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See detailFunctional effects of a muscarinic receptor blockade during acute respiratory distress syndrome in double-muscled calves
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Close, Roland et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1994), 134(5), 110-113

Eighteen Belgian white and blue double-muscled calves suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied. Fifteen of the calves inhaled ipratropium bromide (0.6 mg) four times a day for ... [more ▼]

Eighteen Belgian white and blue double-muscled calves suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied. Fifteen of the calves inhaled ipratropium bromide (0.6 mg) four times a day for three to four days whereas the other three control calves inhaled sterile 0.9 per cent saline. All the animals were injected with ceftiofur sodium (1 mg/kg/day) for five days, the first injection being given one hour after the first inhalation of ipratropium bromide or saline. Arterial oxygen tension, alveolar arterial oxygen difference, carbon dioxide tension and arterial pH, respiratory and heart rates, oscillatory resistance and phase angle, measured by the mono-frequency forced oscillation technique, were recorded both before and one hour and 168 hours after the first inhalation. The measurement of oscillatory resistance and phase angle made it possible to resolve the impedance of the respiratory system into its real and imaginary components. The oscillatory compliance (Cosc) was determined from the imaginary component (Im). By one hour after the first inhalation of ipratropium bromide the oscillatory resistance was already significantly reduced and Im and Cosc had significantly increased, but the other parameters showed no significant improvement. However, between one hour and 168 hours after the first inhalation all the parameters reached physiological values. The control calves did not show any change. It was concluded that the pulmonary dysfunction associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome in these calves was at least partly due to a severe bronchoconstriction. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional effects of obstructive pulmonary diseases
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Lekeux, Pierre (Ed.) Pulmonary Function in Healthy, Exercising and Diseased Animals (1993)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
See detailFunctional effects of restrictive pulmonary diseases
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Dunlop, R. H.; Malbert, C. H. (Eds.) Veterinary Pathophysiology (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
See detailFunctional effects of vascular pulmonary diseases
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Lekeux, Pierre (Ed.) Pulmonary Function in Healthy, Exercising and Diseased Animals (1993)

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See detailFunctional Foods: Spaces of Innovation and the Materiality of Scientific Universality
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

Conference (2011, March 29)

Throughout human history, different authorities have prescribed what to eat and what foodstuffs to avoid. This paper looks at one particular authority that has gained considerable influence in the past ... [more ▼]

Throughout human history, different authorities have prescribed what to eat and what foodstuffs to avoid. This paper looks at one particular authority that has gained considerable influence in the past two decades: nutrition science. Our aim is to render a subfield of nutrition science called ‘functional food science’ ethnographically analyzable, in order to add more precision to the common statement that the ‘findings’ of ‘scientists’ have become recognized by ‘the European Authorities’. Which actors are involved, what are the actors’ respective playing fields, and how are these fields related? The paper is divided in a descriptive part, and a discussion section. In the descriptive part, we propose a brief genealogy of functional food science and the construction of a new scientific gaze on food. The genealogy enables us to distinguish a series of actors, choices, and locally rooted practices in a story that is qualitatively different from accounts in terms of scientific universality. The discussion section at the end of this paper proposes further venues for anthropological research into the relations between science, health and power in a competitive economic and political order. These research questions problematize the meaning and substance of ‘innovation’. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional glycine receptors are expressed by postnatal nestin-positive neural stem/progenitor cells
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 15(8), 1299-1305

Multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are well-established cell subpopulations occurring in the developing, and also in the mature mammalian nervous systems. Trophic and transcription ... [more ▼]

Multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are well-established cell subpopulations occurring in the developing, and also in the mature mammalian nervous systems. Trophic and transcription factors are currently the main signals known to influence the development and the commitment of NS/PCs and their progeny. However, recent studies suggest that neurotransmitters could also contribute to neural development. In that respect, rodent-cultured embryonic NS/PCs have been reported to express functional neurotransmitter receptors. No similar investigation has, however, been made in postnatal and/or in adult rodent brain stem cells. In this study, using RT-PCR and immunocytochemical methods, we show that alpha(1) -, alpha(2) - and beta-subunit mRNAs and alpha-subunit proteins of the glycine ionotropic receptor are expressed by 80.5 +/- 0.9% of postnatal rat striatum-derived, nestin-positive cells within cultured neurospheres. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments further demonstrated that glycine triggers in 33.5% of these cells currents that can be reversibly blocked by strychnine and picrotoxin. This demonstrates that NS/PCs express functional glycine receptors, the consequence(s) of their activation remaining unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional heterogeneity of human CD34(+) cells isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle.
GOTHOT, André ULg; Pyatt, R.; McMahel, J. et al

in Blood (1997), 90(11), 4384-93

Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the ... [more ▼]

Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometric cell sorting. In both bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34(+) cells, primitive long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cell (LTHC-IC) activity was higher in CD34(+) cells isolated in G0 (G0CD34(+) cells) than in those residing in G1 (G1CD34(+) cells). However, as MPB CD34(+) cells displayed a more homogeneous cell-cycle status within the G0 /G1 phase and a relative absence of cells in late G1 , DNA/RNA fractionation was less effective in segregating LTHC-IC in MPB than in BM. BM CD34(+) cells belonging to four subcompartments of increasing RNA content within the G0 /G1 phase were evaluated in functional assays. The persistence of CD34 expression in suspension culture was inversely correlated with the initial RNA content of test cells. Multipotential progenitors were present in G0 or early G1 subcompartments, while lineage-restricted granulomonocytic progenitors were more abundant in late G1 . In vitro hematopoiesis was maintained for up to 6 weeks with G0CD34(+) cells, whereas production of clonogenic progenitors was more limited in cultures initiated with G1CD34(+) cells. To test the hypothesis that primitive LTHC-ICs would reenter a state of relative quiescence after in vitro division, BM CD34(+) cells proliferating in ex vivo cultures were identified from their quiescent counterparts by a relative loss of membrane intercalating dye PKH2, and were further fractionated with Hst and PY. The same functional hierarchy was documented within the PKH2(dim) population whereby LTHC-IC frequency was higher for CD34(+) cells reselected in G0 after in vitro division than for CD34(+) cells reisolated in G1 or in S/G2 + M. However, the highest LTHC-IC frequency was found in quiescent PKH2(bright) CD34(+) cells. Together, these results support the concept that cells with distinct hematopoietic capabilities follow different pathways during the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle both in vivo and during ex vivo culture. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional identification of epithelial and smooth muscle histamine-dependent relaxing mechanisms in the bovine trachea, but not in bronchi
Jolly, Sandra ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part C : Toxicology & Pharmacology (2003), 134(1), 91-100

Theoretically, the overall effect of histamine on respiratory smooth muscle is the result of a subtle balance of contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to identify histamine type 2 (H2) and ... [more ▼]

Theoretically, the overall effect of histamine on respiratory smooth muscle is the result of a subtle balance of contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to identify histamine type 2 (H2) and 3 (H3) receptor-dependent relaxing mechanisms in the contractile elements of the bovine tracheobronchial tree. In bronchial preparations, histamine induced very weak contractions, which were not exacerbated with the H2-antagonist cimetidine. Moreover, precontracted bronchial rings never relaxed in response to cumulative doses of histamine or amthamine (H2-agonist). In intact tracheal preparations, histamine induced strong contractions that were exacerbated by cimetidine (E-max : + 17.2 +/- 6.6%) but not by thioperamide (H3-antagonist). Precontracted tracheal bundles did not relax in response to cumulative doses of the H3-agonist R-alpha-methylhistamine. The tracheal contractile response was higher in denuded compared to intact preparations (11.0+/-1.2 vs. 6.0+/-1.7 g). Cimetidine effect was dramatically potentiated in denuded tracheal strips (+40.0+/-11.7%). It is concluded that the weak response. of bovine bronchi to histamine is due to a relative scarcity of H1 receptors on bronchial smooth muscle rather than to H2- or H3-dependent relaxation. In the bovine trachea, the smooth muscle possesses relaxing H2 but no H3 receptors. The epithelium exercises a relaxation, which is independent from H2 and H3 receptors. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional imaging and impaired consciousness
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven (Eds.) Coma and disorders of consciousness (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 ULg)
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See detailFunctional imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms
Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Gomez, Pierre et al

in Aortic Aneurysms, new insights of an old problem (2008)

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See detailFunctional imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms : can it predict probability of rupture.
Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Gomez, Pierre et al

in VASCULAR ANEURYSMS (2009)

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See detailFunctional imaging of atherosclerosis to advance vascular biology. Invited overview.
Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

in European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (2009), 37

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See detailFunctional imaging of cognition in Alzheimer's disease using positron emission tomography
Salmon, Eric ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Neuropsychologia (2008), 46(6), 1613-1623

Positron emission tomography in Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrates a metabolic decrease, predominantly in associative posterior cortices (comprising the posterior cingulate cortex), and also involving ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography in Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrates a metabolic decrease, predominantly in associative posterior cortices (comprising the posterior cingulate cortex), and also involving medial temporal structures and frontal regions at a lesser degree. The level of activity in this wide network is roughly correlated with dementia severity, but several confounds (such as age, education or subcortical ischemic lesions) may influence the brain-behaviour relationship. Univariate analyses allow one to segregate brain regions that are particularly closely related to specific neuropsychological performances. For example, a relationship was established between the activity in lateral associative cortices and semantic performance in AD. The role of semantic capacities (subserved by temporal or parietal regions) in episodic memory tasks was also emphasized. The residual activity in medial temporal structures was related to episodic memory abilities, as measured by free recall performance, cued recall ability and recognition accuracy. More generally, AD patients' performance on episodic memory tasks was correlated with the metabolism in several structures of Papez's circuit (including the medial temporal and posterior cingulate regions). Multivariate analyses should provide complementary information on impaired metabolic covariance in functional networks of brain regions and the consequences for AD patients' cognitive performance. More longitudinal studies are being conducted that should tell us more about the prognostic value of initial metabolic impairment and the neural correlates of progressive deterioration of cognitive performance in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional imaging of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Votion, Dominique; Serteyn, Didier; Lekeux, Pierre (Eds.) Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Haemorrhage: State of Current Knowledge (2008)

At present, the relative severity of the bleeding in exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is better evaluated using scoring methods based on tracheobronchoscopic assessment of bleeding or red ... [more ▼]

At present, the relative severity of the bleeding in exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is better evaluated using scoring methods based on tracheobronchoscopic assessment of bleeding or red blood cells (RBCs) count in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). However, misinterpretation might happen with tracheobronchoscopic examination when the hemorrhage is tiny as well as with RBCs count in BAL when the bronchi sampled are not representative of the bleeding site. Quantifying EIPH accurately would be of great interest to define the relationship between bleeding and performance as well as to assess efficacy of treatments or prophylactic measures. Several studies have attempted to determine whether lung imaging could be of value in EIPH detection and quantification. Radiographic findings when present consist of interstitial opacities limited to the caudodorsal regions of the lungs. Resolution of opacity may last for several days to several months. Interpretation of chest radiographs has found to be of poor value for diagnosing and a fortiori for quantifying EIPH and lung remodeling. Scintigraphy has been investigated as a mean of studying EIPH. Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans show variable reduction of ventilation and a loss of perfusion in the caudodorsal fields but the relationship between V/Q mismatches and EIPH quantification seems hazardous. The exercise-induced pulmonary perfusion redistribution may be visualized and quantified with labeled radiotracers entrapped in the pulmonary capillaries following their intravenous injection in exercising horses. This technique may not detect EIPH because scanning does not distinguish tracer collected in alveoli (i.e. resulting from bleeding) versus trapped in the capillaries. The same is true with the use of labeled-RBCs: circulating tracer impedes visualization of bleeding. To visualize the bleeding site, radioactivity of the vascular blood pool should be removed. A preliminary study indicated that this background might be removed using a double isotope scintigraphy. In fact, horse would be first injected at exercise with RBCs labeled with 111-Indium (111In-RBCs). In bleeders, a scan taken at the end of exercise would include the hemorrhage hidden by the blood pool. As EIPH is presumed to resolve with exercise cessation due to immediate decrease in pulmonary artery pressure, a second injection of RBCs labeled with another radiotracer (99m-technetium; 99mTc-RBCs) would enable acquisition of the sole blood pool knowing that 99mTc and 111In activities may be recorded on two different channels. Then, the computerized removal of background vascular radioactivity should enable to visualize the bleeding site and possibly to quantify the amount of extravasated blood. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional imaging of inflammatory airway disease
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Hoffman, A.; Robinson, N. E.; Wade, J. F. (Eds.) Inflammation Airway Disease: Defining the Syndrome (2002)

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See detailFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Brain Responses during an Executive Task Depend on Interaction of Sleep Homeostasis, Circadian Phase, and PER3 Genotype
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Archer, S.; Wuillaume, C. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2009), 29

Cognition is regulated across the 24 h sleep-wake cycle by circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis through unknown brain mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms in a functional magnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

Cognition is regulated across the 24 h sleep-wake cycle by circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis through unknown brain mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function using a working memory 3-back task during a normal sleep-wake cycle and during sleep loss. The study population was stratified according to homozygosity for a variable-number (4 or 5) tandem-repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the clock gene PERIOD3. This polymorphism confers vulnerability to sleep loss and circadian misalignment through its effects on sleep homeostasis. In the less-vulnerable genotype, no changes were observed in brain responses during the normal-sleep wake cycle. During sleep loss, these individuals recruited supplemental anterior frontal, temporal and subcortical regions, while executive function was maintained. In contrast, in the vulnerable genotype, activation in a posterior prefrontal area was already reduced when comparing the evening to the morning during a normal sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, in the morning after a night of sleep loss, widespread reductions in activation in prefrontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas were observed in this genotype. These differences occurred in the absence of genotype-dependent differences in circadian phase. The data show that dynamic changes in brain responses to an executive task evolve across the sleep-wake and circadian cycles in a regionally specific manner that is determined by a polymorphism which affects sleep homeostasis. The findings support a model of individual differences in executive control, in which the allocation of prefrontal resources is constrained by sleep pressure and circadian phase. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (12 ULg)
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See detailFunctional Maturation of the Gabaergic Inhibition on Dopamine-Mediated Behaviours During the Neonatal Period in the Mouse
Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (1989), 33(1), 83-95

Previous works have indicated that systemic injection of GABA-agonists depress motoric behaviours in neonatal murids, suggesting an early maturation of GABAergic inhibitory processes. In this paper, the ... [more ▼]

Previous works have indicated that systemic injection of GABA-agonists depress motoric behaviours in neonatal murids, suggesting an early maturation of GABAergic inhibitory processes. In this paper, the inhibitory effects of muscimol, a postsynaptic GABAA-agonist, on D-amphetamine-induced enhancement of locomotion, wall-climbing and head-raising were examined in neonatal 5-, 8- and 11-day-old mouse pups, using a direct observational procedure. The results show that muscimol can selectively attenuate high levels of locomotion, wall-climbing and head-raising produced by the indirect dopamine agonist in 8- as well as 11-day-old pups. However, while muscimol is able to moderate amphetamine-induced wall-climbing and head-rising in 5-day-old pups, no GABAergic inhibition was seen for locomotion at this age. Licking episodes elicited by amphetamine in 11-day-old pups can be magnified by muscimol if the dosage of the former is relatively too potent. It is suggested that the GABAergic inhibitory processes on dopaminergic functioning have reached good levels of functional maturation in the neonatal murid. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)