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See detailEuropean directive related to chocolate composition is unfair for the African cocoa planters
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Ahouissou, Brice; Namé, M.

in EC Agriculture (2015), 2(4), 384-390

Coming from the cocoa bean, chocolate is one of the most important sectors of the European food industry with sustained growth for many years and creating very high values in the food. Whether the cocoa ... [more ▼]

Coming from the cocoa bean, chocolate is one of the most important sectors of the European food industry with sustained growth for many years and creating very high values in the food. Whether the cocoa bean is largely produced in the African countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Cameroon), its derivatives are mainly consumed in industrialized countries. After negotiation at EU level, since 23 June 2000, Directive 2000/36 has repealed Directive of 1973 and allows the use of other veg¬etable fats (CBEs) cheaper than cocoa butter to chocolate making in limit of 5% of the total weight of the finished product, at delight of some multinational companies. Are considered CBEs: illipe, palm oil, sal, shea butter and gurgikogum and mango kernels. But, in fact, it is palm oil, which is the substitute. Fifteen years after having authorized the incorporation of palm oil in chocolate, we remark in European level, the evils of it on health and the environment! A sad commentary and especially since the adoption of the Directive has deprived the African planters (sup¬ply of cocoa beans is 70% of African origin) of a much-needed income to fight against poverty rural area. As firstly, markets have anticipated the decision, prices remained subdued and secondly it redirects a portion of the demand related to the vegetable fats to Asia which focuses supply of palm oil. Once again, Africa appears to be the big loser in this saga led by the lobby of the oilseed industry in Brussels. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Education and Training for Young Officers - The European Initiative for the Exchange of Young Officers, Inspired by Erasmus
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Federal Republic of Austria (2014)

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See detailEuropean ELITA ELTR multicenter survey on the management of bile duct during liver procurement, preservation and transplantation
MEURISSE, Nicolas ULg; MONBALIU, D; MUIESAN, P et al

Conference (2014, September)

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See detailThe European energy policy towards Eastern neighbours: rebalancing priorities or changing paradigms?
Herranz-Surrallés, Anna; Natorski, Michal ULg

in Morata, Francesc; Solorio, Israel (Eds.) European Energy Policy: The environmental dimension (2012)

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See detailEuropean evaluation practices and tools in open and distance educationProceedings of EDEN conference
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Denis, Brigitte ULg; Piria, Luca et al

in EDEN conference proceedings. Universities in a Digital Era — Transformation, Innovation and Tradition — Roles and Perspectives of Open and Distance Learning (1998, June)

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See detailEuropean Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure
Muller, Aline ULg; Verschoor, Willem

in European Financial Management (2006), 12(2), 195-220

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See detailEuropean geriatric examination. Looking in the future
Petermans, Jean ULg

Speech/Talk (2013)

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See detailEuropean geriatric examination. Looking in the future
Petermans, Jean ULg

Conference (2013, January)

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See detailEuropean guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women--what is the current message for clinical practice?
Kanis, John A; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej (2008), 118(10), 538-40

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See detailEuropean guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Kanis, J. A.; McCloskey, E. V.; Johansson, H. et al

in Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA (2013), 24(1), 23-57

Guidance is provided in a European setting on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The International Osteoporosis Foundation and ... [more ▼]

Guidance is provided in a European setting on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The International Osteoporosis Foundation and European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis published guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in 2008. This manuscript updates these in a European setting. METHODS: Systematic literature reviews. RESULTS: The following areas are reviewed: the role of bone mineral density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk, general and pharmacological management of osteoporosis, monitoring of treatment, assessment of fracture risk, case finding strategies, investigation of patients and health economics of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A platform is provided on which specific guidelines can be developed for national use. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Kanis, J. A.; Burlet, N.; Cooper, C. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2008), 19(4), 399-428

SUMMARY: Guidance is provided in a European setting on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women with or at risk from osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The European Foundation for Osteoporosis and ... [more ▼]

SUMMARY: Guidance is provided in a European setting on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women with or at risk from osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Bone disease (subsequently the International Osteoporosis Foundation) published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in 1997. This manuscript updates these in a European setting. METHODS: The following areas are reviewed: the role of bone mineral density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk; general and pharmacological management of osteoporosis; monitoring of treatment; assessment of fracture risk; case finding strategies; investigation of patients; health economics of treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A platform is provided on which specific guidelines can be developed for national use. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean guidelines for the management of low back pain
Van Tulder, M.; Kovacs, F.; Müller, G. et al

in Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. Supplement (2002), 73((Suppl 305)), 20-25

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See detailThe European Hale-Bopp Team Observations of Comet Hale-Bopp
Cremonese, G.; Arpigny, Claude ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (1997, July 01)

The poster reports some preliminary results obtained by the the European HB Team during an observational campaign, carried out with a substantial number of telescopes on the Canary Islands within a ... [more ▼]

The poster reports some preliminary results obtained by the the European HB Team during an observational campaign, carried out with a substantial number of telescopes on the Canary Islands within a programme supported by the European Union. The observations were devoted to a variety of spectroscopic and photometric topics and have already provided important results. A highlight of this work was the discovery of a third tail composed of neutral sodium and the detection of substantial amount of sodium in the dust tail. Potassium was found in the nuclear region and it was possible to obtain good definition of the rotation state of the comet nucleus. Other results are expected from the analysis of high resolution spectra, for instance the carbon isotopic ratio, the relative abundance of some ions in the coma, and of the very large collection of images from different telescopes with which the complex jet structure of the near nucleus region was monitored. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean immigration policy: towards a new conception of economic migrations
Perrin, Nathalie ULg

Conference (2003, December 17)

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See detailEuropean Initiative for the Exchange of Young Officers inspired by Erasmus
Paile, Sylvain ULg

in Rehrl, Jochen; Weisserth, Hans-Bernhard (Eds.) Handbook on CSDP (2012)

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See detailEuropean Initiative for the Exchange of Young Officers inspired by Erasmus
Paile, Sylvain ULg

in Weisserth, Hans-Bernhard; Rehrl, Jochen (Eds.) CSDP Handbook - The Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULg)