prepared by a thermally induced polymer-solvent phase separation process and contained longitudinally oriented macropores connected to each other by a network of micropores. Both foams and fibrin only resulted in a similar gliotic and inflammatory response in the cord-implant interfaces. With BDNF foam, up to 20% more NeuN-positive cells in the spinal nervous tissue close to the rostral but not caudal spinal cord-implant interface survived than with control foam or fibrin only at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Semithin plastic sections and electron microcopy revealed that cells and axons more rapidly invaded BDNF foam than control foam. Also, BDNF foam contained almost twice as many blood vessels than control foam at 8 weeks after implantation. Tissue sparing was similar in all three implantation paradigms; approximately 42% of tissue was spared in the rostral cord and approximately 37% in the caudal cord at 8 weeks post grafting. The number of myelinated and unmyelinated axons was low and not different between the two types of foams. Many more axons were found in the fibrin only graft. Serotonergic axons were not found in any of the implants and none of the axons regenerated into the caudal spinal cord. The behavioral improvements in the hindlimbs were similar in all groups. These findings indicated that foam is well tolerated within the injured spinal cord and that the addition of BDNF promotes cell survival and angiogenesis. However, the overall axonal regeneration response is low. Future research should explore the use of poly(D,L-lactic acid) foams, with or without axonal growth-promoting factors, seeded with Schwann cells to enhance the axonal regeneration and myelination response. [less ▲]

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