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See detailEpidemiological profiles of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections in Malian women: risk factors and relevance of disparities
Bouare, N; GOTHOT, André ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg et al

in World journal of hepatology (2013), 27(5), 196-205

AIM: To document the epidemiologic patterns and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Mali in order to develop prevention means for both diseases ... [more ▼]

AIM: To document the epidemiologic patterns and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Mali in order to develop prevention means for both diseases. METHODS: Two prospective studies were conducted in Bamako in 2009 among 1000 pregnant women (i.e. , young women) who consulted six reference health centers, and in 2010, among 231 older women who attended general practice in two hospitals. Antibody tests and molecular analysis (performed only for HCV) were used to quantify the frequencies of both infections. The data were collected from patients recruited through a questionnaire. Transmission risk factors of both diseases were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 0.2% for young and 6.5% for older women. HIV prevalence was similar in both populations (4.1% vs 6.1%). In older women, the analysis of risk factors highlighted an association between HCV infection and episodes of hospitalization (P < 0.01). The study did not show an association between HIV infection and the variables such as hospitalization, transfusion, tattoo, dental care, and endoscopy. A significant decrease of HIV seroprevalence was detected in young women who used condoms for contraception more than for other purposes (P < 0.01). By contrast, HIV seroprevalence was significantly increased in young women using condoms mainly to prevent sexual infections rather than for contraception (P < 0.01). No HCV/HIV coinfection was detected in our study. CONCLUSION: Risk factors and epidemiologic data of HIV and HCV as well as the absence of co-infection strongly suggest epidemiological disparities between these diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Julia, Marc; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Sports (2015), 3(1), 21-29

Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This ... [more ▼]

Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Study of Canine Leishmaniasis in Algeria and its Impact on the Human Visceral Leishmaniasis
Adel, Amal ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. In absence of treatment the ... [more ▼]

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. In absence of treatment the outcome is death. The disease is characterised by irregular fever bouts, loss of weight, hepatosplenomegaly and anaemia. It is endemic in the Indian sub-continent and in East Africa. In the Mediterranean region, it is present in rural areas, in villages, in mountain areas, but also in certain peri-urban zones, where the parasites survive in dogs and other mammals. In fact, domestic dogs are the principal reservoir of human VL and they also can develop a more generalised and fatal form of the disease, although more than half of the dogs remain asymptomatic, the individual outcome depending on both cellular and humoral immune responses. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs can infect the phlebotomine vectors, thereby enabling the transmission to other dogs or to people. This is the main reason why early detection and treatment of infected animals is the best way to reduce the risk of infection and, as such, forms an essential component in the prevention and control of the human disease. Ideally, a so-called “gold standard” test is required to reliably and correctly determine the infectious status of an individual and/or the infection prevalence in a population in a certain region at a certain point in time. A gold-standard test provides an error-free classification of individuals as infected or infection-free. The discriminative power of a real-life test is quantified by measures of precision, more specifically the sensitivity and the specificity of the test. They vary in function of characteristics of the population studied. In the majority of cases, a gold standard test does not exist. In order to overcome this lack, use is made of reference tests. The latter are often imperfect (sensitivity and specificity below one) and they allow estimation of a so-called apparent prevalence rather than the actual true prevalence. A statistical solution to the problem of lack of gold standard test consists of a Bayesian approach, which allows us to combine data of a study with external (prior, independent) information, such as results from previous studies or expert opinion. This approach yields an estimate of the true prevalence, as well as estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of the tests used. This thesis attempts to contribute towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria. More specifically, our general objective (Chapter 3) was to estimate the true prevalence of canine leishmaniasis, in a situation where a diagnostic gold standard test was unavailable, and to describe the epidemiological curve and profile of visceral leishmaniasis in the country. With this in mind, the work is organised in nine chapters. The first chapter outlines the importance of leishmaniasis (respectively visceral and canine) in terms of public health and veterinary public health and provides an overview of the current knowledge base on canine leishmaniasis. The second chapter is devoted to a description of the epidemiological methodology available for the estimation of the true prevalence and the test characteristics in the absence of gold standard test. Chapter 4 describes an epidemiological study conducted in the capital city Algiers, comprising 462 dogs subdivided in four groups according to their function (stray dogs, guard dogs, farm dogs and pet dogs). A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the four groups and to evaluate three serological tests: an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT), a direct agglutination test (DAT) and a commercial rapid test on gel, based on the protein rK39 (PaGIA). We were able to demonstrate variability in the test performance characteristics in the different groups, and this in terms of sensitivity and specificity. IFAT, although it is an imperfect test, is nevertheless the test of choice when the dog population targeted consists of stray dogs, but its specificity drops to a unsatisfactory 65.2% (IC: 60.2-73.5%) when applied to farm dogs: the fact of living together with other animals may induce cross-reactions. Stray dogs also yielded the highest estimate for the true prevalence (11.7%), probably a consequence of their constant living outside, which increases the risk of exposure to infected phlebotomine vectors. Using the above results, a large-scale transversal survey was mounted in six towns of the littoral zone of Algeria (Chapter 5). Thus, a total of 2,184 farm dogs and guard dogs were sampled in two distinct periods using two serological tests: before and after the main vector season, using IFAT and DAT. Serial and parallel interpretation of the combined tests were compared to various other statistical methods in order to estimate the true prevalence and the sensitivity and specificity of the two tests. The latent class model of Hui and Walter based on conditional independence between the diagnostic tests was compared to a Bayesian model, which made it possible to include conditional dependency between tests, if required. The best-adjusted model estimated canine leishmaniasis prevalence between 11% and 38% with an increasing trend from west to east. IFAT sensitivity varied between 86% and 88% in the different localities, whereas specificity ranged between 65% and 87%. DAT was invariably less sensitive than IFAT, but had a better specificity: between 80% and 95% in function of locality and season. The results highlighted once more the danger of considering IFAT to be a gold standard test for canine leishmaniasis. Chapter 6 draws up an epidemiological profile of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria, based on cases notified to the National Public Health Institute between 1998 and 2008. A total of 1,562 were found for this period. This translates into an incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.4% were children between zero and four years of age. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the principal clinical and biochemical signs. Antimonies are the first-line treatment drugs in paediatric wards and amphotericin B injections are the treatment of choice in adults. Severe under-declaration (less than one case in ten notified) was demonstrated thanks to a survey carried out in the paediatric, internal medicine and infectious diseases departments of the five university hospital centres in Algiers, which had an influx of patients from all four corners of the country. Results of both Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 revealed a concordance between human visceral leishmaniasis incidence rates and true prevalence of canine leishmaniasis, providing extra support for the hypothesis that dogs are the main reservoir of the disease. Motivated by the results of the two surveys (Chapters 4 and 5), Chapter 7 describes a literature review of the performance of IFAT when used to estimate the canine leishmaniasis prevalence in the Mediterranean basin. Chapters 8 and 9 present the general discussion and conclusions and recommendations of the overall contribution of this research effort. Even though this work only represent a small addition to knowledge body on visceral leishmaniasis, it allowed us to better describe and understand the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria and to obtain true prevalence estimates of canine leishmaniasis in various towns in the littoral zone of the country. It showed us the importance of correctly identifying and defining the target population of surveys to obtain the best possible posterior estimates and to optimise control measures. This work also showed the efficacy of the application of appropriate statistical models in a Bayesian framework when confronted with the absence of a gold standard test. Chapter 10 summarizes all references cited in the thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailAn epidemiological study of canine obesity
Lhoest, E.; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

Conference (2005)

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See detailEpidemiological study on European cases of atypical myopathy
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Votion, Dominique ULg; Atypical Myopathy Alert Group

Poster (2009, January 28)

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See detailAn epidemiological survey of 783 patients who underwent pituitary surgery in a single Centre over a 25-year periods
Beckers, Albert ULg; Petrossians, Patrick ULg; Stevenaert, Achille ULg

in 24th International Symposium on GH and growth factors in Endocrinology and Metabolism - Abstract book (1997)

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See detailEpidemiological tools for effective surveillance of porcine cysticercosis in Africa
Goussanou, J.S.E; Kpodekon, M.T.; Youssao, A.K.I. et al

in Veterinary World (2014), 7(3), 125-134

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See detailEpidemiological Typing of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns
Chetoui, H.; Delhalle, E.; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Research in Microbiology (1999), 150(4), 265-72

Over a 16-month period, Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 102 patients admitted to a university hospital in Liege (Belgium) produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ... [more ▼]

Over a 16-month period, Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 102 patients admitted to a university hospital in Liege (Belgium) produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genome macrorestriction patterns with XbaI and antibiotic susceptibility patterns subdivided 39 isolates into eight clonally related groups. Two of them were implicated in the course of this outbreak. They were responsible for successive waves of infection or colonization in different wards of the hospital while the others were encountered sporadically. A beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 7.6 and consistent with type SHV-2 characterized all nine isolates chosen among both major groups. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiologie de l'échinococcose alvéolaire en Région wallonne
Hanosset, R.; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2003)

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See detailEpidémiologie de l'environnement
Bruyère, Olivier ULg

Learning material (2007)

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See detailEpidémiologie de l'hypertension artérielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 142-147

The prevalence of high blood pressure increases in our industrialized society. The main risk factors are hypertensive heredity, small birth weight for the gestational age, large increase of weight in ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of high blood pressure increases in our industrialized society. The main risk factors are hypertensive heredity, small birth weight for the gestational age, large increase of weight in teenagers, low physical activity, excess in salt and/or alcohol consumption. The normotensive people with high normal blood pressure are the future hypertensive population. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiologie de l'infection par Trypanosoma evansi
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(3), 191-201

Trypanosoma evansi is an extracellular parasite, found in blood and tissues, mainly causing anaemia, immune depression and central nervous system disorders. Contrary to other African trypanosomes, T ... [more ▼]

Trypanosoma evansi is an extracellular parasite, found in blood and tissues, mainly causing anaemia, immune depression and central nervous system disorders. Contrary to other African trypanosomes, T. evansi is adapted to mechanical transmission and thus, presents a worldwide distribution. This review summarizes the epidemiological data about T. evansi from its origins to the latest developments, as its addition in 2008 to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) listed diseases and other diseases of importance to International Trade. This article puts emphasis on the need for a coordinated epidemiological control strategy and research for improving diagnostic and control tools. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiologie de l’obésité canine en Belgique et en France
Lhoest, Estelle; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Le Nouveau praticien vétérinaire (2005)

Etude épidémiologique de l'obésité canine auprès de 517 propriétaires de chiens de race prédisposée à l'obésité. Les facteurs favorisant l'obésité sont répertoriés et quantifiés

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See detailEpidémiologie de l'obésité et des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire chez les enfants.
Guillaume, Michèle ULg

in Actes 1st ECOG workshop (1992, September)

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See detailEpidémiologie de la brucellose et de la tuberculose animales dans les milieux urbain, périurbain et rural au Niger
Boukary, Abdou Razac ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Contexte : La brucellose et la tuberculose bovine sont considérées par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) comme des maladies zoonotiques majeures mais négligées et cosmopolites. En Afrique ... [more ▼]

Contexte : La brucellose et la tuberculose bovine sont considérées par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) comme des maladies zoonotiques majeures mais négligées et cosmopolites. En Afrique subsaharienne (ASS), l’impact de ces maladies sur la santé humaine et animale ainsi que sur le plan socioéconomique est considérable. Cependant, les aspects épidémiologiques de ces maladies sont assez peu connus et peu maîtrisés en ASS. De même, les pertes économiques liées au coût de la santé et à l’incapacité au travail ont été jusque là peu ou pas évaluées au niveau des différents pays. Au Niger, pays d’élevage par excellence, les données sur ces deux maladies sont très rares. La présente étude avait pour objectif principal d’apporter une contribution originale à la connaissance des souches de Mycobacterium bovis et de Brucella circulantes au Niger, des mécanismes et facteurs de risque de transmission de ces deux zoonoses majeures dans un contexte d’élevage urbain, périurbain et rural. Matériel et méthodes : Pour caractériser les systèmes de production, une enquête préliminaire a d’abord été effectuée au niveau de 35 sites laitiers dans les strates urbaines et périurbaines de Niamey et au niveau de 5 villages de la commune rurale de Filingué. Ensuite, pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de transmission de la brucellose dans les strates urbaine, périurbaine et rurale, une enquête a été réalisée au niveau de 45 sites. Un total de 681 ménages d’éleveurs ont été interviewés. Pour évaluer les facteurs de risque de la transmission de la tuberculose bovine, ce sont 51 ménages à risque issus de 10 sites de production animale dans la commune rurale de Torodi qui ont été investigués dans l’étude. Pour évaluer la prévalence réelle de la brucellose animale et caractériser les souches de Brucella circulantes au Niger, 5 192 sérums d’animaux et 16 échantillons de liquide d’hygroma ont été analysés. Le test sérologique a été effectué au moyen d’un test ELISA indirect et les échantillons d’hygroma ont été mis en culture au laboratoire du CERVA. En ce qui concerne la détermination de la prévalence réelle de la tuberculose bovine, le test d’intradermo-tuberculination comparative a été effectué sur un échantillon de 393 bovins. De même une enquête rétrospective a été réalisée au niveau de l’abattoir de Niamey et 62 échantillons d’organes portant des lésions suspectes de tuberculose bovine ont été échantillonnés à l’abattoir puis analysés pour le typage moléculaire des souches de Mycobacterium bovis. Principaux résultats : L’analyse des systèmes d’élevage a permis de mettre en évidence 3 types de systèmes de production. Il s’agit des systèmes de production urbain, périurbain et rural. Bien que distincts, ces systèmes entretiennent des liens et interactions très complexes. Les relations existantes entre les différents modes de production sont susceptibles de favoriser la transmission de la brucellose et de la tuberculose bovine. Concernant le typage et sous typages des souches, une souche de Brucella abortus biovar 3 a été identifiée et Mycobacterium bovis a été isolé au niveau de 18 animaux. Les souches de M. bovis identifiées au Niger montraient des spoligotypes conforment au type Af1 précédemment identifié en Afrique centrale et en Afrique de l’ouest. En plus, un profil de M. bovis non précédemment répertorié a été mis en évidence, ce profil se caractérisait par l’absence des “spacers” 3, 4, 9, 16, 22, 30 et 39–43. La prévalence réelle de la brucellose a variée entre 11,8 et 13,8% au niveau des troupeaux alors que la prévalence réelle individuelle était de 1,3% (IC 95% : 0.9 - 1.8%). La prévalence individuelle apparente de la tuberculose bovine a été de 3.6% (IC 95%, 1.9–5.9), alors que la prévalence individuelle réelle a été de 0.8% (IC 95%, 0.0–5.0). L’analyse des données issues de l’abattoir a montré que la proportion de carcasses portant des lésions attribuables à la tuberculose bovine était de 0,19% chez les bovins, 0,11% chez les camélins, 0,001% chez les ovins et de 0,0006% chez les caprins. Chez les bovins, les vaches sont beaucoup plus touchés que les autres catégories (P <0,001). La prévalence des lésions tuberculeuses chez les animaux est fortement influencée par la saison (P <0,0001). Elle est étroitement liée à l'origine des animaux (P <0,001) et a un impact négatif sur le poids des carcasses provenant des animaux atteints (P <0,0001). Concernant les facteurs de risque de transmission de la brucellose, il était apparu que, les animaux âgés de 1-4 ans sont plus susceptibles que les animaux âgés de moins d'un an (OR de 3,7 ; IC 95% :1,87 - 7,17). Pour les bovins, la prévalence de la brucellose est plus élevée en zones rurales (OR de 2,8 ; IC 95% : 1,37 - 5,60), alors que pour les petits ruminants le risque de transmission de la maladie est plus élevée dans les zones urbaines (OR de 5,4, IC 95% : 1,41 - 20,88). Cette différence entre le milieu rural et urbain s’explique d’une part par le mode de conduit des animaux et d’autre part par la composition des troupeaux. A l’échelle du troupeau, le risque de transmission de la brucellose étaient plus élevés pour ceux qui pratiquaient la transhumance (OR de 9,1 ; IC 95% : 5,06 - 16,30), ceux qui ont signalé l'apparition d'avortements (OR 4,5; IC à 95% : 2,23 à 8,95 ), et ceux qui ne pratiquaient pas la quarantaine (OR de 1,8 ; IC 95% : de 1,08 - 2,85). En ce qui concerne les habitudes alimentaires des ménages, la consommation de lait cru constitue un facteur de risque de transmission de la brucellose (OR de 22,0 ; IC 95% : 2,59 - 186,83). Concernant la tuberculose bovine, les principaux facteurs de risque identifiés sont la consommation de lait non pasteurisé (91%), le manque d'hygiène au sein des ménages (32-74%), la présence d'animaux souffrant de toux chronique (OR de 4,7 : IC 95% : 1,1 - 19,7) et le l'absence de la pratique de la quarantaine (OR de 4,2 ; IC 95% : 1,0 - 18,4). En conclusion, cette étude confirme l’existence de la brucellose et de tuberculose bovine dans tous les systèmes de production animale au Niger. Elle met aussi en exergue la présence de nombreux facteurs de risque de transmission de ces maladies aux animaux et l’homme. Pour un contrôle efficace de ces deux zoonoses majeures, une approche holistique prenant en compte les relations entre l’homme, l’animal et l’environnement est indispensable. L’implication de toutes les parties prenantes intervenant dans la santé humaine et animale est recommandée dans le cadre d’une approche « One Health ». [less ▲]

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