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See detailGlycosaminoglycan interactions in murine gammaherpesvirus-68 infection.
Gillet, Laurent ULg; Adler, Heiko; Stevenson, Philip G

in PLoS ONE (2007), 2(4), 347

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) commonly participate in herpesvirus entry. They are thought to provide a reversible attachment to cells that promotes subsequent receptor binding. Murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 ... [more ▼]

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) commonly participate in herpesvirus entry. They are thought to provide a reversible attachment to cells that promotes subsequent receptor binding. Murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is highly GAG-dependent. This is a function of the viral gp150, in that gp150-deficient mutants are much less GAG-dependent than wild-type. Here we show that the major MHV-68 GAG-binding protein is not gp150 but gp70, a product of ORF4. Surprisingly, ORF4-deficient MHV-68 showed normal cell binding and was more sensitive than wild-type to inhibition by soluble heparin rather than less. Thus, the most obvious viral GAG interaction made little direct contribution to infection. Indeed, a large fraction of the virion gp70 had its GAG-binding domain removed by post-translational cleavage. ORF4 may therefore act mainly to absorb soluble GAGs and prevent them from engaging gp150 prematurely. In contrast to gp70, gp150 bound poorly to GAGs, implying that it provides little in the way of adhesion. We hypothesize that it acts instead as a GAG-sensitive switch that selectively activates MHV-68 entry at cell surfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycosyl transferase activity of the Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 1b: Specificity profile for the substrate
Fraipont, Claudine ULg; Sapunaric, Frédéric ULg; Zervosen, Astrid ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2006), 45(12), 4007-4013

The glycosyl transferase of the Escherichia coli bifunctional penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1b catalyzes the assembly of lipid-transported N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-Ala-gamma-D ... [more ▼]

The glycosyl transferase of the Escherichia coli bifunctional penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1b catalyzes the assembly of lipid-transported N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-Ala-gamma-D-Glu-meso-A(2)pm-D-Ala-D-Ala units (lipid II) into linear peptidoglycan chains. These units are linked, at C1 of N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), to a C-55 undecaprenyl pyrophosphate. In an in vitro assay, lipid II functions both as a glycosyl donor and as a glycosyl acceptor substrate. Using substrate analogues, it is suggested that the specificity of the enzyme for the glycosyl donor substrate differs from that for the acceptor. The donor substrate requires the presence of both N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and MurNAc and a reactive group on C1 of the MurNAc and does not absolutely require the lipid chain which can be replaced by uridine. The enzyme appears to prefer an acceptor substrate containing a polyprenyl pyrophosphate on C1 of the MurNAc sugar. The problem of glycan chain elongation that presumably proceeds by the repetitive addition of disaccharide peptide units at their reducing end is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Glycosylation of Bovine Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins Changes before Parturition
Klisch, K.; Herzog, K.; Feldmann, M. et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2006)

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See detailThe glycosylation of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and prolactin-related protein-I in bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells changes before parturition.
Klisch, Karl; Boos, A.; Friedrich, M. et al

in Reproduction (Cambridge, England) (2006), 132

Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) in the bovine placenta produce glycoproteins, which are delivered into the mother after fusion of BNC with uterine epithelial cells. During most time of pregnancy ... [more ▼]

Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) in the bovine placenta produce glycoproteins, which are delivered into the mother after fusion of BNC with uterine epithelial cells. During most time of pregnancy, BNC produce pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) and prolactin-related protein-I (PRP-I) with asparagine-linked lactosamine-type glycans terminating with N-acetyl-galactosamine. We show by lectin histochemistry that terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine (detected by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, DBA) in placentomal BNC is greatly reduced prior to parturition, while lactosamine-type N-glycans (detected by Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) remain unaltered. The change in DBA-staining showed no statistically significant differences between placentomes of cows with and without retention of fetal membranes. Western blots revealed that, at parturition the apparent molecular mass of PAGs and PRP-I is 1-2 kDa lower than in late pregnancy. These changes are due to alterations of asparagine-linked glycans, since the molecular weight of the peptide backbones after enzymatical release of asparagine-linked glycans is identical at late pregnancy and parturition. Lectin western blots showed a reduction of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine on PAGs at parturition. A lectin sandwich-ELISAwas used to differentiate DBA- and PHA-L-binding PAGs in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant cows. The values for DBA-binding PAGs at parturition were not significantly different from non-pregnancy, while the values for PHA-L-binding PAGs were significantly higher at parturition. The peripartal changes of PAG- and PRP-I-glycosylation could alter functional properties of these proteins and might therefore be considered for functional studies. The differentiation of PAG glycoforms in maternal serum could be valuable for a further optimization of PAG-based pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycosyltransferases encoded by viruses.
Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Gillet, Laurent ULg; Van Etten, James L et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2004), 85(Pt 10), 2741-54

Studies of cellular biology in recent decades have highlighted the crucial roles of glycans in numerous important biological processes, raising the concept of glycomics that is now considered as important ... [more ▼]

Studies of cellular biology in recent decades have highlighted the crucial roles of glycans in numerous important biological processes, raising the concept of glycomics that is now considered as important as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. For millions of years, viruses have been co-evolving with their hosts. Consequently, during this co-evolution process, viruses have acquired mechanisms to mimic, hijack or sabotage host processes that favour their replication, including mechanisms to modify the glycome. The importance of the glycome in the regulation of host-virus interactions has recently led to a new concept called 'glycovirology'. One fascinating aspect of glycovirology is the study of how viruses affect the glycome. Viruses reach that goal either by regulating expression of host glycosyltransferases or by expressing their own glycosyltransferases. This review describes all virally encoded glycosyltransferases and discusses their established or putative functions. The description of these enzymes illustrates several intriguing aspects of virology and provides further support for the importance of glycomics in biological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailGMFS Final report Stage 1 and Stage 2
Gilliams, Sven; Bydekerke, Lieven; Delrue, Josefien et al

Report (2009)

Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) is a Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Service Element (GSE) project, part of the European Space Agency (ESA) contribution to the European ... [more ▼]

Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) is a Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Service Element (GSE) project, part of the European Space Agency (ESA) contribution to the European Union (EU) /ESA GMES Programme. GMFS aims to establish an operational service for crop monitoring in support of Food Security Monitoring to serve policy makers and operational users. The GMFS project started in March 2003 as part of Stage 1 of the ESA Earthwatch GMES services Element “Service Consolidation Actions”, and was continued in October 2005 as part of the Stage 2 of the ESA Earth watch GMES services Element – “Scaling Up Consolidated GMES Services”. In this document an overview is given of the work done throughout the previous six years. GMFS aimed at monitoring crop state /vegetation condition at continental and national scale. Low resolution Earth Observation (EO) data was used for monitoring purposes at continental scale, while at national scale products were based upon medium and high resolution data, field work and agro-meteorological models. The project was guided by a project strategy group with members from the United States Agency for International Development - Famine Early Warning System Network (USAID-FEWSNET), Directorate General for Development (DG-DEV), Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research - International Wheat Improvement Center (CGIAR-CIMMYT), European Commission Joint Research Center (EC-JRC), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). The goal of the project in Stage 1 (March 2003 –November 2004) was to consolidate an early warning system for food security. This started off by an intensive literature review and setting up an initial service for the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) in Dakar Senegal. In the second Phase of Stage 1 activities focussed more on the actual service delivery and setting up activities with users. Those activities included the monitoring agricultural production for Senegal, monitoring agriculture in Malawi and giving support to the Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission (CFSAM) of FAO /WFP. Additionally, services were set up for the centre Agro-Hydro-Météorologique (AGRHYMET) as a result of a meeting between AGHRYMET and Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO). During 2005 the early warning service was continued to support GMFS users although there was at that time no formal contract to do so. At the start of the Second Stage, in October 2005, a GMFS user executive board, consisting of one representative from: EC-JRC, FAO, WFP, Southern Africa Development Community Regional Remote Sensing Unit (SADC-RRSU), Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and AGRHYMET, was set up to support the consortium in defining the correct services and to review the work. Since the focus for the Second Stage was on up scaling the consolidated services, it was decided that the early warning service and support to the CFSAM were to be continued, the agricultural mapping service was to be expanded to more countries - namely, Senegal, Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi and Zimbabwe - and extra services on yield modeling using remote sensing and agro-meteorological models were to be provided. During the second year of this stage, the services were even more extended with, support to the Ministry of Agriculture and Meteorological Department in Mozambique, extra activities in Ethiopia and Sudan and support to the regional centers on operational use of the ESA Data Dissemination System (DDS). [less ▲]

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See detailGmsh
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Remacle, J.-F.

Scientific conference (2009, June 09)

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See detailGmsh: a finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Remacle, J.-F.

Software (1997)

Gmsh is a 3D finite element grid generator with a build-in CAD engine and post-processor. Its design goal is to provide a fast, light and user-friendly meshing tool with parametric input and advanced ... [more ▼]

Gmsh is a 3D finite element grid generator with a build-in CAD engine and post-processor. Its design goal is to provide a fast, light and user-friendly meshing tool with parametric input and advanced visualization capabilities. Gmsh is built around four modules: geometry, mesh, solver and post-processing. The specification of any input to these modules is done either interactively using the graphical user interface or in ASCII text files using Gmsh's own scripting language. See http://geuz.org/gmsh/ for more information. [less ▲]

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See detailGmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Remacle, J.-F.

in Proceedings of the fourth international conference on advanced computational methods in engineering, ACOMEN 2008 (2008)

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See detailGmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Remacle, J.-F.

in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Finite Elements for Microwave Engineering (2008)

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See detailGmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Remacle, J.-F.; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in Proceedings of the 11th International Society of Grid Generation Conference (ISSG 2009) (2009)

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See detailGmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Remacle, Jean-François

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2009), 79(11), 1309-1331

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See detailGmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Remacle, J.-F.

in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Grid Generation for Numerical Computations, Tetrahedron II (2007, October)

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See detailGnawing induced by dopaminergic mobilzation : differential effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists in mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Witkin, J. M.

in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1995), 273

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See detailGnRH and bovine reproduction
Hanzen, Christian ULg

Scientific conference (2006, March 14)

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See detailGnRH application in FSH superovulated goats: effect on the number of corpora lutea and embryo yield
Calero, P; Gonzalez, F; Cabrera, F et al

in Proceeding of GnRH application in FSH superovulated goats: effect on the number of corpora lutea and embryo yield (2002, September 06)

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See detailLes GNSS et l’ionosphère
Warnant, René ULg; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2008)

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See detailGoal Programming et décisions financières
Corhay, Albert ULg

E-print/Working paper (1982)

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See detailGoal-directed Intraoperative therapy reduces morbidity and length of hospital stay in high-risk surgical patients
Donati, A.; Loggi, S.; Preiser, Jean-Charles ULg et al

in Chest (2007), 132(6), 1817-1824

Background: Postoperative organ failures commonly occur after major abdominal surgery, increasing the utilization of resources and costs of care. Tissue hypoxia is a key trigger of organ dysfunction. A ... [more ▼]

Background: Postoperative organ failures commonly occur after major abdominal surgery, increasing the utilization of resources and costs of care. Tissue hypoxia is a key trigger of organ dysfunction. A therapeutic strategy designed to detect and reverse tissue hypoxia, as diagnosed by an increase of oxygen extraction (0,ER) over a predefined threshold, could decrease the incidence of organ failures. The primary aim of this study was to compare the number of patients with postoperative organ failure and length of hospital stay between those randomized to conventional vs a protocolized strategy designed to maintain O2ER < 27%. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed in nine hospitals in Italy. One hundred thirty-five high-risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were randomized in two groups. All patients were managed to achieve standard goals: mean arterial pressure > 80 mm Hg and urinary output > 0.5 mL/kg/h. The patients of the "protocol group" (group A) were also managed to keep O2ER < 27%. Measurements and main results: In group A, fewer patients had at least one organ failure (n = 8, 11.8%) than in group B (n = 20, 29.8%) [p < 0.05], and the total number of organ failures was lower in group A than in group B (27 failures vs 9 failures, p < 0.001). Length of hospital stay was significantly lower in the protocol group than in the control group (11.3 +/- 3.8 days vs 13.4 +/- 6.1 days, p < 0.05). Hospital mortality was similar in both groups. Conclusions: Early treatment directed to maintain O2ER at < 27% reduces organ failures and hospital stay of high-risk surgical patients. Clinical trials.gov reference No. NCT00254150. [less ▲]

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