Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal compartmental analysis of the fluorescence decay surface of the halato telechelic polymer (N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(1-pyrenyl)propyl]ammonio)-trifluoro-methanesulfonate-end-capped poly(tetrahydrofuran
Hermans, Bart; De Schryver, Frans C; Van Stam, Jan et al

in Macromolecules (1995), 28(9), 3380-3386

The kinetic behavior of the halato telechelic polymer (N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(1-pyrenyl)propyl]-ammonio)trifluoromethanesulfonate-end-capped poly(tetrahydrofuran) (POLYPROBE) in tetrahydrofuran is ... [more ▼]

The kinetic behavior of the halato telechelic polymer (N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(1-pyrenyl)propyl]-ammonio)trifluoromethanesulfonate-end-capped poly(tetrahydrofuran) (POLYPROBE) in tetrahydrofuran is investigated by global compartmental analysis of the fluorescence decay surface. At low POLYPROBE concentrations the emission decays monoexponentially. When an analogous end-capped halato telechelic polymer without the pyrene chromophore ((N,N,N-triethylammonio)trifluoromethanesulfonate-end-capped poly(tetrahydrofuran), POLYSALT) is added to solutions containing a low POLYPROBE concentration, the emission can be fitted by a biexponential decay function. From these observations it is concluded that the second excited-state species in the POLYPROBE-POLYSALT system is POLYPROBE involved in ion aggregation due to dipole-dipole or ion-dipole interaction. At higher POLYPROBE concentrations, without added POLYSALT, a triexponential decay function is needed to describe the emission. The third excited-state species is POLYPROBE excimer, which can be formed via two pathways: either intermolecularly when a locally excited POLYPROBE encounters a ground-state POLYPROBE or intramolecularly when an aggregate of two POLYPROBE molecules rearranges. From the global compartmental analysis in which the value of one of the rate constants is scanned, it is found that the bimolecular processes are slowed down by the presence of the polymer chain, while intramolecular rearrangements are not affected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal democratic consensus on neuropathological disease criteria.
Achim, Cristian; Auer, Roland; Bergeron, Catherine et al

in Lancet Neurology (2002), 1(6), 340

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal design of hydraulic structures optimised with physically based flow solvers on multiblock structured grids
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on River Sedimentation (2004)

This paper presents the numerical studies lead by the Laboratory of Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions of the University of Liège (HACH) for the rehabilitation of the 21-meter high ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the numerical studies lead by the Laboratory of Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions of the University of Liège (HACH) for the rehabilitation of the 21-meter high Nisramont dam in Belgium. After determination of the up-to-date 1000-year return flood using the hydrological runoff model WOLFHYDRO on the global 74,000 ha watershed real topography coupled with statistical analyzes, and after validation on the existing situation and for extreme observed events, the 2D finite volume multiblock flow solver WOLF2D has been applied to the design of the new stilling basin and to the bottom outlet rehabilitation impact study. The multiblock solver possibilities allow mesh refinement close to interesting areas, such as dam spillway and stilling pool, without leading to prohibitive CPU times, while suitable shallow water equations formulation allows the computation of the flows on the strongly vertically curved bottom of the spillway. In the described simulation, 270,000 structured finite volumes, from .25 to 1 meters long, are used to simulate as a whole the flows in the upstream reservoir, dam, spillway, stilling basin and downstream river, this on a real topography. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe global distribution of nitric oxide in the thermosphere as determined by the Atmosphere Explorer D satellite
Cravens, T. E.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Lecompte, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1985), 90

The ultraviolet nitric oxide spectrometer (UVNO) experiment on the Atmosphere Explorer D (AE-D) satellite measured thermospheric nitric oxide during the winter of 1974-1975 using resonant fluorescence ... [more ▼]

The ultraviolet nitric oxide spectrometer (UVNO) experiment on the Atmosphere Explorer D (AE-D) satellite measured thermospheric nitric oxide during the winter of 1974-1975 using resonant fluorescence from the 1-0 gamma band of the molecule. Almost complete latitude coverage was obtained, but the observations were confined to morning local times close to 0900. The 1-0 gamma band intensity profiles measured by the instrument were inverted to provide vertical profiles of the NO number density between about 90 and 200 km. Typically, the measured NO concentrations reached a maximum between altitudes of 100 and 110 km, and more NO was observed at higher latitudes than at low latitudes, in agreement with previous observational studies. The shape of the NO profile was also found to be a function of latitude, with a plateau appearing in the profile near 130 km for low latitudes and mid-latitudes in the winter hemisphere. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1984), 89

A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet ... [more ▼]

A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
See detailGlobal distributions of upper ocean CO2 and O2
Monfray, P.; Orr, J.; Stoens, A. et al

Conference (1999)

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe global grid
Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Ernst, Damien ULg; Andersson, Göran

in Renewable Energy : An International Journal (2013), 57

This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the ... [more ▼]

This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the “Global Grid”. The main driving force behind the Global Grid will be the harvesting of remote renewable sources, and its key infrastructure element will be the high capacity long transmission lines. Wind farms and solar power plants will supply load centers with green power over long distances. This paper focuses on the introduction of the concept, showing that a globally interconnected network can be technologically feasible and economically competitive. We further highlight the multiple opportunities emerging from a global electricity network such as smoothing the renewable energy supply and electricity demand, reducing the need for bulk storage, and reducing the volatility of the energy prices. We also discuss possible investment mechanisms and operating schemes. Among others, we envision in such a system a global power market and the establishment of two new coordinating bodies, the “Global Regulator” and the “Global System Operator”. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal Imaging of Proton and Electron Aurorae in the far Ultraviolet
Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Immel, T. J. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2003), 109

The IMAGE spacecraft carries three FUV photon imagers, the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) and two channels, SI-12 and SI-13, of the Spectrographic Imager. These provide simultaneous global images, which ... [more ▼]

The IMAGE spacecraft carries three FUV photon imagers, the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) and two channels, SI-12 and SI-13, of the Spectrographic Imager. These provide simultaneous global images, which can be interpreted in terms of the precipitating particle types (protons and electrons) and their energies. IMAGE FUV is the first space-borne global imager that can provide instantaneous global images of the proton precipitation. At times a bright auroral spot, rich in proton precipitation, is observed on the dayside, several degrees poleward of the auroral zone. The spot was identified as the footprint of the merging region of the cusp that is located on lobe field lines when IMF B[SUB]z[/SUB] was northward. This identification was based on compelling statistical evidence showing that the appearance and location of the spot is consistent with the IMF B[SUB]z[/SUB] and B[SUB]y[/SUB] directions. The intensity of the spot is well correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure and it was found that the direct entry of solar wind particles could account for the intensity of the observed spot without the need for any additional acceleration. Another discovery was the observation of dayside sub-auroral proton arcs. These arcs were observed in the midday to afternoon MLT sector. Conjugate satellite observations showed that these arcs were generated by pure proton precipitation. Nightside auroras and their relationship to substorm phases were studied through single case studies and in a superimposed epoch analysis. It was found that generally there is substantial proton precipitation prior to substorms and the proton intensity only doubles at substorm onset while the electron auroral brightness increases on average by a factor of 5 and sometimes by as much as a factor of 10. Substorm onset occurs in the central region of the pre-existing proton precipitation. Assuming that nightside protons are precipitating from a quasi-stable ring current at its outer regions where the field lines are distorted by neutral sheet currents we can associate the onset location with this region of closed but distorted field lines relatively close to the earth. Our results also show that protons are present in the initial poleward substorm expansion however later they are over taken by the electrons. We also find that the intensity of the substorms as quantified by the intensity of the post onset electron precipitation is correlated with the intensity of the proton precipitation prior to the substorms, highlighting the role of the pre-existing near earth plasma in the production of the next substorm. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal imbalances, Exchange Rates and Economic Growth
Artige, Lionel ULg; Cavenaile, Laurent

Conference (2012, March 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA global inventory of stratospheric chlorine in 2004
Nassar, Ray; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Christopher D. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2006), 111(D22), 22312

[1] Total chlorine (Cl-TOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HCl, ClONO2, CH3Cl, CCl4, CCl3F (CFC ... [more ▼]

[1] Total chlorine (Cl-TOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HCl, ClONO2, CH3Cl, CCl4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHClF2 (HCFC-22), CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), COClF, and ClO supplemented by data from several other sources, including both measurements and models. Separate chlorine inventories were carried out in five latitude zones (60 degrees - 82 degrees N, 30 degrees - 60 degrees N, 30 degrees S - 30 degrees N, 30 degrees - 60 degrees S, and 60 degrees - 82 degrees S), averaging the period of February 2004 to January 2005 inclusive, when possible, to deal with seasonal variations. The effect of diurnal variation was avoided by only using measurements taken at local sunset. Mean stratospheric Cl-TOT values of 3.65 ppbv were determined for both the northern and southern midlatitudes (with an estimated 1 sigma accuracy of +/- 0.13 ppbv and a precision of +/- 0.09 ppbv), accompanied by a slightly lower value in the tropics and slightly higher values at high latitudes. Stratospheric Cl-TOT profiles in all five latitude zones are nearly linear with a slight positive slope in ppbv/km. Both the observed slopes and pattern of latitudinal variation can be interpreted as evidence of the beginning of a decline in global stratospheric chlorine, which is qualitatively consistent with the mean stratospheric circulation pattern and time lag necessary for transport. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA global inventory of stratospheric fluorine in 2004 based on Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements
Nassar, Ray; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Christopher D. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2006), 111

Total fluorine (FTOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HF, COF2, COClF, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 ... [more ▼]

Total fluorine (FTOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HF, COF2, COClF, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHClF2 (HCFC-22), CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), CH2FCF3 (HFC-134a), and SF6. The retrieval of HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) from spaceborne measurements had not been carried out prior to this work. Measurements of these species have been supplemented by data from models to extend the altitude range of the profiles and have also been complemented by estimates of 15 minor fluorine species. Using these data, separate fluorine budgets were determined in five latitude zones (60°–82°N, 30°–60°N, 30°S–30°N, 30°–60°S, and 60°–82°S) by averaging over the period of February 2004 to January 2005 inclusive, when possible. Stratospheric FTOT profiles in each latitude zone are nearly linear, with mean stratospheric FTOT values ranging from 2.50 to 2.59 ppbv (with a 1sig precision of 0.04–0.07 ppbv and an estimated accuracy of 0.15 ppbv) for each zone. The highest mean FTOT value occurred in the tropics, which is qualitatively consistent with increasing levels of stratospheric fluorine and the mean stratospheric circulation pattern. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal Isochrons and Phase Sensitivity of Bursting Neurons
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Rhoads, Blane; Moehlis, Jeff et al

in SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems (2014), 13(1), 306-338

Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons ... [more ▼]

Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons---subsets of the state space that each converge to the same trajectory on the limit cycle. However, the computation of isochrons is notoriously difficult, especially for bursting neuron models. In [W. E. Sherwood and J. Guckenheimer, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 9 (2010), pp. 659--703], the phase sensitivity of the bursting Hindmarsh--Rose model is studied through the use of singular perturbation theory: cross sections of the isochrons of the full system are approximated by those of fast subsystems. In this paper, we complement the previous study, providing a detailed phase sensitivity analysis of the full (three-dimensional) system, including computations of the full (two-dimensional) isochrons. To our knowledge, this is the first such computation for a bursting neuron model. This was made possible thanks to the numerical method recently proposed in [A. Mauroy and I. Mezić, Chaos, 22 (2012), 033112]---relying on the spectral properties of the so-called Koopman operator---which is complemented with the use of adaptive quadtree and octree grids. The main result of the paper is to highlight the existence of a region of high phase sensitivity called the almost phaseless set and to completely characterize its geometry. In particular, our study reveals the existence of a subset of the almost phaseless set that is not predicted by singular perturbation theory (i.e., by the isochrons of fast subsystems). We also discuss how the almost phaseless set is related to empirically observed phenomena such as addition/deletion of spikes and to extrema of the phase response of the system. Finally, through the same numerical method, we show that an elliptic bursting model is characterized by a very high phase sensitivity and other remarkable properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe global modal parameterization for non-linear model-order reduction in flexible multibody dynamics
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2007), 69(5), 948-977

In flexible multibody dynamics, advanced modelling methods lead to high-order non-linear differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The development of model reduction techniques is motivated by control ... [more ▼]

In flexible multibody dynamics, advanced modelling methods lead to high-order non-linear differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The development of model reduction techniques is motivated by control design problems, for which compact ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in closed-form are desirable. In a linear framework, reduction techniques classically rely on a projection of the dynamics onto a linear subspace. In flexible multibody dynamics, we propose to project the dynamics onto a submanifold of the configuration space, which allows to eliminate the non-linear holonomic constraints and to preserve the Lagrangian structure. The construction of this submanifold follows from the definition of a global modal parameterization (GMP): the motion of the assembled mechanism is described in terms of rigid and flexible modes, which are configuration-dependent. The numerical reduction procedure is presented, and an approximation strategy is also implemented in order to build a closed-form expression of the reduced model in the configuration space. Numerical and experimental results illustrate the relevance of this approach. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (48 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailA global model of the biosphere : validation and applications to present and past climatic conditions
François, Louis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Nemry, Bernard et al

in Sciences Géologiques. Bulletin (1997), 50(1-4), 89-107

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal Modeling of X-Ray Spectra Produced in O-type Star Winds
Hervé, Anthony ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2012), 748

High-resolution X-ray spectra of O-type stars revealed less wind absorption than expected from smooth winds with conventional mass-loss rates. Various solutions have been proposed, including porous winds ... [more ▼]

High-resolution X-ray spectra of O-type stars revealed less wind absorption than expected from smooth winds with conventional mass-loss rates. Various solutions have been proposed, including porous winds, optically thick clumps, or an overall reduction of the mass-loss rates. The latter has a strong impact on the evolution of the star. Our final goal is to analyze high-resolution X-ray spectra of O-type stars with a multi-temperature plasma model in order to determine crucial stellar and wind parameters such as the mass-loss rate, the CNO abundances, and the X-ray temperature plasma distribution in the wind. In this context we are developing a modeling tool to calculate synthetic X-ray spectra. We present here the main ingredients and physics necessary for such a work. Our code uses the most recent version of the AtomDB emissivities to compute the intrinsic emissivity of the hot plasma as well as the CMFGEN model atmosphere code to evaluate the opacity of the cool wind. Following the comparison between two formalisms of stellar wind fragmentation, we introduce, for the first time in X-rays, the effects of a tenuous inter-clump medium. We then explore the quantitative impact of different model parameters on the X-ray spectra such as the position in the wind of the X-ray emitting plasma. For the first time, we also show that the two formalisms of stellar wind fragmentation yield different results, although the differences for individual lines are small and can probably not be tested with the current generation of X-ray telescopes. As an illustration of our method, we compare various synthetic line profiles to the observed O VIII λ18.97 line in the spectrum of ζ Puppis. We illustrate how different combinations of parameters can actually lead to the same morphology of a single line, underlining the need to analyze the whole spectrum in a consistent way when attempting to constrain the parameters of the wind. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal modelling of structures in fire
Gillie, M.; Burgess, I.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Mazzolani, Federico (Ed.) Proceedings of Urban Habitat Constructions under Catastrophic Events (COST Action C26) (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (3 ULg)
See detailGlobal modelling of structures in fire
Gillie, Martin; Burgess, Ian; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Urban Habitat Constructions under catastrophic events - Technical sheets – Fire Resistance (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 ULg)
See detailGlobal morphology of substorm growth phases observed by the IMAGE-SI12 imager
Blockx, Caroline ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Coumans, Valérie ULg et al

Poster (2007)

Growth phases are observed to start from less than 30 minutes to over an hour before the substorm onset. The sector of maximum proton precipitation during the growth phase is generally located around 2200 ... [more ▼]

Growth phases are observed to start from less than 30 minutes to over an hour before the substorm onset. The sector of maximum proton precipitation during the growth phase is generally located around 2200 MLT. It rapidly moves in local time by about 1.2 hour toward midnight at the time of the onset. The open magnetic flux increases by as much as a 33% during the growth phase. The mean value of the open flux at the end of the growth phase, immediately preceding the substorm, onset is about 0.74. GWb for substorms triggered by external (solar wind) factors and 0.67 GWb for non-triggered substorms. The open magnetic flux generally drops following the onset of triggered substorms but continues to increase for non-triggered events. We interpret this behavior as an indication that the rate of opening of closed field lines on the dayside can exceed that of the nightside reconnection after the onset in non-triggered substorms. By contrast, flux closure is more efficient while the flux opening rate drops in the case of externally triggered onset, so that the closure rate exceeds that of field line opening on the dayside. The rate of equatorward displacement is typically ~ 3 deg/hour. It is statistically correlated with the magnitude of the southward Bz component of the IMF measured by the ACE satellite. It is also correlated with transfer functions describing the efficiency of solar wind energy transfer which involve the transverse electric field carried by the solar wind. The equatorward motion may be global, restricted to local time sectors or a combination of both. No nightside local time sector appears favored where the motion of the equatorial boundary would be more pronounced. The maximum displacement of the polar boundary is statistically located around midnight MLT. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobal morphology of substorm growth phases observed by the IMAGE-SI12 imager
Coumans, Valérie ULg; Blockx, Caroline ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2007), 112(A11),

We present case studies and a statistical summary of optical observations of proton precipitation made during substorm growth phases. Our analysis is based on observations of the Doppler-shifted Lyman ... [more ▼]

We present case studies and a statistical summary of optical observations of proton precipitation made during substorm growth phases. Our analysis is based on observations of the Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha auroral emission obtained with the SI12 Spectrographic Imager on board the IMAGE satellite. These images are used to determine the morphology and dynamics of the auroral oval and of the polar cap boundary on a global scale, as well as the total open magnetic flux and its time evolution. We also investigate the relationship with the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field ( IMF) characteristics measured by the ACE satellite and with the magnetic elevation angle measured by GOES-8. The statistical study shows that the sector of maximum proton precipitation during the growth phase is on average centered around 2200 MLT and rapidly shifts in local time by about 1.2 h toward midnight at the time of the onset. The open magnetic flux increases by 33% on average during the growth phase. The mean value of the open flux immediately before the substorm onset is about 0.66 GWb for substorms triggered by a northward turning of B-z and 0.74 GWb for nontriggered substorms. The averaged open flux at the substorm onset is smallest when the substorm is triggered by a sudden reversal of B-z, suggesting that the accumulation of energy by the magnetosphere is perturbed by changes in B-z. The open magnetic flux continues to increase during the 20 min following the onset, for a large number of events. The rate of equatorward displacement of the auroral oval boundaries during growth phase is typically similar to 3 deg/h. It is statistically correlated (r=0.40) with the magnitude of the Bz component of the IMF measured by the ACE satellite. It is also correlated, with higher coefficient (r=0.54), with functions describing the efficiency of solar wind energy transfer involving the transverse electric field carried by the solar wind. The equatorward motion may be global, restricted to local time sectors or a combination of both. At no nightside local time sector does the motion of the equatorial boundary appear more pronounced than at others, but the maximum displacement of the polar boundary is statistically located around midnight MLT. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (12 ULg)