Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe extraordinary potential of metagenomic tools for food microbiology: an example with bacterial microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses
Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Nezer, Carine; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2012, September 03)

Among the culture-independent techniques, ultra-sequencing has contributed to place metagenomic analysis as the best alternative to study complex microbiota. During the last three years, metagenomic ... [more ▼]

Among the culture-independent techniques, ultra-sequencing has contributed to place metagenomic analysis as the best alternative to study complex microbiota. During the last three years, metagenomic studies were used essentially for environmental samples but it could be used also to analyse bacterial populations of food samples. This work describes the application of this technique to study the bacterial population of different types of soft cheeses. Among these, three of them are a typical Belgian soft cheese with washed rind (two with raw milk and the third with pasteurized milk). The fourth is a French creamy soft cheese made with raw milk. Classical microbiological and 16S rDNA metagenomic analysis were carried out in the core and on the rind of the four cheeses, giving a total of 8 samples. In total, 48 genus and 163 species were identified for all samples. As expected Lactoccocus lactis and/or cremoris are the most representative species in the core of the four cheeses. On the rind of cheeses, the predominant bacterial species are Psychrobacter glacinola, Staphylococcus equorum, Corynebacterium casei and Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans. Brevibacterium spp and Psychroflexus spp are important for the rind of washed rind cheeses. All these species are present in different proportions following the origin and the cheese making process and they are well known for their organoleptic properties on the rind of cheese. The two Belgian soft cheese made with raw milk are composed of many more different bacterial species. While the cheese made from pasteurized milk contains less species mainly composed by Lactococcus lactis (97,6%) in the core. An unexpected result is the low diversity of the a French creamy soft cheese made with raw milk with only two predominent species : Lactoccocus cremoris and Leuconostoc citreum are present in the core (94,9% and 4,9% , respectively) and on the rind (93,8% and 5% , respectively). Compared with the other cheeses made with raw milk, this result is surprising. The bacterial cheese microbiota plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as their shelf-life, are largely determined by the evolution of their microbiota. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 175 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail"Extrapolated" creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme activity in assessment of initial brain damage after severe head injury.
HANS, Pol ULg; Born, J D; Albert, Adelin ULg

in Journal of Neurosurgery (1987), 66(5), 714-7

The severity of initial brain damage is an important risk factor in determining the prognosis of head trauma. It can be assessed by assigning neurological scores or by determining the cerebrospinal fluid ... [more ▼]

The severity of initial brain damage is an important risk factor in determining the prognosis of head trauma. It can be assessed by assigning neurological scores or by determining the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) activity of the isoenzyme creatine kinase-BB (CK-BB). In 10 severely head-injured patients serial CSF samples were obtained during the first 24 hours after trauma, and exponential decay of CK-BB activity with an average half-life of 4.5 hours was demonstrated. This finding led the authors to propose an "extrapolated" CK-BB activity, which theoretically occurs immediately after injury and is calculated from a single CK-BB recording, as a new index for assessing the degree of initial brain damage. In 50 patients with severe head injury, the prognostic ability of "observed" and "extrapolated" CK-BB activity was compared with two clinical scoring systems that evaluate severity of head trauma (the Glasgow and the Glasgow-Liege Coma Scales). "Extrapolated" CK-BB activity proved to be the best prognostic factor. With a CK-BB cutoff point of 330 U/liter, a true-positive rate of 79% and a true-negative rate of 73% were obtained. These results suggest the usefulness of measuring CK-BB activity in CSF as soon as possible after hospital admission for head injury. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtrapolating the gross primary productivity from leaf to canopy scale in a winter wheat crop
Hoyaux, Julien; Moureaux, Christine ULg; Tourneur, Denis et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2008), 148(4), 668-679

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (9 ULg)
Full Text
See detailExtrapolation des bioréacteurs/Bioreactor scale-up
Delvigne, Frank ULg

Scientific conference (2012, May 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtrapyramidal signs following zimelidine overdose
Ansseau, Marc ULg; Reynolds, Charles F. III; Kupfer, David et al

in Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (1985), 5

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtraskeletal benefits and risks of calcium, vitamin D and anti-osteoporosis medications.
Body, J.-J.; Bergmann, P.; Boonen, S. et al

in Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA (2012), 23 Suppl 1

Drugs used for the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis exert various favourable and unfavourable extra-skeletal effects whose importance is increasingly recognized notably for treatment selection ... [more ▼]

Drugs used for the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis exert various favourable and unfavourable extra-skeletal effects whose importance is increasingly recognized notably for treatment selection. INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic armamentarium for the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis is increasingly large, and possible extra-skeletal effects of available drugs could influence the choice of a particular compound. METHODS: The present document is the result of a national consensus, based on a systematic and critical review of the literature. RESULTS: Observational research has suggested an inverse relationship between calcium intake and cardiovascular diseases, notably through an effect on blood pressure, but recent data suggest a possible deleterious effect of calcium supplements on cardiovascular risk. Many diverse studies have implicated vitamin D in the pathogenesis of clinically important non-skeletal functions or diseases, especially muscle function, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases and common cancers. The possible effects of oral or intravenous bisphosphonates are well-known. They have been associated with an increased risk of oesophageal cancer or atrial fibrillation, but large-scale studies have not found any association with bisphosphonate use. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators have demonstrated favourable or unfavourable extra-skeletal effects that vary between compounds. Strontium ranelate has a limited number of non-skeletal effects. A reported increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism is not found in observational studies, and very rare cases of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Denosumab has been introduced recently, and its extra-skeletal effects still have to be assessed. CONCLUSION: Several non-skeletal effects of bone drugs are well demonstrated and influence treatment choices. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtravasation of albumin after cardiopulmonary bypass in newborns.
Tassani, Peter; Schad, Hubert; Schreiber, Christian et al

in Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia (2007), 21(2), 174-178

OBJECTIVE: The systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) possibly increases microvascular permeability to plasma proteins, leading to capillary leak syndrome. The study was conducted ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) possibly increases microvascular permeability to plasma proteins, leading to capillary leak syndrome. The study was conducted to elucidate any protein leakage in newborns using Evans blue dye as tracer. DESIGN: Prospective controlled study. SETTING: University-affiliated heart center. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven neonates with transposition of the great arteries. INTERVENTIONS: Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, fractional escape rate (FER) of an intravenous bolus of Evans blue, and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) were assessed before and after surgery (statistics: median and 25th-75th percentile, Friedman's 2-way analysis of variance, and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test [before and after surgery]). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All patients had an uneventful intraoperative course. The demographic and operative data were age 11 (10-13) days, body weight 3.2 (3.0-3.3) kg, CPB time 132 (123-144) minutes, and aortic cross-clamp time 66 (64-78) minutes. The proinflammatory IL-6 increased 60-fold and the anti-inflammatory IL-10 only 3-fold after CPB. FER, however, was not changed, whereas COP was significantly reduced after CPB. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the expectation, the escape rate of Evans blue, reflecting the extravasation of albumin, was not increased after CPB. However, reduced COP, hypothermia, and also a reduced lymphatic drainage may contribute to edema formation. The present data do not support the hypothesis of a capillary leak after CPB in newborns. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtreme catalysts from low-temperature environments
Hoyoux, A.; Blaise, Vinciane ULg; Collins, T. et al

in Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering (2004), 98(5), 317-330

Cold-loving or psychrophilic organisms are widely distributed in nature as a large part of the earth's surface is at temperatures around 0 degrees C. To maintain metabolic rates and to prosper in cold ... [more ▼]

Cold-loving or psychrophilic organisms are widely distributed in nature as a large part of the earth's surface is at temperatures around 0 degrees C. To maintain metabolic rates and to prosper in cold environments, these extremophilic organisms have developed a vast array of adaptations. One main adaptive strategy developed in order to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures is the synthesis of cold-adapted or psychrophilic enzymes. These enzymes are characterized by a high catalytic activity at low temperatures associated with a low thermal stability. A study of protein adaptation strategies suggests that the high activity of psychrophilic enzymes could be achieved by the destabilization of the active site, allowing the catalytic center to be more flexible at low temperatures, whereas other protein regions may be destabilized or as rigid as their mesophilic counterparts. Due to these particular properties, psychrophilic enzymes offer a high potential not only for fundamental research but also for biotechnological applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailExtreme coronagraphy with an adaptive hologram
Ricci, Davide ULg

Scientific conference (2009, February 19)

We present a solution to improve the performances of coronagraphs in general for the detection of exo-planets. We simulate several kinds of coronagraphic systems using an IDL software, with the aim of ... [more ▼]

We present a solution to improve the performances of coronagraphs in general for the detection of exo-planets. We simulate several kinds of coronagraphic systems using an IDL software, with the aim of evaluating the gain obtained using an adaptive hologram. The detection limit in flux ratio between a star and a planet observed with an apodized Lyot coronagraph characterized by wavefront bumpiness imperfections of lambda/20 (resp. lambda /100) turns out to be increased by a factor 1`000 (resp. 1`000`000) when equipped with an hologram. This technique could provide a direct imaging of an exo-earth at a distance of 11 parsec with a space telescope with a mirror quality analog to the HST, and with a diameter analog to the JWST. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtreme coronagraphy with an adaptive hologram: Simulations of exo-planet imaging
Ricci, Davide ULg; Le Coroller, Hervé; Labeyrie, Antoine

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 503

Aims. We present a solution to improve the performance of coronagraphs for the detection of exo-planets. Methods. We simulate numerically several kinds of coronagraphic systems, with the aim of evaluating ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present a solution to improve the performance of coronagraphs for the detection of exo-planets. Methods. We simulate numerically several kinds of coronagraphic systems, with the aim of evaluating the gain obtained with an adaptive hologram. Results. The detection limit in flux ratio between a star and a planet (Fs /Fp ) observed with an apodized Lyot coronagraph characterized by wavefront bumpiness imperfections of λ/20 (resp. λ/100) turns out to be increased by a factor of 10^3.4 (resp. 10^5.1 ) when equipped with a hologram. Conclusions. This technique could provide direct imaging of an exo-Earth at a distance of 11 parsec with a 6.5 m space telescope such as the JWST with the optical quality of the HST. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (9 ULg)
See detailUne extrême droite de riches ?
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

Article for general public (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailExtrême droite et fédéralisme
Matagne, Geoffroy ULg

in Fédéralisme - Régionalisme (2003), 2001-2002

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtrême droite et immigration en Belgique francophone
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Martiniello, Marco; Rea, Andrea; Dassetto, Felice (Eds.) Immigration et intégration en Belgique francophone. Etat des savoirs (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL'extrême droite nouvelle est arrivée
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Article for general public (2011)

L'article esquisse le nouveau visage de l'extrême droite en Europe : elle est diverse (par exemple elle peut être régionaliste ou nationaliste, plutôt libérale ou anti-libérale) même si elle conserve sa ... [more ▼]

L'article esquisse le nouveau visage de l'extrême droite en Europe : elle est diverse (par exemple elle peut être régionaliste ou nationaliste, plutôt libérale ou anti-libérale) même si elle conserve sa logique centrale du bouc émissaire, essentiellement l'immigré et plus encore l'immigré musulman. Elle ne pourra plus être combattue essentiellement à travers la dénonciation des horreurs du nazisme, vu qu'une partie croissante de l'extrême droite ne se réfère plus au fascisme historique et même, de plus en plus souvent, le condamne. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 250 (27 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtreme increase of CO2 in belgian caves
Ek, Camille ULg; Godissart, Jean

in ICS 2009 Proceedings (2009, July)

We began making CO2 measurements in Belgian caves in 1966. Analyses were conducted in cave halls, galleries, fissures and shafts, in various seasons and at different levels above the floors of the ... [more ▼]

We began making CO2 measurements in Belgian caves in 1966. Analyses were conducted in cave halls, galleries, fissures and shafts, in various seasons and at different levels above the floors of the conduits, and in the absence or presence of other human beings. Our first results were published in 1968. From that time on, we have carried out studies in Poland, Quebec, China and other countries but we have focused most of our work in Belgium. We have discovered over these forty years of study, a strong increase in the observed values of CO2 in Belgian caves. For example, a few of our observations follow. “Trou Joney” (Comblain-au-Pont, province of Liege) is a small and shallow cave. We measured at the central point of the main gallery, 1870 ppm CO2 in July 1966, and 13800 ppm at the same location in July 2007. At the bottom of the shaft of the “Comblain-au Pont” cave, we measured 600 ppm in July 1966 and found 1500 ppm in July 2008. In “La Merveilleuse” cave (Dinant, province of Namur), we measured 800 ppm at the central point of the Big Hall in August 1990, rising to 1700 ppm in August 2008. In the main gallery of the “Fontaine de Rivire” cave (Hamoir, province of Liege), we found 5000 ppm in August 1972, increasing to 9400 ppm in 2008. We conclude that the CO2 content of the atmospheres of many caves in Belgium at least, is very sharply getting higher. The increase is very variable, but omnipresent. Are our measurements significant? We believe that we have validated our instruments and our methods. The increase is probably not a result of local industrial activities. The CO2 curves of Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and “Mace Head” (Ireland) both show an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last half century. However, the upsurge of CO2 observed in the caves is much greater than the increase in those well-known surface measurements. There is a very complex interrelationship between temperature, vegetation and biomass activity, and CO2 in the soil and underground. The increase of any one of these three parameters can induce changes in the two others, and hence in the partial pressure of CO2 in cave air. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 140 (44 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtreme life on Earth - past, present and possibly beyond
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

in Research in Microbiology (2006), 157(1), 37-48

Life may have been present on Earth since about 3.8 billion years ago or earlier. Multidisciplinary research, especially on the paleobiology and evolution of early microorganisms on Earth and the ... [more ▼]

Life may have been present on Earth since about 3.8 billion years ago or earlier. Multidisciplinary research, especially on the paleobiology and evolution of early microorganisms on Earth and the microbiology of extremophiles in the Earth's environments and under space conditions, enables the defining of strategies for the detection of potential extraterrestrial life by determining biosignatures and the environmental envelope of life. (C) 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Extreme Right in Europe : Fascist or Mainstream
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in The Public Eye (2005), 19/1

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (10 ULg)