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See detailFunctional brain imaging applications to differential diagnosis in the dementias
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Current Opinion in Neurology (2002), 15(4), 439-444

Purpose of review The diagnosis of dementia rests on an improved knowledge and a better detection of early impairments, to which functional imaging can certainly contribute. Recent findings Progress has ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The diagnosis of dementia rests on an improved knowledge and a better detection of early impairments, to which functional imaging can certainly contribute. Recent findings Progress has been observed at different levels. First, the understanding of different dementias has benefited from explorations of the neural substrate of dementia symptoms and from research into new markers. Second, diverse variables (clinical, anatomical, biochemical) have been related to impaired cerebral activity in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, and progress in image analysis and in multimodal data acquisition has allowed a better understanding of the significance of brain activity disturbances. Third, functional imaging has been applied in well-designed clinical studies, and has provided important arguments for the diagnosis of characteristic clinical syndromes in the dementias. Summary The functioning of neural networks responsible for clinical symptoms in dementia remains an important research topic for functional imaging. The development of new tracers and new techniques for image processing should also improve the usefulness of brain imaging as a diagnostic tool. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional brain imaging of human sleep
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg

in Journal of Sleep Research (1998), 7(Suppl. 1), 42-47

This paper presents an overview of the contribution of functional brain mapping to the study of human sleep. Early studies were essentially successful in describing the variations of the global level of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an overview of the contribution of functional brain mapping to the study of human sleep. Early studies were essentially successful in describing the variations of the global level of cerebral metabolism. More recently, regional distribution of cerebral blood flow was reported. The results suggest that the permissive and executive processes of slow wave sleep and REM sleep are similar in humans and in animals. They also show cortical blood flow distributions specific to each sleep stage. The cellular mechanisms underlying the involvement of these cortical areas in sleep are not yet precisely known. They should be looked for by further investigations in animals. Future research in functional neuroimaging will attempt to explore functional and, hopefully, effective connectivity between cerebral areas involved in sleep processes. This final goal will probably require the co-registration of two or more brain imaging techniques to precisely describe the spatio-temporal course of neuronal interactions occurring during sleep. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Changes Induced by Necrotic Laryngitis in Double Muscled Calves
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1987), 121(15), 353-355

The effects of necrotic laryngitis on the mechanics of breathing and gas exchange were investigated in five Belgian blue double muscled calves two to three months old. All the animals showed the typical ... [more ▼]

The effects of necrotic laryngitis on the mechanics of breathing and gas exchange were investigated in five Belgian blue double muscled calves two to three months old. All the animals showed the typical clinical picture of the respiratory syndrome associated with naturally occurring necrotic laryngitis. Highly significant increases in total pulmonary resistance, minute viscous work of breathing and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, and highly significant decreases in dynamic lung compliance and arterial oxygen tension were recorded in the infected animals, when compared to reference values for healthy cattle. The ratio of inspiratory to expiratory viscous work of breathing was also significantly increased probably because of a partial collapse of the extrathoracic trachea during inspiration. It was concluded that necrotic laryngitis disturbs pulmonary function to such an extent that it impedes the growing process and predisposes the infected animals to secondary bronchopneumonia and ventilatory failure due to respiratory muscle fatigue. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional characteristics of TauA binding protein from TauABC Escherichia coli system
Javaux, C.; Joris, Bernard ULg; De Witte, P.

in Protein Journal (2007), 26(4), 231-238

Although TauA shares few common characteristics with other known periplasmic binding protein, TauA is a putative periplasmic binding protein, part of tauABCD gene cluster involved in sulfonate transport ... [more ▼]

Although TauA shares few common characteristics with other known periplasmic binding protein, TauA is a putative periplasmic binding protein, part of tauABCD gene cluster involved in sulfonate transport in sulphate starvation condition. This protein was expressed in E. coli BL 21 and purified before to assess its binding functionalities. Measurement of K (d) value (mean 11.3 nM) by binding/dialysis studies revealed high affinity and specificity with taurine and also indicated that TauA possessed a unique binding site for its ligand. Comparisons with other periplasmic binding proteins suggests TauA plays a major role in ABC transport system and could be ideal candidate to serve as taurine catcher in biological fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional characterization of new allelic polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the human MxA gene.
Tran Thi Duc, Tam; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Cornet, Anne

in International Journal of Immunogenetics (2013), 40

The Mx proteins are high-molecular-weight dynamin-like proteins whose expression depends strictly on type-I and -III interferons (IFN). Some isoforms are able to inhibit the life cycle of one or several ... [more ▼]

The Mx proteins are high-molecular-weight dynamin-like proteins whose expression depends strictly on type-I and -III interferons (IFN). Some isoforms are able to inhibit the life cycle of one or several viruses and are thus components of innate immune response. The human MxA protein displays the broadest antiviral spectrum which makes it appear as a key antiviral effector of innate immunity. Allelic polymorphisms located in the MxA gene promoter can be expected to affect the magnitude of MxA mRNA transcription in response to IFNs and therefore to alter the severity of viral diseases in humans. Here, three single nucleotide polymorphism sites (-309, -101 and +20) were examined for their ability to alter MxA gene promoter-driven reporter expression. We show that, besides the previously reported role of 123A and -88T, the presence of -101G is equally important. Moreover, when a promoter construct carries these three critical nucleotides, a first additional positive effect is conferred by a C at position -309 and, in this latter case, a second additional effect is produced by a A at position +20. This finding is clinically useful to improve prediction of IFN-responsiveness in patients not only with viral diseases for which type-I IFN therapy is used. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional connectivity and dynamic causal modeling
Phillips, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2010, May 03)

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See detailFunctional connectivity and recognition of familiar faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Kurth, Sophie ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Moyse, Evelyne ULg et al

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014)

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See detailFunctional connectivity in the default network during resting state is preserved in a vegetative but not in a brain dead patient.
Boly, Mélanie ULg; Tshibanda, Luaba ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2009), 30(8), 2393-400

Recent studies on spontaneous fluctuations in the functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in awake healthy subjects showed the presence of coherent fluctuations among functionally ... [more ▼]

Recent studies on spontaneous fluctuations in the functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in awake healthy subjects showed the presence of coherent fluctuations among functionally defined neuroanatomical networks. However, the functional significance of these spontaneous BOLD fluctuations remains poorly understood. By means of 3 T functional MRI, we demonstrate absent cortico-thalamic BOLD functional connectivity (i.e. between posterior cingulate/precuneal cortex and medial thalamus), but preserved cortico-cortical connectivity within the default network in a case of vegetative state (VS) studied 2.5 years following cardio-respiratory arrest, as documented by extensive behavioral and paraclinical assessments. In the VS patient, as in age-matched controls, anticorrelations could also be observed between posterior cingulate/precuneus and a previously identified task-positive cortical network. Both correlations and anticorrelations were significantly reduced in VS as compared to controls. A similar approach in a brain dead patient did not show any such long-distance functional connectivity. We conclude that some slow coherent BOLD fluctuations previously identified in healthy awake human brain can be found in alive but unaware patients, and are thus unlikely to be uniquely due to ongoing modifications of conscious thoughts. Future studies are needed to give a full characterization of default network connectivity in the VS patients population. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems by means of Driving Simulators
Christen, Fréderic ULg; Benmimoun, A.; Deutschle, S.

Poster (2008, April 16)

Der Beitrag beschreibt die Funktionsentwicklung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen an der Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen mbH Aachen (fka) und am Institut für Kraftfahrwesen (ika) der RWTH Aachen mittels ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag beschreibt die Funktionsentwicklung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen an der Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen mbH Aachen (fka) und am Institut für Kraftfahrwesen (ika) der RWTH Aachen mittels Fahrsimulatoren. Dabei wird konkret auf die Entwicklung eines Kreuzungsassistenten sowie eines sogenannten KONVOI-Systems eingegangen. Beide Systeme wurden u.a. unter Verwendung des statischen Fahrsimulators InDriveS entwickelt. Der in diesem Beitrag vorgestellte Ansatz eines Kreuzungsassistenten basiert auf Kommunikation: Fahrzeug-Fahrzeug-Kommunikation (C2C) und Infrastruktur-Fahrzeug- Kommunikation (I2C). Hierfür wurden in der Verkehrsfluss- und Fahrsimulation verschiedene Systemvarianten betrachtet, um unterschiedliche Stufen der Systemkomplexität und unter- schiedliche Zeitrahmen für die Realisierung eines solchen Assistenten zu berücksichtigen. Jede dieser Systemvarianten wurde hinsichtlich deren Wirkung auf die Verkehrssicherheit bewertet. Daneben wurde auch die Benutzerakzeptanz unter Berücksichtigung verschiedener Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstellen betrachtet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Kommunikationsreichweite der wichtigste Parameter für die Systemauslegung und -spezifikation darstellt. Für die Wirkung des Kreuzungsassistenten auf die Verkehrssicherheit ist in erster Linie der Ausrüstungsgrad entscheidend. Für die Benutzerakzeptanz ist die Detektionsrate von möglichen Konfliktsituationen und die Vermeidung von kritischen Situationen entscheidend. Das dargestellte KONVOI-System ermöglicht die Automatisierung von Nutzfahrzeugkolonnen auf Autobahnen. Neben der Funktionsentwicklung zur automatischen Abstandsregelung und Querführung werden in dem Projekt die Auswirkungen von KONVOIs auf den übrigen Verkehr analysiert und die bei den Fahrern auftretenden Belastungen und die Akzeptanz des Systems untersucht. Begleitend werden rechtliche Aspekte der kommerziellen Nutzung von Lkw-KONVOIs in Deutschland weiterentwickelt. Um die Komplexität der zu entwickelnden Lösungen zur Funktionserweiterung der Fahrzeuge zu bewältigen und eine hohe Zuverlässigkeit der Systeme zu gewährleisten, erfolgt die Systementwicklung mit Hilfe von Simulationswerkzeugen (MATLAB/Simulink, Stateflow, Verkehrsflusssimulation PELOPS und Lkw- Fahrsimulator InDriveS). Abschließend geht der Beitrag auf den neuen dynamischen Fahrsimulator der RWTH Aachen ein. [less ▲]

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See detailA Functional Diachronic Approach to Prolepsis: The Complementation of PCU Verbs in Ancient Egyptian
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2010, June 01)

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See detailFunctional distribution and dynamics of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors in living plant cells
Tillemans, Vinciane ULg; Dispa, Laurence ULg; Remacle, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2005), 41(4), 567-582

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins constitute an important class of splicing regulators in higher eukaryotes that share a modular structure consisting of one or two N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM ... [more ▼]

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins constitute an important class of splicing regulators in higher eukaryotes that share a modular structure consisting of one or two N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains and a C-terminal RS-rich domain. Herein, we have investigated the in vivo functional distribution of Arabidopsis SR factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation revealed nuclear speckled distribution and the overall colocalization of fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged SR factors in both tobacco and Arabidopsis cells. Their overall colocalization in larger nucleoplasmic domains was further observed after transcriptional and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation inhibition, indicating a close functional association between SR factors, independent of their phosphorylation state. Furthermore, we demonstrated in vivo the conserved role of the RS and RRM domains in the efficient targeting of Arabidopsis SR proteins to nuclear speckles by using a series of structural domain-deleted mutants of atRSp31 and atRSZp22. We suggest additional roles of RS domain such as the shuttling of atRSZp22 between nucleoplasm and nucleolus through its phosphorylation level. The coexpression of deletion mutants with wild-type SR proteins revealed potential complex associations between them. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated similar dynamic properties of SR factors in both tobacco transiently expressing cells and Arabidopsis transgenics. Cell cycle phase-dependent organization of FP-tagged SR proteins was observed in living tobacco BY-2 cells. We showed that atRSp31 is degraded at metaphase by fluorescence quantification. SR proteins also localized within small foci at anaphase. These results demonstrate interesting related features as well as potentially important differences between plant and animal SR proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional diversity of microbial communities associated to the mucus of scleractinians around Moorea (French Polynesia)
Ladrière, Ophélie ULg; Theunis, Laetitia; Wilmotte, Annick et al

Poster (2008, July 07)

Mucus production by scleractinians appears as an antifouling mechanism which prevents settlement of other organisms and accumulation of sediments on their surface. This Surface Muccopolysaccharide Layer ... [more ▼]

Mucus production by scleractinians appears as an antifouling mechanism which prevents settlement of other organisms and accumulation of sediments on their surface. This Surface Muccopolysaccharide Layer (SML) harbours dense populations of bacteria which play a paramount role in scleractinians nutrition, metabolism and good health maintenance. However, environmental disturbances can alter these microbiocenoses. Characterization of bacterial communities was carried out using a set of simple techniques that enable us to describe the state and functions of whole microbial communities associated with different hard coral species. Multi-comparisons have been performed on bacterial communities from open water, interstitial water, sedimentary interface and macro algae as well as between healthy and bleached colonies, and patches associated or not with Pomacentridae fishes. The functional study included measurements of bacterial biomass, respiration, oxydative and hydrolytic metabolisms. Non-Fungiidae corals and sedimentary interface have a quite similar bacterial biomass but open water, interstitial water and macro-algae are characterized by higher bacterial biomass. Bacterial respiration potential is similar on corals and at the sedimentary interface, but it is higher in interstitial water and lower in open water and for bacterial community associated with macro-algae. Hydrolytic activities are highest in SML. Bleached corals and patches associated with Pomacentridae fishes show more abundant bacteria, with higher respiration rate and higher hydrolytic activity than corals without fishes and healthy ones. In addition, bacteria of bleached corals display a higher division percentage, a higher growth rate and a lower turn-over time We confirmed that bleaching events or the presence of sedentary fishes modify the bacterial communities structure and affect relationships between coral, endosymbiotic algae, SML-associated microbial community and associated organisms. Such results highlight that SML-bacterial communities are modified by bleaching and raise the question of a potential protection of fishes against pathogens. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional domains of the 67-kDa laminin receptor precursor.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Taraboletti, G.; Sobel, M. E.

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1991), 266(30), 20440-6

We report the characterization of two functional domains of the metastasis-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor (67-LR). Using synthetic peptides deduced from the cDNA sequence of the 37-kDa precursor of ... [more ▼]

We report the characterization of two functional domains of the metastasis-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor (67-LR). Using synthetic peptides deduced from the cDNA sequence of the 37-kDa precursor of the laminin receptor (37-LRP) as well as their corresponding affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies, we identified a unique laminin binding site as well as a membrane-associated domain of the receptor. In laminin dot blot and solid phase radioligand assays, a 20 amino acid synthetic peptide (IPCNNKGAHSVGLMWWMLAR, amino acid residues 161-180, designated peptide G) specifically bound to laminin with high affinity (Kd = 5 x 10(-8) M). Peptide G also specifically eluted the 67-LR from a laminin affinity column. Peptide G and laminin reacted with a 1:1 stoichiometry, suggesting that there is one recognition site on laminin for the peptide G domain. Immunofluorescence studies, performed on permeabilized and nonpermeabilized human A2058 melanoma cells using 10 different affinity-purified antibodies to distinct regions of the 37-LRP, identified an unusually short membrane-associated domain that was consistent with a computer predicted transmembrane domain (residues 86-101). Our data demonstrate for the first time that the 37-LRP has two functional domains consistent with the characteristics of the mature 67-LR. Furthermore, we propose peptide G as a potential inhibitor of tumor cell interactions with laminin. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional effects of a muscarinic receptor blockade during acute respiratory distress syndrome in double-muscled calves
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Close, Roland et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1994), 134(5), 110-113

Eighteen Belgian white and blue double-muscled calves suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied. Fifteen of the calves inhaled ipratropium bromide (0.6 mg) four times a day for ... [more ▼]

Eighteen Belgian white and blue double-muscled calves suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied. Fifteen of the calves inhaled ipratropium bromide (0.6 mg) four times a day for three to four days whereas the other three control calves inhaled sterile 0.9 per cent saline. All the animals were injected with ceftiofur sodium (1 mg/kg/day) for five days, the first injection being given one hour after the first inhalation of ipratropium bromide or saline. Arterial oxygen tension, alveolar arterial oxygen difference, carbon dioxide tension and arterial pH, respiratory and heart rates, oscillatory resistance and phase angle, measured by the mono-frequency forced oscillation technique, were recorded both before and one hour and 168 hours after the first inhalation. The measurement of oscillatory resistance and phase angle made it possible to resolve the impedance of the respiratory system into its real and imaginary components. The oscillatory compliance (Cosc) was determined from the imaginary component (Im). By one hour after the first inhalation of ipratropium bromide the oscillatory resistance was already significantly reduced and Im and Cosc had significantly increased, but the other parameters showed no significant improvement. However, between one hour and 168 hours after the first inhalation all the parameters reached physiological values. The control calves did not show any change. It was concluded that the pulmonary dysfunction associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome in these calves was at least partly due to a severe bronchoconstriction. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional effects of obstructive pulmonary diseases
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Lekeux, Pierre (Ed.) Pulmonary Function in Healthy, Exercising and Diseased Animals (1993)

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See detailFunctional effects of restrictive pulmonary diseases
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Dunlop, R. H.; Malbert, C. H. (Eds.) Veterinary Pathophysiology (2004)

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See detailFunctional effects of vascular pulmonary diseases
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Lekeux, Pierre (Ed.) Pulmonary Function in Healthy, Exercising and Diseased Animals (1993)

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See detailFunctional Foods: Spaces of Innovation and the Materiality of Scientific Universality
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

Conference (2011, March 29)

Throughout human history, different authorities have prescribed what to eat and what foodstuffs to avoid. This paper looks at one particular authority that has gained considerable influence in the past ... [more ▼]

Throughout human history, different authorities have prescribed what to eat and what foodstuffs to avoid. This paper looks at one particular authority that has gained considerable influence in the past two decades: nutrition science. Our aim is to render a subfield of nutrition science called ‘functional food science’ ethnographically analyzable, in order to add more precision to the common statement that the ‘findings’ of ‘scientists’ have become recognized by ‘the European Authorities’. Which actors are involved, what are the actors’ respective playing fields, and how are these fields related? The paper is divided in a descriptive part, and a discussion section. In the descriptive part, we propose a brief genealogy of functional food science and the construction of a new scientific gaze on food. The genealogy enables us to distinguish a series of actors, choices, and locally rooted practices in a story that is qualitatively different from accounts in terms of scientific universality. The discussion section at the end of this paper proposes further venues for anthropological research into the relations between science, health and power in a competitive economic and political order. These research questions problematize the meaning and substance of ‘innovation’. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional glycine receptors are expressed by postnatal nestin-positive neural stem/progenitor cells
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 15(8), 1299-1305

Multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are well-established cell subpopulations occurring in the developing, and also in the mature mammalian nervous systems. Trophic and transcription ... [more ▼]

Multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are well-established cell subpopulations occurring in the developing, and also in the mature mammalian nervous systems. Trophic and transcription factors are currently the main signals known to influence the development and the commitment of NS/PCs and their progeny. However, recent studies suggest that neurotransmitters could also contribute to neural development. In that respect, rodent-cultured embryonic NS/PCs have been reported to express functional neurotransmitter receptors. No similar investigation has, however, been made in postnatal and/or in adult rodent brain stem cells. In this study, using RT-PCR and immunocytochemical methods, we show that alpha(1) -, alpha(2) - and beta-subunit mRNAs and alpha-subunit proteins of the glycine ionotropic receptor are expressed by 80.5 +/- 0.9% of postnatal rat striatum-derived, nestin-positive cells within cultured neurospheres. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments further demonstrated that glycine triggers in 33.5% of these cells currents that can be reversibly blocked by strychnine and picrotoxin. This demonstrates that NS/PCs express functional glycine receptors, the consequence(s) of their activation remaining unknown. [less ▲]

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