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See detailExtent of Applicability of Human Rights Standards to Proceedings before the International Criminal Court: On Possible Reductive Factors
Deprez, Christophe ULg

in International Criminal Law Review (2012), 12(4), 721-741

Today, it is not seriously challenged that human rights law applies to proceedings before the International Criminal Court. The exact boundaries of this statement, however, might be less clear. The ... [more ▼]

Today, it is not seriously challenged that human rights law applies to proceedings before the International Criminal Court. The exact boundaries of this statement, however, might be less clear. The present article argues that the extent of applicability of human rights law cannot be precisely described unless the specific nature of the Court and of international criminal justice in general is taken into consideration. More concretely, it will be demonstrated that the exact scope of applicability of human rights standards to the ICC setting can only be addressed by referring to inherent characteristics (both of the Court and of the international criminal system as a whole) that could possibly bear a reductive impact on that scope. It will be argued throughout the analysis that several of these specific features are indeed capable of reducing the level of protection, while on a closer look others do not display such influence. [less ▲]

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See detailExtent of intra-population functional variability along a local environmental gradient for four calcareous grasslands species
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Conference (2013, August 19)

In the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the role of functional traits as reliable predictors of species resistance to disturbance and response to environmental gradients ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the role of functional traits as reliable predictors of species resistance to disturbance and response to environmental gradients. However, most studies focused on functional comparisons at the interspecific level while intraspecific functional trait variation has received remarkably little attention. As intraspecific traits variability is a necessary condition for species to adapt to environmental changes, studying intraspecific functional traits variation along environmental gradients is a major issue in a context of global change. The aim of our study was to evaluate the extent of intraspecific functional variability of four species along an environmental gradient of water stress at a local scale and to compare species response to the gradient. Calcareous grasslands species are present along a xeric gradient from mesophilous to xerophilous grasslands. Changes of exposure, slope and soil depth lead to differences of water availability for plants along the gradient. We measured the maximum vegetative height (MVH), the specific leaf area (SLA, one side area of a fresh leaf divided by its oven-dry mass) and the leaf dry matter content (LDMC, leaf oven-dry mass divided by its water-saturated fresh mass) on randomly selected individuals along a gradient of xericity on three study sites located in south Belgium. Functional traits were measured on about 60 individuals per site and per species. The soil depth was measured around each individual. The exposure and the slope were measured in order to calculate a heat load index for each individual. The extent of local intraspecific functional variability of our data was compared to data covering the species European range. Results are species dependent but for some study species intraspecific functional variability at local scale is not negligible compared to European data. Species functional responses to the gradient (soil depth and heat load index) showed a decrease in SLA and MVH and an increase in LDMC with increasing xericity for all study species. Response extent was species dependent. Main implications for species resistance to disturbance and climate change adaptation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailExtent of Lyman-alpha complexes from HST observations of four pairs of quasars
Aracil, B.; Petitjean, P.; Smette, A. et al

in Ferlet, R.; Lemoine, M.; Desert, J. M. (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 17th IAP Colloquium 'Gaseous matter in galaxies and intergalactic space. Observational and theoretical results, with special emphasis on new data from FUSE, HST and VLT' (2001)

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See detailExtent of paleofires and past human settlements in the current rainforest patchwork of the Northern Republic of Congo
Gillet, Jean-François ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Poster (2012, January 04)

Objectives The origins of the patchwork of lowland semi-deciduous forests in the Northern Republic of Congo were apprehended. The aim of this study was to show that dense forests suffered fewer ... [more ▼]

Objectives The origins of the patchwork of lowland semi-deciduous forests in the Northern Republic of Congo were apprehended. The aim of this study was to show that dense forests suffered fewer disturbances than the open canopy forest types. Old disturbances associated with fires and human settlements seem to have had and still have today a substantial impact on the physiognomy and the composition of the forest types. Understanding past forest dynamics is a major component to predict the effects of both present climate change and human activities. Method Fifteen locations were studied along a 400-km-long SW-NE gradient in the NW of the Congo Basin through the ERA-net BiodivERsA CoForChange project. An anthraco-archaeological study was carried out in association with floristic inventories of three strata. Two main geology substrates were considered: the Mesozoic sandstones and Quaternary alluvial deposits. The abundance of charcoal fragments and human artifacts were evaluated by a network of 1-m-deep boring augers (n =208) and a 1.5-m-deep reference soil pit (n =15) in each site. A rating system was used to quantify the abundance of charcoal, charred Elaeis guineensis seeds and other artifacts (ceramic and metallurgic slag). Estimations were based on 20-cm-depth intervals (augers) or on pedological layers (pits). Twelve radiocarbon dating were performed in the major disturbed layers of each vegetation type studied. Results Two main groups of vegetation were highlighted according to the relative openness of the woody stand, the importance of the woody regeneration, and the development of the herbaceous cover. The two dense forests sampled were preferentially found in the northern part: the dense forest with Manilkara mabokeensis and Haumania dankelmaniana, and the Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest on dry land. Most parts of the understorey exhibited the woody regeneration. The southern part presented more openness including the largest areas of open canopy vegetation types. Three forest types were identified: the Macaranga barteri pioneer forest, the open canopy vegetation type with Aframomum and Marantaceae, and the sparse forest with Megaphrinium macrostchyum and/or Haumania liebrestisiana. The understorey was a dense thicket of giant herbs belonging to the families Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae, causing a very scarce woody regeneration. Regardless the auger depth, charcoals were more profuse in the soils of the southern open canopy vegetation types (2-Way ANOVA, F=5.46, p=0.02). As in pit layers, charred oil palm nuts were more plentiful in the soils of these vegetation types (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05). Of the five sites containing artifacts, only one recent potsherd dated 466-302 BP was located in dense forest but near a main river. The oldest signs of ceramic and metallurgical activities dated 2160-1407 BP were found in the current open canopy vegetation types. Within the latter, two expansion phases of the oil palm tree E. guineensis were observed: between 2146-1055 BP and 558-347 BP. Conversely, the oldest palaeofire was discovered in the M. mabokeensis dense forest and dated at 5467-5285 BP. Conclusions The dense forests contained less evidence of ancient fires and human settlements. They currently include evergreen and shade-tolerant tree species such as G. dewevrei and M. mabokeensis. The more sustained and repeated fires in the open canopy vegetation types were often associated with ancient human occupation. Today, the light-demanding giant herbaceous species such as Aframomum sp. and M. macrostchyum proliferate in the understorey below a simplified woody component of pioneer species such as M. barteri. The largest expansion phases of the oil palm tree E. guineensis in the southern part would be linked to ancient human occupation associated with larger canopy openings and fire events. The water availability, more evenly distributed near the heavily-irrigated Congo Basin, would also be a discriminating factor. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal constraints on optical control strategies in molecular orientation and photofragmentation: role of zero-area fields
Sugny, Dominique; Vranckx, Stéphane; Ndong, Mamadou et al

in Journal of Modern Optics (2014), 61

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See detailExternal constraints on optical control strategies in molecular orientation and photofragmentation: role of zero-area fields
Sugny, Dominique; Vranckx, Stéphane; Ndong, Mamadou et al

in Journal of Modern Optics (2014), 61

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See detailExternal Evaluation Report Über Die Common Security and Defence Policy Modules
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Federal Republic of Austria (2011)

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See detailExternal nasal valve collapse: validation of novel outcome measurement tool.
POIRRIER, Anne-Lise ULg; Ahluwalia, S.; Kwame, I. et al

in Rhinology (2014), 52(2), 127-32

BACKGROUND: We aim to validate a clinical scoring system of external nasal valve collapse. External nasal valve collapse is a rare and challenging condition. We attempted to simplify the examination of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: We aim to validate a clinical scoring system of external nasal valve collapse. External nasal valve collapse is a rare and challenging condition. We attempted to simplify the examination of the external valve, the surgical planning and the outcome measure. To validate our external valve score, we first assessed its reliability (inter-rater agreement and test-retest repeatability). We secondly considered the clinical relevance by using our scoring system in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty for external valve collapse. METHODOLOGY: For validation, 16 Rhinologists scored patients separately on two occasions. For the clinical relevance, 26 patients with external valve collapse were scored pre- and post-operatively (responsiveness). The external valve score was correlated to peak nasal inspiratory flow. RESULTS: The devised scoring system was reliable (substantial agreement between 16 surgeons with reproducibility over time). All patients in our prospective series showed significant improvement in their external valve score. The quality of life measured by the SNOT-22 tool showed significant improvement after surgery. CONCLUSION: External nasal valve collapse can be diagnosed and graded using this simple scoring system in the outpatient clinic. This paper reinforces the pivotal role of septorhinoplasty surgery in nasal airway reconstruction and the ongoing need to quantify success. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Quality Assessment (Eqa) of Belgian Clinical Laboratories. The Telematics Paradigm
Albert, Adelin ULg; De Moor, G.; Libeer, J. C.

in Clinica Chimica Acta (1998), 270(1), 43-54

Technology that enables communication between information systems has recently become cheaper and more powerful. It is therefore timely to consider the effects of the introduction of such techniques in ... [more ▼]

Technology that enables communication between information systems has recently become cheaper and more powerful. It is therefore timely to consider the effects of the introduction of such techniques in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes on both users and organizers. Traditionally, results are returned to EQA organizers as hand-written numbers on structured forms. These data are then manually entered into a computer. The process is time-consuming, slow (as it depends on the postal service), prone to error at every transcription stage, and expensive, as clerical staff must be employed to input the data. Computer-to-computer communication allows this process to be improved. A telematics system for electronic data interchange has been developed for the Belgian EQA programme and it offers several advantages, such as the use of standardized semantics, expression of results in laboratory familiar units, possible interface with the Laboratory Information System, faster data analysis, shorter report time and long-term performance evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal quality grading of Jonagold apples using a multi-spectral vision system
Kleynen, Olivier; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Balsa-Canto E., Mora J.; Onate E. (Eds.) II International Workshop - Information Technologies and Computing Techniques for the Agro-Food Sector (2003)

This paper presents a method to sort Jonagold apples using a four bands multi-spectral image acquisition device. Multi-spectral images of sound tissue and various defects were acquired. Defects could be ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a method to sort Jonagold apples using a four bands multi-spectral image acquisition device. Multi-spectral images of sound tissue and various defects were acquired. Defects could be divided into four classes: slight defects (e.g. small russet), more serious defects (scar tissue), defects leading to the rejection of the fruit (e.g. rot) and recent bruises (between one hour and two hours old). Image segmentation was based on the Bayes' theorem. Each pixel of the fruit was classified into 'healthy' or 'defect' classes according to the probability distribution of the spectral components of each class. Once segmented, the fruit was graded by linear discriminant analysis on the basis of the relative area of the defect and statistical parameters computed on the spectral components of the two tissues classes. Results (cross validation) showed 94% and 84% if the sound and defective fruits respectively well classified. Most of the misclassified defective fruits (89%) belonged to the slight defect category. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Voting and migrants’ political influence in the home country
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2010, October 06)

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See detailExternal Voting and Voter Turnout: A Discussion on Migrants Decisions to Register and Vote in Home Country Elections
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in CEDEM Working Paper Series (2010)

What factors influence migrants’ decision to participate in home country elections? While existing literature on general voter turnout and turnout of minority and migrant voters has long attempted to ... [more ▼]

What factors influence migrants’ decision to participate in home country elections? While existing literature on general voter turnout and turnout of minority and migrant voters has long attempted to explain why migrants become involved in the politics in their place of residence, little is known about what drives emigrants to vote in their home country elections from abroad. This paper builds up on this literature to determine what variables should be analyzed to understand the behavior of external voters, and also points out possible alternative variables. To support this discussion, the paper relies on analyses of four countries - Italy, Belgium, Mexico and Bolivia - that have implemented external voting mechanisms in recent years. [less ▲]

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See detailExternalités et dépenses des villes centrales
Jurion, Bernard ULg

in Burgat, P.; Jeanrenaud, C. (Eds.) Services publics locaux (1987)

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See detailExteroceptive Silent Period of Temporalis Muscle in Menstrual Headaches
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bottin, D.; Sulon, J. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1991), 11(2), 87-91

The second exteroceptive silent period (ES2) of temporalis muscle was recorded on days 1 and 15 of the menstrual cycle in 17 women, 9 of whom suffered regularly from tension-type headaches during ... [more ▼]

The second exteroceptive silent period (ES2) of temporalis muscle was recorded on days 1 and 15 of the menstrual cycle in 17 women, 9 of whom suffered regularly from tension-type headaches during menstruation. Mean duration of temporalis ES2 was significantly shorter on day 1 of the cycle than on day 15. This difference was due to a marked menstrual reduction of ES2 in the headache subgroup. A positive correlation was found between ES2 durations and oestradiol/progesterone ratios. We hypothesize that the variations of ES2 during the ovarian cycle result from the modulatory effects of oestrogens on descending aminergic pathways that control excitability of inhibitory brainstem interneurons mediating exteroceptive suppression of jaw-closing motoneurons. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive silent periods of temporalis muscle in headache
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Van Steenberghe, D.; De Laat, A. (Eds.) EMG of jaw reflexes in man (1989)

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in chronic headache.
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Jamart, B.; Gerard, P. et al

in Neurology (1987), 37(12), 1834-6

Early (ES1) and late (ES2) exteroceptive suppression periods elicited by electrical stimulation of the labial commissure during teeth-clenching were recorded over the temporalis muscle in 45 headache ... [more ▼]

Early (ES1) and late (ES2) exteroceptive suppression periods elicited by electrical stimulation of the labial commissure during teeth-clenching were recorded over the temporalis muscle in 45 headache patients (25 tension headaches and 20 migraines) and 22 controls. Mean duration of ES2 for single shocks was significantly reduced in tension headache when compared with migraine or controls. At a stimulation rate of 2 Hz, ES2 was abolished in 40% of tension headache sufferers, but in none of the migraineurs. EMG analysis of temporalis late exteroceptive suppression might be a helpful diagnostic tool in functional headaches. Reduction of ES2 suggests that there is deficient activation or excessive inhibition of pontobulbar inhibitory interneurons which receive a strong input from limbic structures. ES2 might thus represent an interface between psychogenic and myogenic factors putatively involved in the pathogenesis of tension headache. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in patients with chronic headache and in normal volunteers: methodology, clinical and pathophysiological relevance.
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Headache (1993), 33(1), 3-17

Exteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity was studied in patients with chronic headache and in healthy controls. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG ... [more ▼]

Exteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity was studied in patients with chronic headache and in healthy controls. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG responses produces results with acceptable variability and discomfort. The late temporalis exteroceptive suppression period (ES2) is reduced on average in patients with chronic tension-type headache; this finding has been reproduced by several independent laboratories. Mean duration of temporalis ES2 is also diminished, but to a lesser degree, in daily drug abuse headache and, as shown by others, in episodic tension-type headache. It is normal in migraine between attacks, cluster headache and various types of symptomatic headaches. Temporalis ES2 may be decreased in untreated patients with major depression. In healthy volunteers, temporalis ES2 duration is reduced by a short-lasting painful stimulus to peripheral limbs after a delay of 50 to 60 ms, and by a sub-motor threshold electromagnetic stimulation to the contralateral cerebral cortex after a delay of 20 to 30 ms. In contrast, long-lasting trains of peripheral painful stimuli have no effect. Various pharmacological agents are able to modify temporalis ES2. Its duration is increased by 5-HT antagonists, but decreased by 5-HT uptake blockers. Pharmacological effects may differ between controls and patients. Considering these results and available data on the anatomo-functional organization of masticatory reflexes, we postulate that temporalis ES2 is a marker of the excitability of interneuronal nets in the ponto-medullary reticular formation. In chronic tension-type headache, excitability of these interneurons is decreased because of inadequate control by the serotonergic raphe magnus nucleus and the periaqueductal gray matter. Dysfunctioning of the latter structures might be caused by abnormal limbic inputs to the brain stem. Some steps of this pathophysiological hypothesis can be verified by modern neurophysiological techniques. [less ▲]

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