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See detailFlaminia Bardati, 'Il bel palatio in forma di castello' : Gaillon tra 'Flamboyant' e Rinascimento, Rome, 2009
Fagnart, Laure ULg

in European Architectural History Network Newsletter (2011), n°2/11

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See detailFlanders Ahead... Wallonia Behind (But Catching Up). The Identity Politics of Science, Technology, and Innovation in Belgium
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg; Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 18)

Drawing on a documentary analysis of two socio-economic policy programs, one Flemish (“Vlaanderen In Actie”), the other Walloon (“Marshall Plans”), and a discourse analysis of how these programs are ... [more ▼]

Drawing on a documentary analysis of two socio-economic policy programs, one Flemish (“Vlaanderen In Actie”), the other Walloon (“Marshall Plans”), and a discourse analysis of how these programs are received in one Flemish and one Francophone quality newspaper, this paper illustrates how Flanders and Wallonia both seek to become top-performing knowledge-based economies (KBEs). The paper discerns a number of discursive repertoires, such as “Catching up,” which policy actors draw on to legitimize or question the transformation of Flanders and Wallonia into KBEs. The “Catching up” repertoire places Flanders resolutely ahead of Wallonia in the global race towards knowledge, excellence, and growth, but suggests that Wallonia may, in due course, overtake Flanders as a top competitive region. Given the expectations and/or fears that “Catching up” evokes among Flemish and Walloon policy actors, the repertoire serves these actors as a flexible discursive resource to make sense of, and shape, their collective futures, and thus their identities. The primary aim of the paper is to underline the simultaneity of, and the interplay between, globalizing forces and particularizing tendencies, as Flanders and Wallonia develop with a global KBE in nation- or region-specific ways. [less ▲]

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See detailFlanders Ahead… Wallonia Behind (But Catching Up). Reconstructing Communities through Science, Technology, and Innovation Policymaking
Charlier, Nathan ULg; Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

Conference (2014, June)

Abstract Drawing on a documentary analysis of two socio-economic policy programs, one Flemish (“Vlaanderen In Actie”; VIA), the other Walloon (“Marshall Plans”; MPs), and a discourse analysis of how these ... [more ▼]

Abstract Drawing on a documentary analysis of two socio-economic policy programs, one Flemish (“Vlaanderen In Actie”; VIA), the other Walloon (“Marshall Plans”; MPs), and a discourse analysis of how these programs are received in one Flemish and one Francophone quality newspaper, this paper illustrates how Flanders and Wallonia both seek to become top-performing knowledge-based economies (KBEs). The paper discerns a number of discursive repertoires, such as “Catching up,” which Flemish and Walloon policy actors draw on to legitimize or question the transformation of Flanders and Wallonia into KBEs. The “Catching up” repertoire places Flanders resolutely ahead of Wallonia in the global race towards knowledge, excellence, and science-driven innovation, but suggests that Wallonia may, in due course overtake Flanders as a top-competitive region. Given the expectations and/or fears that “Catching up” evokes among Flemish and Walloon policy actors, the repertoire serves these actors as a flexible discursive resource to make sense of, and shape, their collective futures, and thus their identities. By rendering explicit how Flanders and Wallonia each acquire a distinct identity through the global KBE, the paper underlines the simultaneity of, and the interplay between, globalizing forces and particularizing tendencies and illuminates the political, nation-building and identity-building functions of science, technology, and innovation. The paper starts from the following preliminary observations. While both the VIA plan and the MPs emphasize the need of transforming Flanders and Wallonia into KBEs in order meet the demands of globalization (OECD 1996), the plans adopt a different tone and stance. The Flemish plan repeatedly states the need of transforming Flanders into “a top region, not only in Europe, but in the world, particularly in the social and economic field” (VIA, 2006: 4). It also states that Flanders is already prosperous and already has many strengths, but that the welfare and prosperity of Flanders are “under threat” in a “challenging global economic environment” (2). The message is thus that Flanders is doing relatively well in the global economy, but that it must do even better if it is to maintain its competitive edge and its welfare. By contrast, the MP is framed from the perspective of Walloon recovery and “redressement.” Although the term “Marshall Plan” evidently brings to mind the European Recovery Program for rebuilding Western Europe after World War II, recovery also refers to the period of prosperity before the World Wars, when Wallonia was one of the most economically advanced industrial regions in Europe. The MP suggests that Wallonia’s glorious past (“le passé glorieux”) can be rewon, if the Walloons deploy every tool they can muster and work together to “relaunch” the Walloon economy (3). To incite joint action, the MP urges the Walloons to become the architects of their own fate. This aspiration is clearly expressed in the opening sentence of the first MP plan: “The federalization [of Belgium; by which is meant the regionalization of policy and competences] bestows the Walloons with political autonomy, which renders them responsible for their own destiny.” At the same time, this statement reads as a call to independence, as the Walloons are bestowed with political autonomy (by the Flemings, who have repeatedly pushed for the dismantling of Belgium as a unitary state). As the above excerpts from the Flemish and Walloon policy plans indicate, VIA and the MPs characterize a state of political and economic affairs, take position in relation to these affairs, and, most importantly, envision a prosperous future for the Flemish and Walloon region, respectively. The plans are thus driven by expectations, visions and values, as well as fears. They mobilize arguments, explanations, evaluations, descriptions and prescriptions, sometimes by drawing on tropes or stereotypes, anecdotes, and illustrations. As the plans also indicate, transforming Flanders and Wallonia into top KBE regions does not happen by itself. For instance, while the VIA plan describes Flemings as entrepreneurs, it also states that “we must dare to be entrepreneurial” (3). Similary, the MP urges Walloon citizens to change their “état d’esprit” or mindset, if economic growth is to ensue (3). Thus, identity construction and transformation are in order both in Flanders and in Wallonia. The above observations serve as starting points for our media analysis. As we want to know whether, and how, these particular conceptions of the nation/region are picked up in press reporting on STI policies, we ask the following interrelated questions: How are the Flemish (VIA) and Walloon STI policies (MPs) received in the Flemish and Francophone press? Do we discern in the press the same notions of identity as in the policy programs? Are these notions reproduced, problematized or transformed? If so, in what ways? What does this mean for Flemish and Walloon identity construction, and for the construction of “Belgium” at large? Recognizing the role of “institutions of power” (e.g. language, media, technologies) in articulating nationalism (Anderson 1991: 163; Billig 1995: 11), our analysis conceives of journalists and the press as potential policy agenda setters and opinion makers, as the press potentially reproduces and redefines political identities. As this paper will illustrate, the Flemish and Francophone press speak out on issues of collective identity and also offer various policymakers a platform to express their views on regional economic development, STI, and the state. Thus, from our perspective, policymaking is not only the prerogative of mandated policymakers, but of journalists and other opinion leaders (e.g. captains of industry) as well (Lenschow & Sprungk 2010). To enable analysis, we draw on a range of literatures, including science and technology studies, discourse analysis, and media analyses. Our approach is interpretive and interactionist, as it assumes that realities (e.g. identities, nations, as well as practices and materialities) are socially constructed rather than exist as objective phenomenon that can be discovered through empirical testing (Fischer 2003: 118). Hence, we ask how identity is created, structured, maintained, or conversely deconstructed, resisted, and challenged. Our aim is thus not to uncover an objective reality behind identity, but to understand how identities are collectively made and remade on a continuous basis. To this end, we draw on the notion of “coproduction” (Jasanoff 2006: 2) to empirically demonstrate how STI and nationalism are “coproduced” through technoscientific practices (Felt 2013). In what follows, we first present, discuss, and situate Flemish and Walloon STI policies in time and place, as a means of contextualizing the “nationalisms” inscribed in the VIA plan and MPs. Next, we present our methodological framework for discourse and media analysis, our data, and key findings. Upon drawing together these findings, we single out the storyline of “Catching up” as an important discursive backdrop against which processes of collective identity construction play out through STI policymaking and press reporting. We conclude by tying our findings into a broader discussion about the place of Belgium in Europe and the world, as nation states are constantly (re)defined in terms of their constituent segments and overarching structures, including the KBE. The paper’s topics resonate with the overall conference theme and specifically tie into the following conference strands: • Policy emergence, implementation, diffusion and transfer • National science policies and the global scientific enterprise • The multi-level governance of research and innovation and the challenge of co-ordination Keywords: Flanders, Identity, Knowledge-based economy, Science and technology policy, Wallonia. References Anderson, B. (1991), Imagined Communities. Reflection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London, Verso. Billig, M. (1995), Banal Nationalism. London, Sage. Felt, U. (2013), “Keeping Technologies Out: Sociotechnical imaginaries and the formation of a national technopolitical identity,” Pre-print; Published by the Department of Social Studies of Science, University of Vienna, February 2013; http://sciencestudies.univie.ac.at/publications Fischer, F. (2003), Reframing Public Policy. Discursive Politics and Deliberative Practices. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Flanders in Action (VIA); www.vlaandereninactie.be Jasanoff, S. 2006. The idiom of co-production. In: Jasanoff, S., Ed., States of Knowledge. The Coproduction of Science and Social Order. New York, Routledge, 1-12. Lenschow, A. & Sprungk, C. (2010), “The Myth of a Green Europe,” Journal of Common Market Studies, 48(1), 133-154. OECD (1996), The Knowledge Based Economy, OECD/GD, (96)102. Plan Marshall (MP); http://www.wallonie.be/fr/actualites/plan-marshall-2022 [less ▲]

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See detailLa Flandre ne peut pas scinder unilatéralement l'arrondissement de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Le Soir (2009), édition du 30 octobre 2009

La contribution relève qu'une scission de la circonscription électorale de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde ne peut se faire que sur base d'un accord conclu entre mandataires politiques néerlandophones et ... [more ▼]

La contribution relève qu'une scission de la circonscription électorale de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde ne peut se faire que sur base d'un accord conclu entre mandataires politiques néerlandophones et francophones ; elle ne peut être réalisée par les seuls premiers, contre l'avis des seconds. [less ▲]

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See detailFlâneries Liégeoises avec Georges Simenon - un film
Sacré, Robert ULg

Learning material (1991)

Par le biais de photos et de questions, G.Simenon se souvient de son enfance et de son adolescence en Outremeuse à Liège; les anecdotes fusent et son plaisir en les racontant est manifeste.

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See detailFlapping flight aerodynamics for flying animals
Norizham, Abdul Razak ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

Scientific conference (2011, October 10)

Most research into the aerodynamics of flying animals is based on aircraft aerodynamics. Aircraft have rigid wings, therefore such research is mostly suited to the study of the gliding flight of animals ... [more ▼]

Most research into the aerodynamics of flying animals is based on aircraft aerodynamics. Aircraft have rigid wings, therefore such research is mostly suited to the study of the gliding flight of animals. However, many species spend more time flapping than gliding. Some species don’t glide at all. This seminar presents recent work on flapping flight carried out at the University of Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailA flare event on HR2517
Sterken, C.; Manfroid, Jean ULg

in Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (1994), 4120

Not Available

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See detailFlash patterns of oxygen evolution in greening etioplasts of oat
Franck, Fabrice ULg; Schmid, G. H.

in Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. Section C : Biosciences (1984), 39c

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See detailFlash photolysis of Eosin in aqueous micellar dispersions
Seret, Alain ULg; Gandin, Ezio; Van de Vorst, Albert

in Chemical Physics Letters (1987), 135(4,5), 427-431

The flash photolysis technique was employed to study the properties of eosin triplet state in aqueous micellar solutions. Increasing the concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from 10−6 M to the ... [more ▼]

The flash photolysis technique was employed to study the properties of eosin triplet state in aqueous micellar solutions. Increasing the concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from 10−6 M to the CMC leads to a dramatic decrease of triplet absorbance and to the appearance of a very fast decay process of triplet state resulting from the formation of dye-rich induced micelles. From the CMC to 10−2 M, the absorbance and the lifetime of triplet state increase progressively. [less ▲]

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See detailFlat Fresnel doublets made of PMMA and PC: combining low cost production and very high concentration ratio for CPV
Languy, Fabian ULg; Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULg; Lenaerts, Cedric ULg et al

in Optics Express (2011), 19(S3), 280-294

The linear chromatic aberration (LCA) of several combinations of polycarbonates (PCs) and poly (methyl methacrylates) (PMMAs) as singlet, hybrid (refractive/diffractive) lenses and doublets operating with ... [more ▼]

The linear chromatic aberration (LCA) of several combinations of polycarbonates (PCs) and poly (methyl methacrylates) (PMMAs) as singlet, hybrid (refractive/diffractive) lenses and doublets operating with wavelengths between 380 and 1600 nm – corresponding to a typical zone of interest of concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) – are compared. Those comparisons show that the maximum theoretical concentration factor for singlets is limited to about 1000 × at normal incidence and that hybrid lenses and refractive doublets present a smaller LCA increasing the concentration factor up to 5000 × and 2 × 106 respectively. A new achromatization equation more useful than the Abbé equation is also presented. Finally we determined the ideal position of the focal point as a function of the LCA and the geometric concentration which maximizes the flux on the solar cell. [less ▲]

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See detailFlaubert, l’empire de la bêtise
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Lectures (2012)

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See detailFlavonoids : tools for the study of tumor invasion in vitro.
Bracke, M. E.; Van Cauwenberge, Jean-Rémy ULg; Mareel, M. M. et al

in Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological and Structure-Activity Relationships. (1986)

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See detailFlavonoids inhibit malignant tumor invasion in vitro.
Bracke, M. E.; De Pestel, G.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Progress in Clinical & Biological Research (1988), 280

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See detailFlavonol glycosides from leaves of Strychnos variabilis
Brasseur, Thierry; Angenot, Luc ULg

in Phytochemistry (1986), 25(2), 563-564

Quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside were obtained from the leaves of Strychnos variabilis. These flavonoids were isolated by DCCC (Droplet Counter ... [more ▼]

Quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside were obtained from the leaves of Strychnos variabilis. These flavonoids were isolated by DCCC (Droplet Counter Current Chromatography). YThe structures were established by TLC (co-chromatography), UV, NMR ,FAB-MS, hydrolytic and chemical methods. [less ▲]

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See detailFlavor origin of R-parity
Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Vicente, Avelino ULg

in Journal of Physics : G Nuclear & Particle Physics (2013), 40

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See detailFlaxseed proteins: food uses and health benefits flaxseed proteins
Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Van Remoortel, Vinciane ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Science & Technology (2011), 46(2), 221-228

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See detailFLC activity is conserved between root chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Arabidopsis
Périlleux, Claire ULg

Scientific conference (2013, January 11)

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See detailThe FLC-dependent vernalization pathway in Sinapis alba.
D'Aloia, Maria ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Physiology (2006), 143A

In many plants, flowering is promoted by a long exposure to cold, a process known as ‘vernalisation’. In Arabidopsis, the vernalisation pathway was shown to promote flowering via the repression of the ... [more ▼]

In many plants, flowering is promoted by a long exposure to cold, a process known as ‘vernalisation’. In Arabidopsis, the vernalisation pathway was shown to promote flowering via the repression of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene, which encodes a repressor of flowering. As far as we know, the genetical control of flowering is conserved among Brassicaceae, and we reported elsewhere cloning of flowering times genes of the photoperiodic pathway in Sinapis alba, based on sequence similarity with Arabidopsis. However, little is known about vernalisation in Sinapis. We therefore undertook a physiological and molecular study of this process. Plants of Sinapis were grown in non inductive short days and vernalised at 7°C, at the seedling stage. Vernalisation was found to accelerate flowering and an increasing effect was observed for vernalisation treatments longer than 2 weeks. We cloned an FLC-like sequence (SaFLC) by screening a cDNA library, and used it as a probe to perform expression analyses. We observed that SaFLC was almost completely repressed after 1 week of vernalisation, but repression was stable only after 2 weeks, which is consistent with the fact that 2-week is the minimal duration of vernalisation that promotes flowering. Hence the molecular mechanisms of vernalisation seem to be conserved in Sinapis and Arabidopsis. [less ▲]

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See detailAn FLC-like gene is controlled by vernalization in root chicory
Périlleux, Claire ULg; Pieltain, Alexandra ULg; D'Aloia, Maria ULg et al

Poster (2008, September)

Vernalization is known to promote flowering in Arabidopsis via the repression by cold of the floral inhibitor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). For long, FLC homologs have been found in Brassicaceae only but ... [more ▼]

Vernalization is known to promote flowering in Arabidopsis via the repression by cold of the floral inhibitor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). For long, FLC homologs have been found in Brassicaceae only but it was recently reported that in sugar beet, the FLC-like gene BvFL1 functions as a repressor of flowering and is downregulated in response to cold. We describe here the cloning of CiFL1 from root chicory (Cichorium intybus). Expression patterns were studied in two cultivars, differing in their sensitivity to vernalization. Transcript level analyzes were performed during the vernalization treatment of the seedlings and in different post-vernalization conditions. Our results give further support to conservation of the biological function of FLC-like genes in eudicot species. [less ▲]

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See detailFLE, FLS, FLM : quelles didactiques pour quels enseignements à quels publics ?
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Delcomminette, Bernadette; Dumortier, Jean-Louis; Louis, Vincent (Eds.) et al Le français langue maternelle, étrangère, seconde: vers un nouveau partage? (2003)

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