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See detailGlucosamine sulphate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: cost-effectiveness comparison with paracetamol.
Scholtissen, S.; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Neuprez, A. et al

in International Journal of Clinical Practice (2010), 64(6), 756-62

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine sulphate (GS) compared with paracetamol and placebo (PBO) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. For this purpose ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine sulphate (GS) compared with paracetamol and placebo (PBO) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. For this purpose, a 6-month time horizon and a health care perspective was used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cost and effectiveness data were derived from Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index data of the Glucosamine Unum In Die (once-a-day) Efficacy trial study by Herrero-Beaumont et al. Clinical effectiveness was converted into utility scores to allow for the computation of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) For the three treatment arms Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio were calculated and statistical uncertainty was explored using a bootstrap simulation. RESULTS: In terms of mean utility score at baseline, 3 and 6 months, no statistically significant difference was observed between the three groups. When considering the mean utility score changes from baseline to 3 and 6 months, no difference was observed in the first case but there was a statistically significant difference from baseline to 6 months with a p-value of 0.047. When comparing GS with paracetamol, the mean baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was dominant and the mean ICER after bootstrapping was -1376 euro/QALY indicating dominance (with 79% probability). When comparing GS with PBO, the mean baseline and after bootstrapping ICER were 3617.47 and 4285 euro/QALY, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of the present cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that GS is a highly cost-effective therapy alternative compared with paracetamol and PBO to treat patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose control: How tight? - How modeling could help?
Desaive, Thomas ULg; Chase, JG

Conference (2012)

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See detailGlucose decreases virulence gene expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7
Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; LaPointe, Gisèle; Charaslertrangsi, Tumnoon et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2012)

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See detailGlucose handling, diabetes and ageing.
Paolisso, G.; Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Hormone Research (1995), 43(1-3), 52-7

The relationship between ageing and glucose homeostasis is still an open debate. In fact, the mechanisms by which glucose metabolism is progressively impaired with increasing age are not completely ... [more ▼]

The relationship between ageing and glucose homeostasis is still an open debate. In fact, the mechanisms by which glucose metabolism is progressively impaired with increasing age are not completely understood. In the present report we have reviewed the possible mechanisms (impaired insulin secretion and action, role of the environmental factors) which may lead to the impairment in glucose handling associated with ageing. We also point out that not all aged subjects are glucose intolerant; in fact, it has been suggested that only those aged subjects who present more than one pathological finding do in fact develop impaired glucose handling. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose inhibits human placental GH secretion, in vitro
Patel, N.; Alsat, E.; Igout, Ahmed ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1995), 80(5), 1743-6

Human placenta specifically expresses the GH-V gene leading to the production of placental Growth Hormone (PGH). During pregnancy, PGH levels increase progressively in maternal blood, but its regulation ... [more ▼]

Human placenta specifically expresses the GH-V gene leading to the production of placental Growth Hormone (PGH). During pregnancy, PGH levels increase progressively in maternal blood, but its regulation remains unknown. In this study the effect of glucose on PGH secretion by human term placenta was tested, in vitro, by means of two different experimental models: organ culture of villous tissue and primary culture of isolated cytotrophoblasts. PGH was assayed in the culture medium by an immunoradiometric assay using a specific PGH monoclonal antibody. The presence of glucose (25 mmol/L) in the culture medium significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) the secretion of PGH by either placental villous explants or by cultured trophoblast cells. This inhibitory effect of glucose on PGH secretion was dose-dependent. More than 50% inhibition being observed with 5.5 mmol/L. In the same conditions, the daily production of hPL and hCG, were unmodified. Furthermore, the glucose-induced inhibition of PGH secretion was more effective when cultured trophoblast cells are differentiated into syncytiotrophoblast. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that among the gestational polypeptide hormones secreted by the human placenta, only PGH secretion is modulated by glucose, suggesting a key metabolic role for this hormone during pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose metabolism and invertase production in yeast : utilization of indirects gateways to control physiological conditions of growth
Rikir, R.; Artois, C.; Gaignage, P. et al

Poster (1986, March)

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See detailGlucose metabolism and the postprandial state.
Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in European Journal of Clinical Investigation (1999), 29 Suppl 2

Disturbances of postprandial glucose metabolism are now thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease. Postprandial glucose excursions can be affected by a number of factors, such as the types of ... [more ▼]

Disturbances of postprandial glucose metabolism are now thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease. Postprandial glucose excursions can be affected by a number of factors, such as the types of carbohydrates ingested and the way they are metabolized. In Type 2 diabetes, factors that contribute to excessive postprandial glucose excursions include disruption of insulin secretion, insufficient inhibition of hepatic glucose production and defective glucose storage in muscle. A number of measures may attenuate excessive postprandial blood glucose excursions. These include a diet high in 'low glycaemic index' foods and treatment with drugs that improve or restore the hormonal response (e.g. the sulphonylureas and the newer beta-cell mediated insulinotropic drugs such as repaglinide), that improve insulin sensitivity or that delay gastric emptying. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose metabolism during bovine preimplantation development: analysis of gene expression in single oocytes and embryos.
Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg; Grisart, B.; Schuurbiers, N. et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (1997), 48(2), 216-26

Glucose metabolism of the bovine embryo is low during the first cleavages and increases sharply after the major resumption of the genome (8-16 cells). The mRNA level for genes involved in glucose ... [more ▼]

Glucose metabolism of the bovine embryo is low during the first cleavages and increases sharply after the major resumption of the genome (8-16 cells). The mRNA level for genes involved in glucose metabolism was tested by RT-PCR on individual oocytes and embryos at different stages of development. These genes were: glucose transport GLUT-1, hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphatase-dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glucose-phosphate-isomerase (GPI); actin was used as a reference transcript. RT-PCR results revealed three types of oocytes or embryos: positive with a PCR signal for each transcript considered, nul with no signal for any transcript, and heterogeneous with a PCR signal for some transcripts and none for others. The number of nul and heterogeneous samples was higher for slow than for fast-cleaving embryos (81% vs. 36%), and the proportion of positive embryos increased significantly at the 16-cell and morula stages (P < 0.002), suggesting a correlation between mRNA content and developmental capacity. In positive embryos, GLUT-1 level was reduced by half during maturation and fertilization. Actin and hexokinase mRNA levels decreased during the first cleavages, but significantly increased at the 16-cell and morula stages, respectively. GPI transcript remained stable throughout development, whereas there was a significant rise for G6PDH at the 4-cell stage, perhaps due to a polyadenylation process. Finally, the absence or decrease in intensity of several transcripts at the blastocyst stage suggests suboptimal culture conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose metabolism in obese subjects: lessons from OGTT, IVGTT and clamp studies.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg et al

in International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders (1995), 19 Suppl 3

Impaired glucose tolerance and overt diabetes are more frequent in presence than in absence of obesity. In obese subjects, glucose tolerance can be maintained within the normal range by compensating for ... [more ▼]

Impaired glucose tolerance and overt diabetes are more frequent in presence than in absence of obesity. In obese subjects, glucose tolerance can be maintained within the normal range by compensating for insulin resistance by peripheral hyperinsulinism, the latter resulting from both increased insulin secretion and reduced insulin clearance. Impaired glucose tolerance is observed when insulin resistance is associated to impaired first-phase insulin response, which results in a significant increase in plasma glucose levels and a late insulin hyperresponsiveness. Both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia are then able to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and impaired glucose disposal. When a more marked defect in insulin secretion is present, hyperglycaemia progresses, probably due to an additional participation of impaired suppression of hepatic glucose output. Overt diabetes then occurs with persistent post-absorptive hyperglycaemia. All these abnormalities can be reversed after a marked weight loss and recovery of ideal body weight, arguing for acquired rather than inherited metabolic defects in presence of morbid obesity. If a sufficient weight reduction can not be obtained, pharmacological approaches may be considered to improve insulin resistance of obese subjects, especially those with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose turnover in humans in the basal state and after intravenous glucose: a comparison of two models.
Overkamp, D.; Gautier, J. F.; Renn, W. et al

in American Journal of Physiology (1997), 273(2 Pt 1), 284-96

This study investigated the ability of two models to represent glucose kinetics in the basal steady state and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Six young nonobese male subjects were ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the ability of two models to represent glucose kinetics in the basal steady state and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Six young nonobese male subjects were studied after an overnight fast. Two bolus injections of [U-13C]glucose were given 150 min apart, the first without and the second together with concomitant injection of unlabeled glucose. [3-3H]glucose was constantly infused throughout the study and served to provide an independent means for evaluation of system responses. A linear time-invariant three-compartmental model and the two-compartment time-variant model proposed by Caumo and Cobelli were used to interpret measured time courses of [U-13C]glucose and to reconstruct endogenous glucose production and glucose removal. The ability of the two models to describe the glucose tracer time course was comparable. Simulation studies showed that the two-compartmental time-variant system better predicted measured [3-3H]glucose concentration profiles than did the three-compartmental time-invariant model. However, endogenous glucose production and the integral of excess glucose removal over basal during the IVGTT derived from the two models were almost identical. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose, alpha-amino nitrogen and amino acid exchange across the hindlimb in young bulls maintained at two growth rates
Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Gauthier, Sabine et al

in Canadian Journal of Animal Science (1996), 76(2), 193-202

The effect of growth rate and protein supplementation on muscle metabolism of eight bulls from the Belgian Blue breed, double-muscled type, was investigated by the arterio-venous difference technique. A ... [more ▼]

The effect of growth rate and protein supplementation on muscle metabolism of eight bulls from the Belgian Blue breed, double-muscled type, was investigated by the arterio-venous difference technique. A low growth (LG) group was maintained at a low growth rate over 36 d, and a rapid growth (RG) group for 28 d before receiving a fattening diet allowing for a rapid growth. At the end of the RG period the RG bulls received a supplement of protected soybean meal. Animals were fitted with an aortic ultrasonic blood flow probe and with catheters in the aorta and the vena cava. The blood flow in the hindlimbs of bulls varied greatly by time of the day but was higher in the RG group. The RG group had a higher arterio-venous difference (AVD) and uptake of alpha-amino nitrogen while AVD in essential amino acids was four times higher and uptake eight times higher. Significant higher AVD or uptake was observed in individual amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and lysine. The supplementation with protected soybean meal had significant negative effect on the uptake of several amino acids. It was concluded that caution should be exercised when measuring punctually blood flow in muscle tissue, for example by dilution techniques. At high growth rate, the requirements for amino acids are larger than for glucose. Excess protein provides no additional benefit. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose, insulin and myocardial ischaemia
Devos, P.; Chiolero, R.; Van den Berghe, G. et al

in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care (2006), 9(2), 131-139

Purpose of review The importance of glucose metabolism and insulin therapy during myocardial ischaemia is increasingly being investigated. Insulin is used to achieve a tight glucose control or as part of ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The importance of glucose metabolism and insulin therapy during myocardial ischaemia is increasingly being investigated. Insulin is used to achieve a tight glucose control or as part of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy. We have reviewed (1) the physiological and physiopathological consequences of hyperglycaemia focusing on potential machanisms of myocardial ischaemia, (2) the effects of insulin on vascular tone, on the release of free fatty acids, on inflammatory pathways, on the switch of energy source and on apoptosis, and (3) clinical data reporting the effects of intensive insulin therapy and glucose-insulin-potassium solutions during myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic heart failure. Recent findings In addition to its known toxic cellular effects, hyperglycaemia increases the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promotes inflammation. Conversely insulin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Glucose-insulin-potassium solutions could improve survival after acute myocardial infarction or after surgery, according to recent meta-analyses, but confirmation of these data is eagerly awaited. Summary Hyperglycaemia is toxic, while insulin is beneficial during acute myocardial ischaemia. Some recent evidence confirms a substantial benefit of insulin administered either alone to achieve a tight glucose control or as a component of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy. Further research is needed to confirm that tendency and to define the threshold of tight glucose control. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-, pH- and thermo-responsive nanogels crosslinked by functional superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles as innovative drug delivery systems
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(8), 1009-1023

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery systems (DDS). The crosslinking was formed via boronate/diol bonding from the surfacefunctionalized superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, endowing the DDS with thermo-, pH- and glucose-responsiveness. The capability to load a hydrophobic drug model Nile red (NR) within the RCL nanogels was evaluated, and stimuli-triggered drug release behaviours under different conditions were tested. Zero premature release behaviour was detected at physiological pH in the absence of glucose, whereas triggered release was observed upon exposure to acidic pH (5.0) and/or in the presence of glucose. In light of the superparamagnetic properties of the maghemite nanoparticles and RCL nanogels, magnetically-induced heating, MR imaging performance, as well as remotely magnetically-triggered drug release under alternating magnetic field (AMF), were investigated. Cytotoxicity against fibroblast-like L929 and human melanoma MEL-5 cell lines was assessed via the MTS assay. In vitro stimuli-triggered release of tamoxifen, a chemotherapeutic drug, was also studied within MEL-5 cell cultures under different conditions. These innovative RCL nanogels, integrating different stimuli-responsive components, hydrophobic chemotherapeutic moieties and also diagnostic agents together via reversible crosslinking, are promising new theranostic platforms. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-galactose transporter DEFICIENCY: a diagnosis based on clinical observations.
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; poskin, julie; etienne, isabelle et al

Poster (2009, March)

Dehydration and major diarrhea in young infants is mainly linked to infectious diseases. However in case leading to denutrition and growth retardation, metabolic causes or malabsorption should be evocated ... [more ▼]

Dehydration and major diarrhea in young infants is mainly linked to infectious diseases. However in case leading to denutrition and growth retardation, metabolic causes or malabsorption should be evocated. We report here the case of a few days old infant admitted for early recurrence of liquid stools and vomiting. XX is born at term (3450 grams, 51 cm) after an uneventful pregnancy. Consanguinity has been reported in the family. He was breastfed but presented rapidly liquid stools and vomiting. At 10 days old he was first admitted for dehydration, loss of weight below his birth weight (2900 grams) and severe hypernatremia. Semi elementary diet led to some improvement but he was readmitted at the age of one month for similar even worse symptoms including abdominal distension and explosive stools. Complementary investigations have excluded infection, parasitosis, malformation and immune deficits. Different diet formulas were tried with no significant benefit what led to the placement of parenteral nutrition thanks to which weight was gained. Hypothesis of peculiar carbohydrate malabsorption was made and the following tests have been carried out: -Clinitest: presence of reducing substances in the stools. -Lactose Breath test: between 15 and 90 ppm H2 with a peak value at 90 ppm H2 after 90 minutes. -Duodenal biopsy: normal histology; normal activity of lactase, maltase, saccharase-isomaltase. Considering the normality of these enzyme activities, hypothesis of “Na-dependant glucose-galactose transporter” deficit was put forward. This was confirmed according to the results of HGPO and glucose breath test. Search for SGTL1 gene mutation is still in progress. In conclusion despite of the huge progresses made at molecular biology level, clinical observation remain essential to the diagnosis of malabsorption. Precise reporting of the used milk formula and comparative analysis of their composition can orient the diagnosis and help to select the most accurate molecular test. Here, analyses exclude every enzyme activity deficiencies. Carbohydrate malabsorption from first days of live can be linked to a glucose-galactose transporter deficiency due to a SGLT1 mutation (chr 22). This autosomal recessive disorder has only been reported 200 times until now. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-responsive layer-by-layer microcapsules as self-regulated insulin delivery system
Alaimo, David ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

Poster (2011, September 03)

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See detailGlucose-responsive layer-by-layer microcapsules: a potential route to self-regulated insulin delivery
Alaimo, David ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

Conference (2010, May 25)

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See detailGlucosinolates and their measurement
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2001)

Glucosinolates belong to a structurally homogeneous family of more than 110 miscellaneous secondary metabolites mostly contained in Brassicaceae. They are easily hydrolyzed into isothiocyanates ... [more ▼]

Glucosinolates belong to a structurally homogeneous family of more than 110 miscellaneous secondary metabolites mostly contained in Brassicaceae. They are easily hydrolyzed into isothiocyanates, oxazolidinethiones, cyanides, D-glucose, sulphate ion… by an endogenous enzyme called myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1). Glucosinolates and their breakdown compounds are partly or mainly responsible of the flavor of some foods (mustard, radish, horse-radish….) and are also suspected to play a role in cancer prevention (glucoraphanin in Broccoli). On an other hand, when present in rapeseed or canola, these molecules are easily broken down during animal digestion, leading to compounds with detrimental and antinutritional characteristics. They are known to interfere with the thyroid and to damage vital organs. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates and their measurement
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2009)

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