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See detailELI Statement on Collective Redresse and Comeptition Claims
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

Report (2014)

In this statement, the European Law Institute takes a stance on the European Commission Recommendation of 11 June 2013 on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in ... [more ▼]

In this statement, the European Law Institute takes a stance on the European Commission Recommendation of 11 June 2013 on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning violations of rights granted under Union Law (2013/396/EU) and on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for infringements of the competition law provisions of the Member States and of the European Union (COM (2013) 404 final) [less ▲]

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See detailThe elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms
Mariutto, Martin ULg; Duby, Franceline ULg; Adam, Akram et al

in BMC Plant Biology (2011), 11

Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies ... [more ▼]

Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the case of pathogen induced systemic acquired resistance. Results We analyzed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and oxylipin pathways respectively, in tomato treated or not with P. putida BTP1. The bacterial treatment did not stimulate PAL activity and linoleate-consuming LOX activities. Linolenate-consuming LOX activity, on the contrary, was significantly stimulated in P. putida BTP1-inoculated plants before and two days after infection by B. cinerea. This stimulation is due to the increase of transcription level of two isoforms of LOX: TomLoxD and TomLoxF, a newly identified LOX gene. We showed that recombinant TomLOXF preferentially consumes linolenic acid and produces 13-derivative of fatty acids. After challenging with B. cinerea, the increase of transcription of these two LOX genes and higher linolenic acid-consuming LOX activity were associated with a more rapid accumulation of free 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids, two antifungal oxylipins, in bacterized plants. Conclusion In addition to the discovery of a new LOX gene in tomato, this work is the first to show differential induction of LOX isozymes and a more rapid accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids in rhizobacteria mediated-induced systemic resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailElicitation of the defence mechanisms at plant case of Cucumis melo
Ydjedd, Siham; Kati, D.E.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg

Poster (2015, January 30)

The judicious use of elicitors could reduce the amount of pesticide necessary to protect crops and preservation of the environment. This strategy frequently called "stimulation of natural defenses ... [more ▼]

The judicious use of elicitors could reduce the amount of pesticide necessary to protect crops and preservation of the environment. This strategy frequently called "stimulation of natural defenses" arouses more and more interest in the phytosanitary field. [less ▲]

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See detailEliciteurs dérivés de rhamnolipides : synthèses, modélisations et activités biologiques
Mayon, Patrick; Ait Barka, Essaid; Baillieul, Fabienne et al

Poster (2013, July 04)

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See detailElicitor screening to protect wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; SIAH, ALI; Deleu, Magali ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 27)

Plants face an array of biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment, making it necessary to use various chemical inputs to maintain satisfactory yield. Today, conventional agriculture is evolving ... [more ▼]

Plants face an array of biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment, making it necessary to use various chemical inputs to maintain satisfactory yield. Today, conventional agriculture is evolving towards more sustainable practices, out of respect for human health and the environment. Elicitors are considered as promising biological control tools and draw major interest in IPM strategies. These plant-immunity triggering compounds, also called “stimulators of plant natural defenses”, induce a general and systemic resistance in the plant to various diseases. Although numerous elicitors have already been identified and some of them reached the market since the late 1970s, further investigations are still required to better understand the mode of action of these molecules in the plant and ensure a consistent efficiency under various field conditions. Few elicitors have yet been successfully tested and formulated to protect monocotyledonous crop plants such as wheat, which is cultivated over large areas in Europe. This study focuses on the screening of ten potential elicitor products of various origins and structures to protect winter wheat against the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Greenhouse trials were carried out to measure the ability of the different products to reduce disease foliar symptoms (necrosis, chlorosis and pycnidia). Topical spraying treatments with 3 different concentrations of each product were carried out 5 days before pathogen inoculation. Disease severity (% of symptoms on the total surface of the third leaf) was then scored every 2 days up to 28 days post-inoculation. In addition, phytotoxicity and biocide activity of these products was evaluated under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. The corresponding results will be presented and discussed with the perspective to choose the best elicitor candidates and to undertake investigations on the signaling pathway and the influence of environmental parameters on the elicitation capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailElicitor screening to protect winter wheat against Septoria tritici Blotch: preliminary results
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; Deleu, Magali ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg et al

Conference (2014, September)

Elicitors are plant immunity-triggering compounds which are currently considered as one of the most promising tools in agriculture for the induction of plant resistance to various diseases (Mejía-Teniente ... [more ▼]

Elicitors are plant immunity-triggering compounds which are currently considered as one of the most promising tools in agriculture for the induction of plant resistance to various diseases (Mejía-Teniente et al., 2010). By contributing to both economic and environmental performances of agroecosystems, they can help reducing the use of chemical inputs. Although some elicitor products are already available on the market, it appears that a variable efficiency in the field, along with an uneasy integration in the current legislation and agricultural strategies, make these tools difficult to use (Walters, Ratsep, & Havis, 2013). Besides these limitations, few elicitor treatments have yet been efficiently and specifically designed to protect crop plants such as wheat, which is grown and consumed worldwide, against major diseases threatening both their yield and quality. There is a strong need to better understand the mechanisms of induced resistance in plants and develop elicitor use in agriculture. A phD research is currently led in Gembloux Agro Bio-Tech to develop a method based on eliciting agents, tested in greenhouse and field conditions, to protect winter wheat against major diseases, namely Septoria tritici, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. This project focuses on the screening of a large number of elicitors from different origins and structures. In 2014, we focused the first screening experiments on the protection of wheat against Septoria tritici Blotch (STB). Two winter wheat genotypes were tested: susceptible ‘Avatar’ and semi-resistant ‘Sy Epson’. Plants at 3-leaf stage were first sprayed till runoff with different concentrations of elicitors, and then inoculated 5 days later with a Septoria tritici spore suspension (106 spores mL-1) using a hand sprayer. Control plants were treated, prior to disease inoculation, with sterile water (negative control) or with BION® (ASM, Syngenta Europe; positive control). The disease severity and incidence were scored every 2 days for 28 days post-inoculation (d.p.i) by measuring the percentage of area covered with lesions and bearing pycnidia on the third leaf. The first results of these tests should enable a first discrimination of elicitors considering their dose-efficiency to reduce disease severity. After further screening of all the elicitors in hand, a determination of the elicitation pathways of the most efficient molecules tested will be undertaken. We intend to study the influence of various factors (i.e Temperature, relative humidity, plant development stage) on the elicitation potential and develop a formulation to be finally tested under field conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailELICITOR SCREENING TO PROTECT WINTER WHEAT AGAINST ZYMOSEPTORIA TRITICI BLOTCH
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; Siah, Ali; Jijakli, Haissam ULg

Poster (2015, March)

Plant protection strategies are strongly focused today on the development of alternative methods in order to complete or replace conventional chemical inputs. Elicitors of biological origin are ... [more ▼]

Plant protection strategies are strongly focused today on the development of alternative methods in order to complete or replace conventional chemical inputs. Elicitors of biological origin are increasingly considered as a promising tool as biocontrol agents. They offer the possibility, through the induction of plant natural defences, to preventively protect plants against a large spectra of diseases. Multiple elicitors have already been identified since their first discovery in the late 70s, but few research has been focused on crop pathogens although such diseases can strongly impact both yield and grain quality. We describe hereby a method of elicitor screening to protect wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici. Focus is made on the importance of a good disease infection protocol in order to achieve screening tests. [less ▲]

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See detailElimination des composés organiques volatils par traitement catalytique
Lambert, Stéphanie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2008)

Les composés organiques volatils, sous-produits de la pétrochimie et de divers procédés industriels, sont des polluants car en plus d'être odorants et parfois toxiques, ils participent toujours à la ... [more ▼]

Les composés organiques volatils, sous-produits de la pétrochimie et de divers procédés industriels, sont des polluants car en plus d'être odorants et parfois toxiques, ils participent toujours à la formation d'ozone au niveau du sol. Ainsi, il est important de les détruire. Etant donné que les concentrations en composés organiques volatils sont habituellement inférieures à 1000 ppm (1 part par million = 1 mg/l), l'incinération thermique ne représente pas le procédé adéquat. Par contre, les traitements catalytiques sont plus sélectifs, requièrent des températures de réactions moins élevées et représentent ainsi des procédés moins onéreux que l'incinération thermique. [less ▲]

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See detailElimination des métaux lourds par précipitation biologique
Toye, Dominique ULg; Schlitz, Marc; Crine, Michel ULg

in Tribune de l'Eau (La) (1993), 565

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See detailElimination of adsorption effects in the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis.
Fotsing, Lucas; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (1999), 853(1-2), 391-401

A tendency to an increase in migration times was observed when different water-soluble vitamins were analysed repeatedly in pharmaceutical preparations by capillary electrophoresis. In order to better ... [more ▼]

A tendency to an increase in migration times was observed when different water-soluble vitamins were analysed repeatedly in pharmaceutical preparations by capillary electrophoresis. In order to better understand the origin of this effect, the influence of the vitamins and the excipients, such as cellulose derivatives, was investigated. These studies indicated that the increase in analyte migration times was most probably due to the adsorption of different kinds of constituents to the capillary wall. Different rinsing procedures were tested in order to eliminate these unfavourable effects. A rinse of the capillary with a 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution in the running buffer between successive runs was found to be particularly effective when the analysis was performed by free solution capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). When the vitamins were determined by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) using SDS as surfactant, a short capillary rinse with the running buffer was sufficient to obtain reproducible migration times. The CZE and MEKC methods developed were validated and compared. Both methods could be applied to the determination of water-soluble vitamins in different multivitamin formulations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Elimination of Redundant Constraints in Surprisal Analysis of Unimolecular Dissociation and Other Endothermic Processes
Remacle, Françoise ULg; Levine, R. D.

in Journal of Physical Chemistry A (2009), 113(16), 4658-4664

It is well understood that energy rich polyatomic molecules do not dissociate promptly because the number, P, of their energy states far exceeds the number, N, of the decay channels. In the simplest RRK ... [more ▼]

It is well understood that energy rich polyatomic molecules do not dissociate promptly because the number, P, of their energy states far exceeds the number, N, of the decay channels. In the simplest RRK theory, the fraction N/P is the probability of dissociation. We discuss the distribution of the decay rates of maximal entropy and conclude that it is governed by at most N linearly independent constraints, N < P, or, more typically, N << P. This mathematical requirement already severely restricts the number of constraints. Beyond it however, on physical grounds, one constraint, or at most a few, may be dominant. We discuss why just one constraint, or a few but less than N, can be sufficient to describe the product state distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailELISA : ECHELLE LIÉGEOISE DE L’INDICE DE SÉVÉRITÉ À L’ADMISSION
JOBE, Jérôme ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2012), 67(12), 632-637

Les services d’urgence sont régulièrement confrontés au problème d’encombrement à l’admission par une demande qui dépasse l’offre de soins. Il est essentiel de réguler le flux d’entrée par la mise en ... [more ▼]

Les services d’urgence sont régulièrement confrontés au problème d’encombrement à l’admission par une demande qui dépasse l’offre de soins. Il est essentiel de réguler le flux d’entrée par la mise en place d’un dispositif de tri. Ce mécanisme s’affine depuis une quinzaine d’années. Nous proposons un algorithme de tri (ELISA ou Echelle Liégeoise de l’Indice de Sévérité à l’Admission) qui vise à définir l’état d’urgence selon 5 niveaux depuis la catégorie U1 (urgence absolue) à U5 (urgence relative). Ces niveaux sont associés à un délai de contact médical (immédiat à 120 minutes) et à un trajet de soin correspondant (salle de déchoquage, secteur B ou brancard, secteur A ou ambulatoire, salle d’attente) réunissant ainsi des impératifs de temps et de lieu de prise en charge optimaux. Notre algorithme de tri montre une excellente fiabilité par la comparaison du niveau initial de la catégorisation au devenir du patient (soins intensifs, hospitalisation, et sortie du service). [less ▲]

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See detailELISA test, a new and rapid method for the determination of herbicides residues in soil. Application to isoproturon.
Liegeois, E.; Dehon, Y.; Deleu, R. et al

in Internationaal Symposium over Fytofarmacie en Fytiatrie (1991), 43

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See detailELISA test, a new method to detect and quantify isoproturon in soil.
Liegeois, Eric; Dehon, Yves; De Brabant, Bernard et al

in Science of the Total Environment (1992), 123/124

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULg)