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See detailFailure of dams arranged in series or in complex
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Detrembleur, Sylvain ULg et al

in Natural Hazards (2011), 56(3), 917-939

A practical methodology has been developed for predicting flows generated by dam failures or malfunctions in a complex or a series of dams. A twofold approach is followed. First, the waves induced in the ... [more ▼]

A practical methodology has been developed for predicting flows generated by dam failures or malfunctions in a complex or a series of dams. A twofold approach is followed. First, the waves induced in the downstream reservoirs are computed, as well as hydrodynamic impacts induced on downstream dams and dikes are estimated. Second, the flood wave propagation and the inundation process are simulated in the downstream valley, accounting for possible dam collapse or breaching in cascade. Two complementary flow models are combined: a two-dimensional fully dynamic model and a simplified lumped model. At each stage, the methodology provides guidelines to select the most appropriate model for efficiently computing the induced flows. Both models handle parametric modeling of gradual dam breaching. The procedure also incorporates prediction of breach formation time and final width, as well as sensitivity analysis to compensate for the high uncertainties remaining in the estimation of breach parameters. The applicability of the modeling procedure is demonstrated for a case study involving a 70m-high gravity concrete dam located upstream of four other dams. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure of donor lymphocyte infusion to prevent graft rejection in dogs given DLA-identical marrow after I Gy of total body irradiation
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Sandmaier, B. M.; Zellmer, E. et al

in Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (2006), 12(8), 813-817

We investigated in a preclinical canine model of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) whether preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) given 1 month after HCT could prevent late graft rejection that ... [more ▼]

We investigated in a preclinical canine model of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) whether preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) given 1 month after HCT could prevent late graft rejection that was the rule in historical dogs given suboptimal conditioning with 1 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) before and immunosuppression with cyclosporine (CSP) and either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; n = 6) or rapamycin (n = 5) after dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical marrow transplantation. Nine dogs given DLA-identical marrow after I Gy of TBI followed by postgrafting MMF and CSP were studied. A single DLI was given 28-36 days after HCT, either with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) preceding treatment with the immunosuppressive drug pentostatin. Two of the 4 dogs given DLI only maintained stable mixed donor-host chimera beyond 30 weeks after HCT, whereas 2 rejected their grafts, on weeks 10 and 15 after HCT. One of the 5 dogs given pentostatin before DLI maintained a stable mixed donor-host chimera beyond 30 weeks, whereas 4 rejected their grafts, at weeks 8, 12, 12, and 16 after HCT. The 30-week probability of stable mixed chimerism, was 33% among dogs given DLI, versus 0% among 11 historical dogs (P = .003). In conclusion, DLI was only moderately effective in preventing graft rejection in this model. Additional immunosuppression with pentostatin did not improve that outcome. The model might be useful in developing potential strategies aimed at preventing graft rejection in patients with low donor chimerism, levels. (C) 2006 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure of ipriflavone to significantly reduce vertebral fracture rates and to increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis : the IMEFS study
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Alexandersen, P; Devogelaer, JP et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2000), 43(S1), 1898

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See detailFailure patterns amongst small firms and their financial symptoms : A test of hypotheses
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Van Caillie, Didier ULg

in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Congress of the European Accounting Asssociation (2010, May)

Financial indicators have been widely used in the business failure literature in order to predict the risk of failure of firms (Beaver, 1966; Altman, 1968; Barnes, 1987; Aziz et al., 1988). In contrast ... [more ▼]

Financial indicators have been widely used in the business failure literature in order to predict the risk of failure of firms (Beaver, 1966; Altman, 1968; Barnes, 1987; Aziz et al., 1988). In contrast, financial ratios have been less commonly used in a more preventive perspective to failure (Van Wymeersch and Wolfs, 1996; Van Caillie, 2000; Balcaen and Ooghe, 2006). Nevertheless, in a preventive perspective to small business failure, it is important to better understand how financial symptoms combine over time (Ooghe and Van Wymeersch, 1986) and to identify if relationships can be traced between the fundamental causes of failure and specific financial indicators. Considering this last statement and with reference to the explanatory business failure patterns (EBFPs) identified by Crutzen (2009) amongst a sample of small firms, this paper tests a series of hypotheses which aim at determining if these (causal) patterns can be associated with some specific financial indicators and, if so, if small distressed firms can be associated to one particular EBFP on the basis of the financial information published in the annual accounts. If each EBFP leads to some specific financial symptoms, then it will be possible to get a proxy information about the fundamental problems inducing failure without having any access to internal information, this identification being considered as a crucial step in the elaboration of any recovery or takeover plan (Argenti, 1976; Gaskill et al., 1993). [less ▲]

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See detailFailure temperature of a System Comprising a Restrained Column Submitted to Fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (2000), 34

The problem of columns submitted to fire is discussed in the intoduction with an emphasis on the differences between the case of a column acting as a single element or being part of a frame. In the latter ... [more ▼]

The problem of columns submitted to fire is discussed in the intoduction with an emphasis on the differences between the case of a column acting as a single element or being part of a frame. In the latter case, failure of the column does not necessarily lead to the failure of the structure. The basic principles of the arc-length technique are given, first for the way it is applied traditionally at room temperature, then for the way it can be applied to extend a numerical simulation beyond the moment of local failures in case of fire. The technique is then applied to the case of restrained columns and it is shown how it is possible to obtain a safe estimate of the critical temperature of the column leading to the failure of the structure, even if the degree of restraint apllied to the column is unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure to demonstrate infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus reactivation in parturient cows.
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Saliki, J.; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1984), 115(10), 248-9

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See detailFailure to Infect Cats with Bovine Herpesvirus Type-4 Strain Movar 33/63
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Chappuis, G.; Bublot, M. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1991), 128(26), 614-5

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See detailFailure-based Congruences, Unfair Divergences and New Testing Theory
Leduc, Guy ULg

in Vuong, Son; Chanson, Sam (Eds.) Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification, XIV (1994, June)

The testing equivalence 'te' that is used as a reference in verification and testing theory in LOTOS is not a congruence, and no explicit definition of the least congruence stronger than 'te' has been ... [more ▼]

The testing equivalence 'te' that is used as a reference in verification and testing theory in LOTOS is not a congruence, and no explicit definition of the least congruence stronger than 'te' has been found. The critical LOTOS context in which congruence is lost is the hiding context that creates divergence. In this paper we first survey this problem and present three known variants of 'te' that are congruences. Each of them, as well as 'te', is then related to a particular interpretation of divergences in terms of (un)fairness of divergences. The associated preorders that generate these equivalences are also presented. Based on these results, we propose a new testing theory based on unfair divergences. It defines new equivalence and conformance relations, as well as the associated canonical tester. We also prove that the least congruence stronger than this new testing equivalence is one of three presented failure-based congruences, which thus also deserves the label of testing congruence. [less ▲]

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See detailFaim de partie: les récits de la privation alimentaire
Delville, Michel ULg

Scientific conference (2012, May 21)

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See detailFAIMES, Celles. La motte seigneuriale
Dejardin, Valérie; Masson, Christophe ULg

in Dejardin, Valérie; Maquet, Julien (Eds.) Le patrimoine de Wallonie (2007)

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See detailFaint companions of isolated 2MIG galaxies
Karachentseva, V. E.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Melnyk, Olga ULg

in Astrophysical Bulletin (2011), 66

We present the results of a search for companions around the isolated galaxies from the 2MIG catalog. Among 3227 2MIG galaxies we detected 125 objects with a total of 214 neighbors having radial velocity ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a search for companions around the isolated galaxies from the 2MIG catalog. Among 3227 2MIG galaxies we detected 125 objects with a total of 214 neighbors having radial velocity differences of Δ V < 500 km/s and projected separations of Rp < 500 kpc relative to the 2MIG galaxies. The median luminosity of the companions is 1/25 of the luminosity of catalog galaxies, which has little effect on the dynamic isolation of the latter. The median ratio of the orbital mass to the K-luminosity determined from 60 companions of E and S0 2MIG galaxies, 63 Msolar/Lsolar, is significantly greater than that found from the spiral galaxy companions (17 Msolar/Lsolar). We note that a fraction of 2MIG galaxies with companions may be a part of low-contrast diffuse structures: clouds and filaments. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Faint Hot Component of Debris Disks Revealed by Infrared Interferometry
di Folco, E.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Augereau, J.-C. et al

Conference (2007, June 01)

Very few main-sequence stars exhibit warm dust in their 5-10AU close environment, where terrestrial planets are expected to have formed. Near-infrared interferometry is a powerful means, combining high ... [more ▼]

Very few main-sequence stars exhibit warm dust in their 5-10AU close environment, where terrestrial planets are expected to have formed. Near-infrared interferometry is a powerful means, combining high dynamic range and high spatial resolution, to directly detect faint emission from hot grains in exozodiacal clouds. We will review the results of our search for 2 micron excesses around Vega-like stars, including the nearby Sun-like stars Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani, with the FLUOR interferometric instrument and the CHARA Array of telescopes. Our recent detections, combined with Spitzer observations around 10 micron, put strong constrains on the properties and distribution of hot grains in these inner planetary systems. We will present the conclusions of our preliminary modeling for the detected hot grains as well as their implication for the selection of targets for future planet finding missions like DARWIN or TPF. [less ▲]

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See detailFaint innate hypomelanotic spotting in black skin.
Hermanns, Jean-Francois; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (2007), 17(4), 352-3

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See detailThe faint young sun climatic paradox: A simulation with an interactive seasonal climate-sea ice model
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; François, Louis ULg

in Global and Planetary Change (1992), 97(3), 133-150

A seasonal one-and-a-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) energy-balance climate model including a detailed sea ice calculation and an interactive albedo formulation has been developed and is used to investigate ... [more ▼]

A seasonal one-and-a-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) energy-balance climate model including a detailed sea ice calculation and an interactive albedo formulation has been developed and is used to investigate the faint young sun climatic paradox. This model is shown to reproduce the present climate and sea ice observations. In spite of its greater complexity, its behavior is globally similar to simple energy-balance models with highly parameterized ice-albedo feedback used in previous studies of this question. It is found that when the solar luminosity drops by more than about 5% below its present value, the ice albedo feedback causes a global irreversible glaciation. Several sensitivity experiments show that the value of the critical solar constant and associated global surface temperature are only little sensitive to the set of model parameters describing the ice and snow albedo and meridional heat transport. In contrast, the absence or polar location of the continental mass introduce a nearly 10% decrease of the critical luminosity. The minimum level of atmospheric CO2 needed to prevent a global glaciation through enhanced greenhouse warming is calculated as a function of the solar luminosity. A 30% drop in solar output requires a 2 x 10(4)-fold increase in atmospheric CO2, an unacceptably large value. However, in the absence of continents, a carbon dioxide partial pressure of 2000 times the present level is found to be sufficient to stabilize the climate. The effects of a reduced continental area, paleogeographic changes and higher CO2 greenhouse effect combine to ensure a larger stability of the non-frozen configuration. Their cumulated and interactive effects may be able to solve the young sun paradox. [less ▲]

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See detailThe faint young sun climatic paradox: Influence of the continental configuration and of the seasonal cycle on the climatic stability
Longdoz, Bernard; François, Louis ULg

in Global and Planetary Change (1997), 14(3-4), 97-112

A quasi-three-dimensional climate model is used to study the early state of the Earth when the solar luminosity was 70% of the present value, Usually, climatic simulations going back to this period lead ... [more ▼]

A quasi-three-dimensional climate model is used to study the early state of the Earth when the solar luminosity was 70% of the present value, Usually, climatic simulations going back to this period lead to a completely frozen planet contrasting with the geologic evidences of sedimentary rock formation and thus of the presence of liquid water at the surface of the continents during the Archean (4.6-2.5 billion years before present). Here, several model simulations are performed for solar luminosities varying between 0.7 and 1 times the present value. Using the present-day continental configuration and taking the seasonal cycle into account, a steady state is found in which glaciation is complete but snow covers only some oceanic coasts, leaving the continents essentially snow-free. As a result, the albedo of the continental area is strongly reduced compared to that of the frozen ocean, Some continental temperatures can almost reach the freezing point of water in summer (-1 degrees C in the center of Eurasia). This result can be explained by the behavior of the detailed hydrologic cycle included in the model. During the decrease of the solar luminosity, the jump to a completely frozen Earth occurs when the solar luminosity reaches 0.86 times its present value. The behavior of the climatic system is substantially different with a global ocean configuration. In the absence of land surfaces, the meridional heat transport, explicitly calculated, is less effective and the glaciation of a model latitude zone does not lead to the glaciation of its equatorward neighbor. The climate instability is relatively local and the jump to the completely frozen state is much more progressive than in the case of the modem continental configuration. The role of the seasonal cycle in the paleoclimatic simulation is also studied. Due to the non-linearity of the model, removing the seasonal cycle drives the system to an increase of the annual mean planetary albedo and to a decrease of the relative value (0.82) of the critical solar luminosity at which the jump to the completely frozen solution occurs. [less ▲]

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See detailA fair method for centralized optimization of multi-TSO power systems
Phulpin, Yannick; Begovic, Miroslav; Petit, Marc et al

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2009), 31

This paper addresses the problem of centralized optimization of an interconnected power system partitioned into several regions controlled by different transmission system operators (TSOs). It is assumed ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of centralized optimization of an interconnected power system partitioned into several regions controlled by different transmission system operators (TSOs). It is assumed that those utilities have agreed to transferring some of their competencies to a centralized control center, which is in charge of setting the control variables in the entire system to satisfy every utility’s individual objective. This paper proposes an objective method for centralized optimization of such multi-TSO power systems, which relies on the assumption that each TSO has a real-valued optimization function focusing on its control area only. This method is illustrated on the IEEE 118 bus system partitioned into three TSOs. It is applied to the optimal reactive power dispatch problem, where the control variables are the voltage settings for generators and compensators. After showing that the method has some properties of fairness, namely freedom from envy, efficiency, accountability, and altruism, we emphasize its robustness with respect to certain biased behavior of the different TSOs. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade and Co-operatives
Nicholls, Alex; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Michie, Jonathan; Blassi, J.; Borzaga, Carlo (Eds.) The Handbook of Co-operative and Mutual Businesses (in press)

The Fair Trade and co-operative movements have much in common. This chapter aims to examine the convergences and divergences between the two fields, highlighting what they can learn from each other and ... [more ▼]

The Fair Trade and co-operative movements have much in common. This chapter aims to examine the convergences and divergences between the two fields, highlighting what they can learn from each other and how practitioners and researchers in the two areas can better collaborate. Fair trade is an innovative approach to economic development that uses a market-driven approach to exploit the growing trend in ethical, or caused-based, consumption (Nicholls & Opal 2005). Fair Trade organizations aim to re-engineer the value chains between poor producers and artisans - typically in developing countries - and their wholesale buyers such that a greater proportion of the overall rents accrue to those who provide the inputs. Put simply, Fair Trade aims to ensure that the poorest actors in a supply chain benefit from more of the overall financial value creation as a development tool. Moreover, Fair Trade reconnects producers and consumers at the point of purchase such that consumption becomes a political – or, at least, life style – choice. This chapter is structured as follows. After this introduction, the second section describes the development of Fair Trade from its historical roots to the current organizational landscape and market organization. Next there is a discussion of several key issues and challenges that have emerged as Fair Trade has become increasingly institutionalized. Then, the fourth section explores the relationship between Fair Trade and the co-operative and mutual movements. Finally, conclusions serve to sum up the chapter. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade and Social Enterprise
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Raynolds, Laura; Bennett, Elizabeth (Eds.) The Handbook of Research on Fair Trade (2015)

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without ... [more ▼]

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without seeking to impose a new term that may not resonate for certain actors or regions, this chapter aims to bring two contributions to fair trade research and practice. First, it is suggested that the social enterprise approach is particularly useful as an analytical tool enabling researchers and other stakeholders to capture the evolution and diversification of organizational models in fair trade. Second, the use of a broader organizational approach that is not specific to the sole fair trade sector allows for connections with similar organizations in other sectors and brings a shift from considering mainly what the organizations do (fair trade in this case) towards also addressing what they are (innovative social enterprise models combining market dynamics with social purpose). This chapter is structured as follows. First, the concept of social enterprise is introduced and discussed. Then, the evolution of the organizational landscape of fair trade (in the North) is summarized. Finally, fair trade organizations are examined in the light of the social enterprise concept, with illustrations from a study in four European countries (Huybrechts 2010a; 2012). [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade Organisations in Europe: A Significant Field of Social Enterprise?
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2008, June 26)

With the help of examples of FTOs in Belgium, France, Italy and the UK, we have applied some of the features of SE approaches to the context of FT. It appears that FTOs are particularly significant ... [more ▼]

With the help of examples of FTOs in Belgium, France, Italy and the UK, we have applied some of the features of SE approaches to the context of FT. It appears that FTOs are particularly significant examples of SEs, combining in different ways economic, social and sometimes political dimensions. From more NGO-like to more business-like configurations, all FTOs of our sample seem to respect the key features of SEs, under which the primacy of 23 the social mission, the limited (if any) profit distribution, the focus on innovation and at least some degree of self-financing. Nevertheless, there is some heterogeneity in terms of FTOs’ goals and activities. While all FTOs seem to combine, at least, economic and social dimensions – although at varying degrees and forms –, the political dimension is not present in the same way for all FTOs. Pioneer FTOs generally conduct education and advocacy activities in a developed and explicit way. Newcomer FTOs, however, have heterogeneous profiles in terms of political involvement, as the positioning seems to depend much on the entrepreneur’s choices. In terms of governance, practices are also very diverse in terms of leaders’ profiles, legal forms and stakeholders’ involvement in the decision-making structures. Some FTOs are quasi-individual ventures and are thus close to some American approaches of SE. Other FTOs are much more multi-stakeholder and fit better in the EMES conceptualisation of SE. The governance structure also seems to reflect to a certain extent the positioning of the FTO towards the different dimensions of FT. FTOs led by activists and having volunteers or partner NGOs on their Board seem to have a stronger focus on non-economic (social and political) goals. In the other sense, very economic-oriented FTOs are often run by managers with a business background and governed by their manager and/or their shareholders. As a conclusion, this article has tried to provide some theoretical and empirical support to the implicit link that has been established, both in the academic world and in the field practice, between FT and SE. The diversity of the FT sector echoes the rich diversity of SEs’ practices and conceptualisations. In such sense, considering FTOs as SEs is probably made easier because of the wide and flexible theoretical framework of SE – few authors claiming to have a “definition” of SE. If more restricted conceptions of SE were to emerge – e.g., the limitation of SE to formal Third Sector legal forms, or to 100% market financing –, then part of the FTOs would be excluded from the SE area. In such sense, FT appears as an important laboratory the evolutions of which can feed the theoretical construction of SE. [less ▲]

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