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See detailEvaluation of risk using serial laboratory data in acute myocardial infarction
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Heusghem, C. et al

Conference (1981, September)

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See detailEvaluation of ruthenium-based complexes for the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl monomers
Simal, François; Jan, Dominique; Delaude, Lionel ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Chemistry (2001), 79(5-6), 529-535

New complexes of the type RuCl2(p-cymene)L where the ligand L is either a phosphine or a stable triazolinylidene carbene have been tested and compared to the Grubbs' benzylidene complex RuCl2(=CHPh)(PCy3 ... [more ▼]

New complexes of the type RuCl2(p-cymene)L where the ligand L is either a phosphine or a stable triazolinylidene carbene have been tested and compared to the Grubbs' benzylidene complex RuCl2(=CHPh)(PCy3)(2) as catalyst precursors for the controlled atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate and of various para-substituted styrenes. Kinetic data and Hammett rho constants are reported, as well as the X-ray structure of the ortho-metallated triazolinylidene-ruthenium(II) complex RuCl(p-cymene)[1,2-phenylene[3,4-diphenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-5(4H)-yl idene]]. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring plasma Zidovudine, Lamivudine and nevirapine concentrations in Rwanda
Gras, A; Schneider, S; Karasi, Jean Claude ULg et al

in Current HIV Research (2011), 9(4), 223-8

Saliva may provide interesting advantages as matrix for compliance measurements, pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring in resource limited countries. We investigated the feasibility of ... [more ▼]

Saliva may provide interesting advantages as matrix for compliance measurements, pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring in resource limited countries. We investigated the feasibility of using saliva for compliance monitoring of zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) in 29 HIV-1 infected patients from Rwanda. ZDV, 3TC and NVP drug levels were quantified by an LC/MS-MS method in plasma and stimulated saliva samples and compared using Bland-Altman analysis. Seven patients demonstrated undetectable saliva ZDV levels while five out of these seven also showed no 3TC salivary concentrations. For the other samples, we observed a good agreement between salivary and plasma concentrations of each antiretroviral drug. A significant relation between the difference in saliva and plasma ZDV concentrations and the average ZDV concentration in the two matrices was deduced as follow: y = -380.15 + 1.79 x. The log saliva and plasma concentration difference of both 3TC and NVP was consistent across the range of average log concentration. Overall, we showed large agreement limits suggesting a wide inter patient variability that may result to non-reliable plasma level predictions from saliva drug measurements. Therefore, our results indicate that saliva may serve as a valuable tool only for NVP compliance testing because of its high salivary concentration. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of saturation and microcracking of the superficial zone of concrete: new developments
Courard, Luc ULg; Lenaers, Jean-François

in Alexander, M. G.; Beushausen, H.-D.; Dehn, F. (Eds.) et al Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II (2009)

Proper surface preparation is essential for the durability of the repaired structure as well as specific saturation level of the concrete. Moreover, the repair material is often blamed for “not sticking” ... [more ▼]

Proper surface preparation is essential for the durability of the repaired structure as well as specific saturation level of the concrete. Moreover, the repair material is often blamed for “not sticking”, but the general source of the trouble lies with the substrate surface conditioning. The extensive research project has been undertaken to develop specifications and performance criteria for surface preparation of concrete substrates, one of the tasks of which was to develop a field test to evaluate the optimum moisture conditioning of the substrate concrete prior to application of repair material. The Autocalm system has been calibrated and compared with destructive and non destructive tests (Schmidt hammer, microscope observations and water absorption) on three types of concrete and two types of surface preparation. In order to evaluate different saturation levels, concrete samples have been stored in more than 12 modes of conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of sedation depth and quality of performed procedures following administration of α2-agonists combined or not with butorphanol in horses.
Barbry, Stephanie; Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Van Galen, Gaby ULg et al

Poster (2008, October)

Several molecules available in equine medicine provide profound sedation and good analgesia when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. They differ slightly in degree of action, as well in time as ... [more ▼]

Several molecules available in equine medicine provide profound sedation and good analgesia when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. They differ slightly in degree of action, as well in time as in depth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the depth of sedation and quality of performing a standardized procedure after injection of an 2-agonist alone or associated with butorphanol. Horses presented to the Equine Clinic of Liege University from December 2007 to June 2008 for an endoscopic, dental, radiological or ophthalmological examination of which owner and clinician agreed to include the horse in the study were retained. All horses (n=133) were sedated in a randomized double blind fashion using one of the six following protocols: detomidine (D) (0.01mg/kg IV), romifidine (R) (0.04mg/kg IV), or xylazine (X) (0.5mg/kg IV) alone or associated with butorphanol (B) (0.02mg/kg IV). Stability, head position and the reaction to a stimulus (auditive and visual) were evaluated before the start of the procedure. An overall subjective grade using a 10 cm line scale was given to evaluate sedation depth (ranging from no effect to maximal depth on line) and the quality of the performed procedure (ranging from not realised to ideal examination). For each specific procedure, the same clinician experienced in his particular field evaluated the parameters. Data were related by a variance analysis using SAS system and considered significant if P<0.01. The used protocols significantly influenced both sedation depth and examination quality. Sedation depth increased significantly when B was added in all the three 2-agonists used (mean ± SD): D: 6.46±0.33; D+B: 7.06±0.37; R: 4.93±0.46; R+B: 7.04±0.45; X: 4.94±0.43; X+B: 7.75±0.40. Detomidine provided a significantly better quality of the examination compared to romifidine and xylazine. The addiction of butorphanol significantly decreased the examination quality when added to detomidine and increased the quality when combined with romifidine and xylazine. Mean (± SD) of the quality of performed procedures: D: 8.41±0.54; D+B: 6.06±0.64; R: 6.68±0.71; R+B: 7.16±0.67; X: 4.47±0.67; X+B: 4.52±0.64. Comparison of sedation depth and quality of performed examination revealed an increase in quality of examination scores with increasing depth of sedation until a certain level. As from sedation depths with scores of 8 or more, a decrease in quality of examination was encountered. This report shows the important effect of butorphanol addition on sedation. However, increasing sedation depth was not necessarily linked to a better quality of procedure, notably due to difficulties in handling strongly sedated horses for the procedures performed in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of segmented 3D acquisition schemes for whole-brain high-resolution arterial spin labeling at 3T
Vidorreta, Marta; Balteau, Evelyne ULg; Wang, Ze et al

in NMR in Biomedicine (2014), 27(11), 1387-1396

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See detailEvaluation of serum osteocalcin and CTX-I in Ardenner horses with special reference to juvenile interphalangeal joint disease.
Pastoret, V.; Carstanjen, B.; Lejeune, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2007), 54(9), 458-63

The first aim of this study was to establish a profile of age-related normal serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) in Ardenner horses. For this first part, blood samples from 49 healthy Ardenner horses ... [more ▼]

The first aim of this study was to establish a profile of age-related normal serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) in Ardenner horses. For this first part, blood samples from 49 healthy Ardenner horses were collected. The second aim was to study two biochemical markers of bone metabolism, OC and a carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), in 30 young Ardenner horses during 1 year. Amongst them, 17 showed lesions of juvenile degenerative joint disease in the distal forelimbs. A specific radioimmunoassay for equine OC was used to measure the serum concentration of the marker. The serum concentration of CTX-I was measured using a commercially available human assay validated for use in the horse. The effect of age, sex, season and health status (with or without lesions) was assessed. Levels of OC fall between birth and the adult stage: this decrease being most marked between birth and 1 year of age. This age-related decrease of OC was confirmed in the 30 young Ardenner horses, but CTX-I levels remained constant in this group. The Levels of the two markers changed significantly with the season with higher concentrations during the winter. No significant difference was shown either between the two sexes or between the two health statuses. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of SFC interest for the determination of cholecalciferol and its impurities in pharmaceuticals
Andri, Bertyl ULg; Dispas, Amandine ULg; Klinkenberg, Régis et al

Poster (2014, June 23)

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See detailEvaluation of shear stress required to move pebbles : flume experiments and observations in natural streams
Petit, François ULg

in Abstracts 2nd international Conference on Geomorphology Francfort (1989)

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See detailEvaluation of Shielding Effectiveness in the Time Domain using a DG Method with an Efficient PML
Modave, Axel ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Boubekeur, Mohamed et al

Poster (2013, April 24)

Development of new electric and electronic devices leads to an increasing importance for solving electromagnetic compatibility problems. In particular, the optimization of radiated emissions is ... [more ▼]

Development of new electric and electronic devices leads to an increasing importance for solving electromagnetic compatibility problems. In particular, the optimization of radiated emissions is increasingly done through numerical modeling. In this context, numerical methods allow to evaluate the effectiveness of more and more elaborate shielding enclosures. We propose an application of the nodal Discontinuous Galerkin method to evaluate the effectiveness of composite shieldings in the time domain. This numerical method provides convenient advantages to deal with shielding problems. Firstly, heterogeneous media are naturally included in the discrete formulation. After, the method is famous to allow a massive parallelization for the numerical resolution. Finally, a resolution in the time domain allows to consider transient signals. The numerical scheme is firstly validated using an academic benchmark. In the same way, the PML used to truncate the computational domain is optimized and validated. Applications are then presented for homogeneous and composite shieldings. The preliminary results are in conformity with classical predictive rules. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of shielding effectiveness of composite wall with a time domain discontinuous Galerkin method
Kameni, Abelin; Modave, Axel ULg; Boubekeur, Mohamed et al

in European Physical Journal : Applied physics (2013), 64(2), 24508

This article presents a Time Domain Discontinuous Galerkin method applied for solving the conservative form of Maxwell equations and computing the radiated fields in electromagnetic compatibility problems ... [more ▼]

This article presents a Time Domain Discontinuous Galerkin method applied for solving the conservative form of Maxwell equations and computing the radiated fields in electromagnetic compatibility problems. The results obtained in homogenous media for the transverse magnetic waves are validated in two cases. We compare our solution to an analytical solution of Maxwell’s equations based on characteristic method. Our results on shielding effectiveness of a conducting wall are same as those obtained from analytical expression in frequency domain. The propagation in heterogeneous medium is explored. The shielding effectiveness of a composite wall partially filled by circular conductives inclusions is computed. The proposed results are in conformity with the classical predictive homogenizations rules. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of silicon stocks and uptake in five forest stands on an acid brown soil
Cornelis, Jean-Thomas ULg; Ranger, Jacques; Iserentant, Anne et al

Conference (2008)

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: A comparison between subjective and objective methods
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Lévêque, Yohanna; Schön, Daniele et al

in Journal of Voice (2013), 27(2), 2591-5

Objective: Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustic analyses and subjective judgements. Acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution but both ... [more ▼]

Objective: Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustic analyses and subjective judgements. Acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution but both methods are still used for the evaluation of singing voice accuracy. This paper presents a first time direct comparison of these methods. Methods: 166 untrained singers were asked to sing the popular song « Happy Birthday ». These recordings constituted the database analyzed. Acoustic analyses were performed to quantify the pitch interval deviation, the number of contour errors and the number of tonality modulations for each recording. Additionally, eighteen experts in singing voice or music rated the global pitch accuracy of these performances. Results: A high correlation occurred between acoustic measurements and subjective rating. The total model of acoustic analyses explained 81% of the variance of the judges’ scores. Their rating was influenced by both tonality modulation and interval deviation. Conclusions: This study highlights the congruence between objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy within this first time comparison. Our results confirm the relevance of the pitch interval deviation criterion in vocal accuracy assessment. Furthermore, the number of tonality modulations is also a salient criterion in perceptive rating and should be taken into account in studies using acoustic analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: Are we good judges even if we are not musicians?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Roig-Sanchis, Virginie; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, August 08)

A previous study highlighted that objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy are highly correlated when the rating is done by musicians and that 81% of their variance was explained by the ... [more ▼]

A previous study highlighted that objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy are highly correlated when the rating is done by musicians and that 81% of their variance was explained by the pitch interval deviation and the number of tonality modulations (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsomme, 2013). However, the general audience is not expert in music. This study aims to observe the vocal accuracy assessment done by non musicians. Eighteen non musicians were asked to rate on a 9-point scale the global pitch accuracy of 166 vocal performances sung by untrained singers. This database was presented two times (T1 and T2) in a random order. The sung performances were objectively analyzed regarding three criteria: pitch interval deviation, number of tonality modulations and number of contour errors. The results show an intraclass correlation coefficient of .89 (p < .01) among the non experts and a mean intra-judges Spearman correlation of .66 (SD = .06) between T1 and T2. There is also a significant correlation between the acoustic measurements and the mean ratings (r(166) = .809; p < .01), with higher scores for accurate performances. Confronted with the music experts of the previous study, the judgment of the non experts correlated with the musicians ratings (r(166) = .840; p < .01). However, a Mann Whitney test showed that the rating of non experts was globally more severe than the experts one (p = 009). In addition, the regression analysis showed that only the pitch interval deviation criterion was considered in their judgment, explaining 66% of the variance of the judges. This study highlights the reliability and the objectivity of non musicians in the vocal accuracy assessment. Moreover, an effect of music expertise is observed concerning the severity of the rating and the vocal accuracy assessment process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: How tolerant are we?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Blanckaert, Ellen; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, May 28)

The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging melodies in order to properly evaluate the singing voice accuracy in a melodic context For this purpose, an interval contained in familiar and unfamiliar sung performances was manipulated in two directions (compression and enlargement from 10 to 60 cents). This material was presented through the method of limits procedure to 30 non-musicians. They were asked to define whether the melodies proposed were “in tune” or “out of tune” in a test and a retest. The accuracy thresholds for compression and enlargement errors as well as the tolerance zone were computed. The results showed that participants were consistent in their evaluation between the test and the retest. The tolerance zone (M = 42 cents, ES = 1.60) was not affected by the familiarity of the melody. Concerning the accuracy thresholds, participants were more tolerant when the interval was compressed (M = 25.68 cents, ES = .1.34) than when it was enlarged (M = 16.32 cents, ES = .91), for the familiar (t(30) = 4.94, p < .001) and non familiar melody (t(30) = 3.27, p = .003). This study highlights the ability of non-musicians to evaluate familiar and unfamiliar melodies with a similar tolerance. Furthermore, the error direction is relevant in perceptive rating and should be taken into account when defining a sung performance as “in tune” or “out of tune”. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves
Laruelle, Goulven G; Durr, Hans H; Slomp, Caroline P et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2010), 37

The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global coastal ocean was evaluated from a compilation of air-water CO2 fluxes scaled using a spatially-explicit global typology of inner estuaries ... [more ▼]

The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global coastal ocean was evaluated from a compilation of air-water CO2 fluxes scaled using a spatially-explicit global typology of inner estuaries (excluding outer estuaries such as large river deltas) and continental shelves. The computed emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from estuaries (+0.27 +/- 0.23 PgC yr(-1)) is similar to 26% to similar to 55% lower than previous estimates while the sink of atmospheric CO2 over continental shelf seas (-0.21 +/- 0.36 PgC yr(-1)) is at the low end of the range of previous estimates (-0.22 to -1.00 PgC yr(-1)). The air-sea CO2 flux per surface area over continental shelf seas (-0.7 +/- 1.2 molC m(-2) yr(-1)) is the double of the value in the open ocean based on the most recent CO2 climatology. The largest uncertainty of scaling approaches remains in the availability of CO2 data to describe the spatial variability, and to capture relevant temporal scales of variability. Citation: Laruelle, G. G., H. H. Durr, C. P. Slomp, and A. V. Borges (2010), Evaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15607, doi:10.1029/2010GL043691. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves
Laruelle, G. G.; Dürr, H. H.; Slomp, C. P. et al

Conference (2011, April 08)

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See detailEvaluation of soil structural changes through macroscopic and microscopic measurement
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Chelin, Marie ULg et al

Poster (2015, April 16)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and pore size distribution are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other agricultural management practices. However, changes in soil ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and pore size distribution are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other agricultural management practices. However, changes in soil hydrodynamic behavior are not fully understood and are still under research. Also, researchers have explained the impact of tillage practices on soil hydraulic properties related to pore size distribution, connectivity and orientation are involved but the characterization of these modifications and consequences remains a challenge. Furthermore, the relation between macroscopic measurements and microscopic investigation of the soil structure remains scarce. Recently, X-ray tomography (X- μCT) has been used in order to characterize changes in soil pore size distribution in various contexts and the method is able to link microtomography information to hydrodynamic measurement. In our study, X-μCT has been used in order to characterize changes in soil pore system. Since, tomography does not count most of the micropores, Richards’ pressure plate and evaporation method was also combined to get complete range of pore size distribution. We found good match between evaporation data with X-μCT at the macropore scale and evaporation data with pressure plate method at micropore scale. X-μCT data refines retention and hydraulic curves near saturation where Richards’ data alone can lead to numerous sets of fitted parameters. On the otherhand, evaporation data (Hyprop apparatus ©) provide comparable datasets with X-μCT. Combining micro and macroscopic measurements allows us to validate X-μCT information, which is otherwise not so obvious. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of some parameters influencing the drug delivery from a dry powder inhalation device using an in vitro model of the horse airways
Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (1997), 28(6), 557-564

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breathing pattern, air humidity and position of the device on the delivery of an aerosol generated by a dry powder inhalation (DPI) device (Inhalator M ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breathing pattern, air humidity and position of the device on the delivery of an aerosol generated by a dry powder inhalation (DPI) device (Inhalator M). The in vitro inhalation study was performed using the cascade impaction method (Andersen Sampler) adapted to imitate nasal breathing. The amount of ipratropium found in the device, the artificial upper airways and the six stages of the Andersen Sampler was measured using high precision liquid chromatography. Stage 1 of the Andersen Sampler was considered to be the respirable fraction and stages 2 to 6 to be the non-respirable fraction. It was concluded that the theoretical respirable fraction of ipratropium obtained after DPI through Inhalator M was influenced by relative air humidity, air flow and the position of the device, whereas the number of successive inspirations and the duration of inspiration did not affect this fraction of the drug. [less ▲]

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