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See detailExplaining Organisational Diversity in Fair Trade Social Enterprises
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2010)

This research aims to explain and understand the organisational diversity observed in the field of Fair Trade Social Enterprises or Fair Trade Organisations (FTOs). The transversal hypothesis is that such ... [more ▼]

This research aims to explain and understand the organisational diversity observed in the field of Fair Trade Social Enterprises or Fair Trade Organisations (FTOs). The transversal hypothesis is that such a diversity in organisational forms may be linked to the multidimensional (economic, social and/or political) nature of Fair Trade. First, since there are virtually no typologies focused on FTOs, it is necessary to look at how organisational diversity in FT can be categorised. A typology with five categories of organisational forms is suggested. Secondly, this work explores the reasons behind organisational diversity, using both an external, explanatory perspective, and an internal, interactionist perspective. A third key issue is to explore whether FTOs experience tensions between the different dimensions of FT, and how these tensions are managed in the different types of FTOs. These issues are examined under the light of different theoretical approaches linked to “new institutionalism” (economic, sociological and entrepreneurial) and resource dependence theory. The empirical material is provided by interviews with the leaders of 57 FTOs in four European regions: Belgium, France (Rhône-Alpes), the United Kingdom (England) and Italy (Rome). Eight of these FTOs, reflecting the different categories of organisational forms, are analysed more in depth. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining Organizational Diversity in Fair Trade Social Enterprises
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2010, March 13)

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See detailExplaining Returns on Venture Capital-Backed Companies: Evidence from Belgium
Alperovych, Yan ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Research in International Business and Finance (2011), 25(3), 277-295

Using a unique database of 990 VC-backed Belgian firms, we study whether compatibility between corporate and environmental characteristics matters. We address two questions: (i) Does the interplay of ... [more ▼]

Using a unique database of 990 VC-backed Belgian firms, we study whether compatibility between corporate and environmental characteristics matters. We address two questions: (i) Does the interplay of company, industry, and product factors affect the expected returns of the VC-backed firms? (ii) Does the joint compatibility between these factors results in a non-linear increase in performance? Panel data analysis shows a significant influence of factor compatibility on returns. Quantile regression analysis indicates a non-linear relationship between the return and its determinants. Conjoint analysis identifies certain combinations of factors, which collapse into classifiable patterns described in the strategic management literature. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining stakeholder involvement in social enterprise governance through resources and legitimacy
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Rijpens, Julie ULg

in Defourny, Jacques; Hulgard, Lars; Pestoff, Victor (Eds.) Social Enterprise and the Third Sector: Changing European Landscapes in a Comparative Perspective (2014)

In the continuity of stakeholder theory, much of the current literature on (corporate) governance and business ethics looks at how organizations involve their stakeholders at different decision-making ... [more ▼]

In the continuity of stakeholder theory, much of the current literature on (corporate) governance and business ethics looks at how organizations involve their stakeholders at different decision-making levels (Carroll 2004; Clarkson 1995; de Graaf & Herkströter 2007; Freeman & Reed 1983). According to Freeman (1984), stakeholders are ‘any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organization's purpose’ (148); typically: the owners, the managers, the workers, the volunteers, the financing bodies, the partners, the suppliers, the customers/beneficiaries, etc. A continuum of involvement can be highlighted, from the rather passive strategies (stakeholder information) to the more active ones (stakeholder representation). Among the latter, involvement or ‘cooptation’ of stakeholders in the governance structures such as the general assembly and the board of directors is increasingly presented as a strategy mirroring a long-term relationship between the organization and a particular stakeholder category (Mitchell et al. 1997). Traditionally, the owners are the category of stakeholders that is co-opted in the governance structures. Indeed, the power of decision is part of the property rights (Milgrom & Roberts 1992). It allows owners to ensure that the enterprise is run according to their own objectives. Thus, in for-profit enterprises, the investors are the owners and, as such, they have the right to decide. They exercise this right by their presence at the general assembly. But not all enterprises are investors-owned firms. In some enterprises, ownership is in the hand of other stakeholders, like in producer, consumer or worker cooperatives. Others, like nonprofit organizations, can even be seen as firms without owners (Hansmann 1996). This chapter raises the question of stakeholder involvement in social enterprises, which are ‘non-investor owned’ and can broadly be defined here as organizations pursuing social aims through their economic activity (Defourny 2001; Defourny & Nyssens 2006). In these organizations, the configuration of stakeholder involvement contrasts with that of for-profit businesses in at least two ways. First, social enterprises are more likely than other types of organizations to be set up through a process of collective entrepreneurship which often involves a diversity of actors who each have a ‘stake’ in the pursuit of one or several organizational missions (Defourny & Nyssens 2006; Haugh 2007; Petrella 2003). Second, social enterprises seem to have a stronger tendency to give a voice to the actors with whom they interact –i.e., to involve their beneficiaries, supporters, funders or partners within their governance structures (Campi et al. 2006; Huybrechts 2010; Münkner 2004; Rijpens 2010). They usually use legal forms that allow and encourage economic democracy by recognizing stakeholders other than investors the right to participate formally in the governance bodies. While, as suggested by Campi et al. (2006; 2012), the presence of multiple stakeholders observed in a number of social enterprises may be linked with the diverse goals pursued by these organizations, such presence –or absence– may be due to many factors which have no direct links with organizational goals. As suggested in this chapter, the organizational need for resources (in a broad sense) and the drive to conform to external expectations may be two key factors. In any case, the diversified patterns of stakeholder involvement in social enterprises confirm the need for a more comprehensive account of stakeholder involvement in these organizations. Although several attempts have been made to theorize stakeholder involvement in social enterprise governance, it is still a much under-researched topic. We believe that this research gap is due not only to the infancy stage in which social enterprise research is located, but also to a lack of connection and integration of this research within the broader study of organizations. Indeed, while new theoretical developments centered on the specific features of social enterprise are needed, these developments cannot be made independently from the knowledge built for more than a century regarding how organizations are structured and operate. This chapter aims to examine stakeholder involvement in social enterprise governance using two types of theoretical lenses each embodying a rich research tradition in organization theory. The first lens refers to strategy and examines organizations (in this case governance structures) in terms of their dependency on a set of resources. The second lens uses legitimacy arguments to explain organizational governance as a social construct located in a broader setting of social relationships. The first two sections will present each of these views and examine their contributions to understanding stakeholder involvement in the governance structures of social enterprises. Then, a comparative case study on work integration social enterprises will serve to illustrate how both research avenues can be combined so as to better grasp social enterprise governance as a complex and multi-dimensional practice. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the CMS Higgs lepton-flavor violating
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Vicente, Avelino ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2014), 90(11), 115004

Direct searches for lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in the τ μ channel have been recently reported by the CMS collaboration. The results display a slight excess of signal events with a ... [more ▼]

Direct searches for lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in the τ μ channel have been recently reported by the CMS collaboration. The results display a slight excess of signal events with a significance of 2.5σ, which translates into a branching ratio of about 1%. By interpreting these findings as a hint for beyond the standard model physics, we show that the Type-III 2HDM is capable of reproducing such signal while at the same time satisfying vacuum stability, perturbativity, electroweak precision data, measured Higgs standard decay modes and low-energy lepton flavor violating constraints. We have found that the allowed signal strength ranges for the bb, WW* and ZZ* standard channels shrink as soon as BR(h→τμ)∼ 1% is enforced. Thus, we point out that if the excess persists, improved measurements of these channels may be used to test our Type-III 2HDM scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining thermal failure in saturated clays
Hueckel, Tomasz; François, Bertrand ULg; Lyesse, Laloui

in Geotechnique (2009), 59(3), 197-212

Failure conditions in soils at elevated temperatures appear to be strongly dependent on the history of the application of stress and temperature. Four cases of such history leading to various modes of ... [more ▼]

Failure conditions in soils at elevated temperatures appear to be strongly dependent on the history of the application of stress and temperature. Four cases of such history leading to various modes of failure are identified and interpreted in terms of thermal Cam-clay models. Particular attention is given to the influence of thermal variability on the coefficient of the critical state, M, or the angle of internal friction. A detailed analysis of the material history offers an explanation of an apparent confusion about whether the soil strength is decreased or increased by temperature. In a companion paper, numerical analysis of the development of axisymmetric thermal and stress fields around a cylindrical heat source suggests that thermal failure may arise in conditions that are far from any mechanically critical situation. [less ▲]

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See detailExplanation of the extreme low surface mass balance over the Greenland ice sheet in 2010 with the help of a regional climate model and a circulation type classification.
Fettweis, Xavier ULg; van den Broeke, Michiel; van de Berg, Willem Jan et al

Conference (2011, April 06)

The regional climate models MAR and RCMO show that the surface mass balance (SMB) rate of the whole Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is the lowest in 2010 since 50 years. This record is a combination of an ... [more ▼]

The regional climate models MAR and RCMO show that the surface mass balance (SMB) rate of the whole Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is the lowest in 2010 since 50 years. This record is a combination of an abnormal dry year and an exceptional melt in summer confirmed by ground measurements and satellite-derived observations. An automated circulation type classification (CTC) is used for detecting anomalies in the daily atmospheric circulation at 500hPa over the Greenland ice sheet during 2010. The CTC reveals that the low snow accumulation is due to the general circulation (negative NAO index) while the record melt in summer is rather a consequence of the well known surface albedo-temperature feedback induced by - a warmer and thinner than normal snowpack above the bare ice at the end of the spring. - an earlier beginning of the melt season. - a drier summer. - an exceptional persistence of atmospheric circulations inducing warm and dry conditions over the GrIS. All these anomalies induced in summer 2010 an exceptional time exposure of bare ice areas (with a lower albedo than snow) over the GrIS which impacts the surface melt. Sensitivity experiments carried out by the MAR model allow to estimate the importance of each anomaly in the record simulated melt of summer 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailExplanation of the Tin role in the High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Bronzes
Mathis, François ULg; Trocellier, Patrick; Aucouturier, Marc

in Welter, Jean - Marie (Ed.) Copper - Better Properties for Innovative product (2006)

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See detailAn explanatory alternative approach for student non response adjustment.
Monseur, Christian ULg

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista Svizzera di Scienze dell' Educazione = Revue Suisse des Sciences de l'Education (2005), 31(2,3), 129-144

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See detailExplication des différences systématiques entre les catalogues de Greenwich de Melbourne et du Cap par la nutation diurne et le déplacement annuel du pôle d'inertie
Folie, François ULg

in Bulletins de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (1894), 3e série, t. 27

The author explains the differences between Greenwich, Melbourne and Cape’s catalogs by the diurnal nutation and the annual motion of the inertia pole.

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See detailL'explication en Ethologie : quelques essais de modélisation - L'exemple des poissons.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Ruwet, J. C.

in Probio revue (1992), 10(1-2), 71-82

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See detailL'explication en psychologie
Richelle, Marc ULg; Seron, Xavier

Book published by Presses Universitaires de France (1980)

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See detailExplication et réduction de l’impact des violations d’inégalités triangulaires dans Vivaldi
Cantin, François ULg; Gueye, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba ULg; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in CFIP'2008 (2008, March)

Les systèmes de coordonnées sont des systèmes distribués ayant pour but, à partir de mesures de distance (par exemple RTT) entre certaines paires de noeuds, d’associer des coordonnées à chaque noeud dans ... [more ▼]

Les systèmes de coordonnées sont des systèmes distribués ayant pour but, à partir de mesures de distance (par exemple RTT) entre certaines paires de noeuds, d’associer des coordonnées à chaque noeud dans un espace métrique. Toutefois, de tels systèmes ne fonctionnent pas correctement lorsque les distances mesurées ne respectent pas les inégalités triangulaires. Or, les violations de ces inégalités, appelées TIV, sont fréquentes dans l’Internet. Nous proposons une étude approfondie de l’impact des TIV sur le système de coordonnées Vivaldi. Nous quantifions et expliquons les erreurs de prédiction de distance et l’instabilité des coordonnées causées par les TIV selon leur fréquence et leur sévérité. Nous montrons aussi que la distance entre deux noeuds, mesurée par le RTT, est corrélée à la probabilité d’existence d’une TIV. Enfin, nous recommandons un système de coordonnées hiérarchique, et nous montrons, par des simulations sur une matrice de délais réelle, qu’une telle approche réduit l’impact des TIV. [less ▲]

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See detailUne explication théorique à l’existence des coopératives agréées et des sociétés à finalité sociale en Belgique
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Non Marchand : Management, Droit et Finance (2005), (16), 13-27

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See detailAn explicit discontinuous Galerkin method for non-linear solid dynamics. Formulation, parallel implementation and scalability properties.
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Radovitzky, Raúl

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2008), 74

An explicit-dynamics spatially-discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation for non-linear solid dynamics is proposed and implemented for parallel computation. Discontinuous Galerkin methods have particular ... [more ▼]

An explicit-dynamics spatially-discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation for non-linear solid dynamics is proposed and implemented for parallel computation. Discontinuous Galerkin methods have particular appeal in problems involving complex material response, e.g. non-local behavior and failure, as, even in the presence of discontinuities, they provide a rigorous means of ensuring both consistency and stability. In the proposed method, these are guaranteed: the former by the use of average numerical fluxes, and the latter by the introduction of appropriate quadratic terms in the weak formulation. The semi-discrete system of ordinary differential equations is integrated in time using a conventional second-order central-difference explicit scheme. A stability criterion for the time integration algorithm, accounting for the influence of the DG discretization stability, is derived for the equivalent linearized system. This approach naturally lends itself to efficient parallel implementation. The resulting DG computational framework is implemented in three dimensions via specialized interface elements. The versatility, robustness and scalability of the overall computational approach are all demonstrated in problems involving stress-wave propagation and large plastic deformations. [less ▲]

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See detailExplicit dynamic with X-FEM to handle complex geometries
Rosycki, P.; Béchet, Eric ULg; Moës, Nicolas

Scientific conference (2006)

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See detailExplicit dynamics with X-FEM to handle complex geometries
Moes, Nicolas; Rozycki, P.; Béchet, Eric ULg

Scientific conference (2006)

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See detail«Explicit e cornice nel Sistema periodico di Primo Levi»
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Maeder, Costantino; Vannicelli, Andrea (Eds.) Cerchio e spirale approdo e avvio. L’explicit nella narrativa breve dalla fine dell’Ottocento a oggi, Actes du Colloque L’explicit nella narrativa breve post-unitaria. (2001)

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See detailAn Explicit Formula for the Natural and Conformally Invariant Quantization
Radoux, Fabian ULg

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2009), 89

Lecomte (Prog Theor Phys Suppl 144:125–132, 2001) conjectured the existence of a natural and conformally invariant quantization. In Mathonet and Radoux (Existence of natural and conformally invariant ... [more ▼]

Lecomte (Prog Theor Phys Suppl 144:125–132, 2001) conjectured the existence of a natural and conformally invariant quantization. In Mathonet and Radoux (Existence of natural and conformally invariant quantizations of arbitrary symbols, math.DG 0811.3710), we gave a proof of this theorem thanks to the theory of Cartan connections. In this paper, we give an explicit formula for the natural and conformally invariant quantization of trace-free symbols thanks to the method used in Mathonet and Radoux and to tools already used in Radoux [Lett Math Phys 78(2):173–188, 2006] in the projective setting. This formula is extremely similar to the one giving the natural and projectively invariant quantization in Radoux. [less ▲]

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