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See detailThe effects of raloxifene on incident vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis : 4-year results from the MORE trial
Eastell, R; Adachi, J; Harper, K et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2000), 15(S1), 229

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See detailEffects of rater bias and assessment method on disease severity estimation with regard to hypothesis testing
Chiang, Kuo-Szu; Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege et al

in Plant Pathology (2016)

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See detailThe effects of rater bias on hypothesis testing when using different assessment methods for estimating disease severity.
CHIANG, KUO-SZU; Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 26

Bias (over and underestimates) in estimates of disease severity, and the impact of that inaccuracy on hypothesis testing using different disease scales was explored. Nearest percent estimates (NPE), the ... [more ▼]

Bias (over and underestimates) in estimates of disease severity, and the impact of that inaccuracy on hypothesis testing using different disease scales was explored. Nearest percent estimates (NPE), the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale and four different linear category scales (5% and 10% increments, with and without additional grades at low severity) were compared. Actual values and estimates by 4 different raters of the severity (0 to 100%) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat were used to develop distributions for a simulation model. The simulations were based on i) all the 4 raters data combined, ii) only the most accurate rater estimates, and iii) only the most biased rater. Regardless of the effect of rater ability, we found that, there were lower type II error rates with NPEs as compared with the other category scales at severities of 80 to 100%. On the other hand, with lower severities (0 to 20%), the 5% and 10% scales with additional grades had type II error rates comparable to those for the NPEs. Raters who overestimated severity and used the H-B scale had the highest risk of a type II error when the mean disease severity was low. Knowledge of how rater ability and scale type can affect hypothesis testing can be used to improve disease assessment as well as to provide a logical framework for developing standard area diagrams. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of raw and processed Mucuna priurens seed based diets on the growth parameters and meat characteristics of Benin local Guinea fowl (Meleagris numida, L)
Dahouda, M.; Toleba, S. S.; Youssao, A. K. I. et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2009), 8(9), 882-889

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2016), 121

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has shown a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and antecedents of ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has shown a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and antecedents of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. This effect has been attributed to a hemodynamic rather than a metabolic effect, partly due to the osmotic/diuretic effect of empagliflozin and to the reduction in arterial blood pressure. The present review will: (1) summarize the results of specific studies having tested the blood pressure lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors; (2) describe the results of meta-analyses of trials having evaluated the effects on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes of lowering blood pressure in patients with T2D, with a special focus on baseline and target blood pressures; (3) compare the cardiovascular outcome results in EMPA-REG OUTCOME versus other major trials with antihypertensive agents in patients with T2D; and (4) evaluate post-hoc analyses from EMPA-REG OUTCOME, especially subgroups of patients of special interest regarding the blood pressure lowering hypothesis. Although BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may partly contribute to the benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other mechanisms most probably play a greater role in the overall CV protection and reduction in mortality observed in this trial. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULiege; Delanaye, P.

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2017), (epub ahead of print),

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a history of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME. These results have been attributed to haemodynamic rather than metabolic effects, in part due to the osmotic/diuretic action of empagliflozin and the reduction in arterial blood pressure (BP). The present narrative review includes the results of meta-analyses of trials evaluating the effects on renal outcomes of lowering BP in patients with T2D, with a special focus on the influence of baseline and achieved systolic BP, and compares the renal outcome results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME with those of other major trials with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with T2D and the preliminary findings with other SGLT2 inhibitors, and also evaluates post hoc analyses from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME of special interest as regards the BP-lowering hypothesis and renal function. While systemic BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may have contributed to the renal benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other local mechanisms related to kidney homoeostasis most probably also played a role in the overall protection observed in the trial. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of reducing sugar concentration on in vitro tuber formation and sprouting in yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex).
Ondo Ovono, Paul ULiege; Kevers, Claire ULiege; Dommes, Jacques ULiege

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2009), 99(1), 55-59

The effects of reducing sucrose level on tuber formation (% of cultures with microtubers), development (length and fresh weight of microtubers) and sprouting in yam Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata ... [more ▼]

The effects of reducing sucrose level on tuber formation (% of cultures with microtubers), development (length and fresh weight of microtubers) and sprouting in yam Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex in vitro were investigated. Only 29% of the explants showed tuber formation after 3 weeks in the presence of 1% sucrose in contrast to 100% with 3%. After 120 days of culture, the length and the weight of the tubers obtained in the presence of 1% sucrose were less than with 3% sucrose. Addition of sorbitol to keep osmolarity at the same level did not restore normal rate of tuber formation. Similar results were obtained with the use of reduced fructose or glucose level. Microtuber sprouting was also affected by sucrose level incorporated into the tuberisation medium. Tubers obtained on reduced sucrose level sprouted later and the increase of osmolarity with sorbitol did not restore normal sprouting. The bigger tubers obtained on high sucrose media could contain more carbohydrate reserves that could partially explain a higher sprouting rate. These results can be used for optimising in vitro conditions for mass production of microtubers in yam and especially in Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex, a very important species in West Africa. They specially showed the importance of tuberisation conditions on precocity of tuberisation, on tuber length and weight and on their further sprouting. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of regional climate change on brown rust disease in winter wheat
JUNK, Jürgen; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Climatic Change (2016)

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the potential infection periods of wheat leaf rust (WLR) at two climatologically differentsites in Luxembourg. A threshold-based model, taking hourlyvalues of air temperatures, relative humidity and precipitation during night-time into account, was used for calculating favourable WLR infection days during three periods throughout the cropping season. Field experiments were conducted during the 2003–2013 period at the selected sites. Projected climate data, from a multi model ensemble of regional climate models (spatial resolution 25 km) as well as an additional projection with a higher spatial resolution of 1.3 km, were used for investigating the potential WLR infection periods for two future time spans. Results showed that the infections of WLR were satisfactorily simulated during the development of wheat at both sites for the 2003–2013 period. The probabilities of WLR detection were close to 1 and the critical success index ranged from 0.80 to 0.94 (perfect score = 1 for both). Moreover, the highest proportions of favourable days of WLR infection were simulated during spring and summer at both sites. Regional climate projections showed an increase in temperatures by 1.6 K for 2041–2050 and by 3.7 K for 2091–2100 compared to the reference period1991–2000. Positivetrends infavourableWLR infection conditions occur at both sites more conducive than in the reference period due to projected climatic conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Regular Insulin or Insulin Lispro on Glucose Metabolism after an Oral Glucose Load in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Paquot, Nicolas ULiege; Roulin, D.; Schneiter, P. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (1998), 24(6), 523-8

Seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients were studied for two 4-h periods after ingestion of a glucose load to determine the effects of preprandial subcutaneous injection of Insulin Lispro (5 min before the ... [more ▼]

Seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients were studied for two 4-h periods after ingestion of a glucose load to determine the effects of preprandial subcutaneous injection of Insulin Lispro (5 min before the meal) or regular insulin (20 min before the meal) on glucose metabolism. Glucose production and utilisation were measured using a dual isotope method. After Lispro, the mean postprandial increase in plasma glucose was 29% lower and the increase in insulin concentration 25% higher than after regular insulin (p < 0.05). Suppression of endogenous glucose production was similar with both types of insulin. Thus, preprandial injection of Lispro reduced postprandial glucose increments in Type 2 diabetic patients as compared to regular insulin. This effect is best explained by the increased postprandial bioavailability of Lispro. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of regular or lispro insulin on glucose metabolism after an oral glucose load in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
PAQUOT, Nicolas ULiege; Schneiter, Ph; Ruiz, J. et al

in Diabetes (1998), 47(suppl 1), 3

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See detailEffects of repeated use of progestagen-PMSG treatment for estrus control in dairy goats out of breeding season
Baril, Gérard; Remy, Benoît ULiege; Vallet, J. C. et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (1992), 27(3), 161-168

Contents: In order to analyze the effects of repeated use of progestagen-PMSG treatment, estrus and pregnancy results have been analyzed for 1989 in a Saânen dairy goat herd in which breeding takes place ... [more ▼]

Contents: In order to analyze the effects of repeated use of progestagen-PMSG treatment, estrus and pregnancy results have been analyzed for 1989 in a Saânen dairy goat herd in which breeding takes place each year out of season after FGA/PMSG treatment. After the first 1989 treatment (169 goats), percentage of goats showing estrus and kidding have been lower for 59 multiparous than for 46 primiparous and 64 nulliparous females. Moreover, when 38 goats are treated for a second time in 1989, 44.7% exhibited estrus vs 71.0% after the first treatment (P < 0.05). The PMSG binding level before the 1st 1989 treatment is higher for multiparous (17.5 ± 23.1%) than nulli and primiparous (-0.06 ± 0.7 and 1.2 ± 1.9%) and is increased for all parities after treatment (23.2 ± 26.4 after vs 5.7 ± 15.0% before, P < 0.01). For nulliparous and primiparous females; PMSG binding levels are not different for pregnant or not pregnant nulliparous and primiparous goats. On the opposite, PMSG binding rates are higher in non pregnant (25.7 ± 23.3) than in pregnant multiparous goats (6.5 ± 15.9) (P < 0.01). However, when the binding rate is ≤ 5.12% (computerized distributions) multiparous goats exhibit estrus and pregnancy at levels not different from nulliparous or primiparous females (% estrus 95.8 vs 100 or 97.8%, % pregnancy 66.7 vs 70.3 and 63.0% respectively). Repeated use of PMSG during the female life or during one given year leads to active immunization against PMSG (as measured by percentage of binding of PMSG in plasma) decreasing the efficiency of ovarian stimulation out of breeding season. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of reperfusion on left ventricular hemodynamics and ventriculo-arterial coupling in acutely ischemic pigs
Lanoye, Lieve; KOLH, Philippe ULiege; Rolin, Stéphanie et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2005), 8(suppl. 1), 169-170

Rapid restoration of coronary blood flow following a period of myocardial ischemia (due to coronary occlusion) is mandatory to preserve the cardiac muscle. Reperfusion, however, not necessarily restores ... [more ▼]

Rapid restoration of coronary blood flow following a period of myocardial ischemia (due to coronary occlusion) is mandatory to preserve the cardiac muscle. Reperfusion, however, not necessarily restores cardiac function, and cellular damage of the cardiac muscle cells following reperfusion (reperfusion injury) is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reperfusion on left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and on left ventriculo-arterial (VA) coupling in acutely ischemic pigs. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Repetitive Administration of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone on Growth Hormone Secretion, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, and Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women
Franchimont, P.; Urbain-Choffray, D.; Lambelin, P. et al

in Acta Endocrinologica (1989), 120(1), 121-8

This study sought to determine whether GH response to synthetic GHRH was impaired in 13 postmenopausal (55-71 years) as compared with that in 8 eugonadal women and whether IGF-I and bone metabolism were ... [more ▼]

This study sought to determine whether GH response to synthetic GHRH was impaired in 13 postmenopausal (55-71 years) as compared with that in 8 eugonadal women and whether IGF-I and bone metabolism were consequently depressed. Thereafter, the effects of daily iv injections of 80-micrograms GHRH-44 for 8 days were studied in the same postmenopausal group. In addition to significantly higher basal IGF-I and osteocalcin levels (P less than 0.005) in eugonadal as compared with the postmenopausal women, the administration of one GHRH-44 injection resulted in significantly higher 120-min postinjection GH maximum peak and cumulative responses in the former group as well (P less than 0.005). Highly significant correlations were observed between 17 beta-estradiol plasma levels and either GH maximum peak or cumulative responses to GHRH-44 when both groups were pooled together, but not when considered independently. In postmenopausal women, a correlation was found between both age and duration of menopause and GH responses. Repeated GHRH-44 injections in postmenopausal women induced a significant increase in GH response (P less than 0.001) as well as in IGF-I levels from day 4 to 8. No phospho-calcium parameters were modified except for a significant rise in osteocalcin from day 2 to 8. These data indicate an age-related loss of sensitivity of somatotrope cells to GHRH-44 in postmenopausal women, partly corrected by repeated daily GHRH-44 injections. As a consequence of the GHRH-induced increase in GH secretion, IGF-I was also enhanced and may be responsible for a stimulatory effect on bone formation, as shown by the osteocalcin increase, uncoupled from bone resorption. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on somatosensory evoked potentials and high frequency oscillations in migraine.
Coppola, Gianluca; De Pasqua, Victor; Pierelli, Francesco et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2012), 32(9), 700-9

Background: In previous studies we found that high-frequency somatosensory oscillations (HFOs) reflecting thalamo-cortical activation were decreased in migraineurs between attacks and that high-frequency ... [more ▼]

Background: In previous studies we found that high-frequency somatosensory oscillations (HFOs) reflecting thalamo-cortical activation were decreased in migraineurs between attacks and that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was able to normalize the habituation deficit of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Here we study the effects of activating (10 Hz) or inhibiting (1 Hz) rTMS on conventional low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs). Subjects and methods: rTMS was applied on the motor cortex of 13 healthy volunteers (HVs) and 13 migraine without aura (MO) patients. We measured N20-P25 LF-SSEP amplitude and habituation, and maximal peak-to-peak amplitude of early and late HFOs before and after rTMS. Results: In HVs, 1 Hz rTMS significantly reduced the amplitude of the first LF-SSEP block and its habituation. In MO patients, 10 Hz rTMS increased the amplitude of the first block and induced habituation. Ten Hz rTMS produced an increase of late HFO in both groups, but more interestingly, in MO patients also significantly increased the early HFOs, which are reduced at baseline compared to those of HVs. Conclusions: These data confirm for SSEP that excitatory rTMS can normalize habituation in migraine patients and show that this is accompanied by early an HFO increase, which is thought to reflect thalamo-cortical activity. Taken together with similar effects we observed for VEPs, this finding supports the hypothesis that dysfunctioning thalamo-cortical loops may be responsible for the interictal habituation deficit in migraine. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual evoked potentials in migraine.
Bohotin, V.; Fumal, Arnaud ULiege; Vandenheede, M. et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2002), 125(Pt 4), 912-22

Between attacks, migraine patients are characterized by potentiation instead of habituation of stimulation-evoked cortical responses. It is debated whether this is due to increased or decreased cortical ... [more ▼]

Between attacks, migraine patients are characterized by potentiation instead of habituation of stimulation-evoked cortical responses. It is debated whether this is due to increased or decreased cortical excitability. We have studied the changes in visual cortex excitability by recording pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEP) after low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), known respectively for their inhibitory and excitatory effect on the cortex. In 30 patients (20 migraine without, 10 with aura) and 24 healthy volunteers, rTMS of the occipital cortex was performed with a focal figure-of-eight magnetic coil (Magstim). Nine hundred pulses were delivered randomly at 1 or 10 Hz in two separate sessions. Stimulus intensity was set to the phosphene threshold or to 110% of the motor threshold if no phosphenes were elicited. Before and after rTMS, PR-VEP were averaged sequentially in six blocks of 100zztieresponses during uninterrupted 3.1 Hz stimulation. In healthy volunteers, PR-VEP amplitude was significantly decreased in the first block after 1 Hz rTMS and the habituation normally found in successive blocks after sustained stimulation was significantly attenuated. In migraine patients, 10 Hz rTMS was followed by a significant increase of first block PR-VEP amplitude and by a reversal to normal habituation of the potentiation (or dishabituation) characteristic of the disorder. This effect was similar in both forms of migraine and lasted for at least 9 min. There were no significant changes of PR-VEP amplitudes after 1 Hz rTMS in migraineurs and after 10 Hz rTMS in healthy volunteers, nor after sham stimulation. The recovery of a normal PR-VEP habituation pattern after high-frequency rTMS is probably due to activation of the visual cortex and the dishabituation in healthy volunteers to cortical inhibition. We conclude, therefore, that the deficient interictal PR-VEP habituation in migraine is due to a reduced, and not to an increased, pre-activation excitability level of the visual cortex. [less ▲]

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