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Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Models for Safety Concept of Steel Structures - I modelli di incendio per la valutazione della sicurezza di strutture in acciaio
Pustorino, Sandro; Schleich, Jean-Baptiste; Cadorin, Jean-François et al

in Proc. XVII Congresso C.T.A., Costruire in acciaio: Strutture e architettura (1999, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Performance of High-Performance Construction Materials
Cooper, L. Y.; Dexter, R. J.; Gilvary, Keneth et al

in Hasemi (Ed.) Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Fire Safety Science (1997)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Performance of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes
Alderighi, Elisabetta; Bursi, Oreste; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

Conference (2008, October)

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase ... [more ▼]

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase the risk of loss of life if a fire occurs within a building. It is obvious therefore that a fire after an earthquake is a design scenario that should be properly addressed in any performance-based design, in locations where significant earthquakes can occur. In this paper both experimental and numerical results of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes are described as part of a European project aimed at developing fundamental data, design guidelines and prequalification of ductile and fire resistant composite beam-to-column joints. In detail, both the experimental program and the fire experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper together with thermal numerical simulations on frames and joints. Both the experimental activity and the numerical work demonstrated the adequacy of the seismic and joint fire design. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULg)
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See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia S.; Johnston, Danielle B.

in Biological Invasions (2013), 15(5), 1113-1123

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2,274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia; Johnston, Danielle

Poster (2012)

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 95 (4 ULg)
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See detailFire resistance of a steel structure subjected to a localised fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; alonso, Alain

Report (2009)

The fire resistance of a light weight steel structure is analised under a localised fire.

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of circular concrete columns
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisschops, P.-F.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Concrete under Sever Conditions (CONSEC'01) (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (9 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of columns in steel frames
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (1992), 19(2 - 3), 159-175

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and ... [more ▼]

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and international documents apply to some restricted particular cases of single elements (beams, columns). In most practical circumstances beams and columns are subjected to a combination of axial forces and bending moments and have variable restraint and displacement conditions at their ends. The problem is particularly complicated for columns. For this type of situation advanced computer programs can at the present time provide a satisfactory method for the determination of the fire resistance. This paper illustrates the preceding comments by evaluating the fire endurance of an unbraced steel frame with two loading conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles
Vassart, Olivier; Hawes, Mike; Simms, Ian et al

Report (2011)

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the RFCS FiCEB+ [23] and in the scope of the PHD of O.Vassart [24]. This calculation procedure has been introduced in the ACB+ software available on www.arcelormittal.com/sections [23] RFS2-CT-2007-00042 : FICEB+ - Fire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles ; March 2011 [24] O. Vassart, Analytical model for cellular beams made of hot rolled sections in case of fire, PhD Thesis, Université Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand II, 2009 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles (FICEB) report: Ulster test numerical simulation
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2009)

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that ... [more ▼]

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that certain cellular beams will be without any fire protection in order to investigate the contribution of membrane effect to overall fire resistance. However, cellular beams could behave in a very different way compared to traditional steel beams because of risk of local phenomenon. The aim of this study was to build a complex FE Model of whole composite floor system with long span cellular beams connected to composite slab in order to take account of 3D membrane effect. This permitted, on the one hand, to find out the right numerical model for this type of composite floor, and on the other hand to define the appropriate structure to be used for the full scale fire test. In order to achieve this latter purpose, a sensitivity study has be carried out in which determinant parameters for ensuring a good membrane effect have been investigated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 137 (12 ULg)
See detailFire resistance of restrained columns
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (1998, March 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of simple frames according to eurocode 3
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; schröder, L.; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Batista, C.; de M Batista, Eduardo; Pfeil, Michèle S. (Eds.) Proc. 5th Int. Colloquium on Structural Stability (1996)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULg)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of timbers from tropical countries and comparison of experimental charring rates with various models
Njankouo, Jacques Michel; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Construction & Building Materials (2005), 19(5), 376-386

Tropical hardwood species are more and more used in the field of construction due to the particular qualities they can offer. Presently it is no longer possible to envisage the development of construction ... [more ▼]

Tropical hardwood species are more and more used in the field of construction due to the particular qualities they can offer. Presently it is no longer possible to envisage the development of construction materials and products without taking into consideration the problem of their fire behaviour, and more particularly of their fire resistance. In the case of timber elements, this characteristic is mainly influenced by the charring rate of the external layers of the element. On the other hand this parameter is influenced by the density of the material. Limited information is available on the charring rate of tropical hardwood species. Therefore experimental investigations have been conducted at the University of Liege to study this characteristic. Seven tropical and three timber species from temperate countries have been examined. Two types of test have been used, one on small specimens, the other on a construction element made of one single material. In the first type, 20 specimens have been manufactured by gluing several laminates together. The specimens were instrumented with four thermocouples inserted at various depths in four different laminates. In the second type, a non-loaded wall made of 12 glued-laminated spruce beam profiles was instrumented with thermocouples embedded at different depths in the panel for the evaluation of the charring rate. Experimental charring rates have been compared with the results derived from Eurocode EC5-1.2 recommendation [ENV 1995-1-2. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-2: General rules - Structural fire design. European prestandard; 1994], Australian standard AS 1720.4 relation [AS 1720.4. Timber structures Part 4: fire resistance of structural timber members. North Sydney, Australia: Standards Australia; 1990] and White's model [Charring rates of different wood species. PhD dissertation. Madison University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1988; White RH, Erik V, Nordheim EV. Charring rate of wood for ASTM El 19 exposure. Fire Technol 1992-28(1)]. This comparison shows that the results obtained from these three models are not entirely satisfactory for tropical hardwood species. Therefore a new model has been proposed. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (8 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of unrestrained welded steel beams submitted to lateral-torsional buckling
Vila Real, P. M. M.; Lopes, N.; Simoes da Silva, L. et al

in Hoffmeister, B.; Hechler, O. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (EUROSTEEL 2005) (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire safety engineering analysis of a super market structure composed of cambered cellular beams
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Majkut, S.; Cajot, L.-G. et al

in Hoffmeister, B.; Hechler, O. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (EUROSTEEL 2005) (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Larzac plateau: low occurrence, pond-breeding and cohabitation of larvae with paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Acta herpetologica (2014), 9(1), 43-49

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds ... [more ▼]

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds, whereas palmate newt larvae (Lissotriton helveticus) typically metamorphose into terrestrial juveniles, but can also reproduce in retaining their gills, a process known as paedomorphosis. Here we report repeated observations of an unusual case of coexistence of these two alternative traits in the same pond (Larzac, France). The prevalence of fire salamanders in Southern Larzac was very low (pond occupancy: 0.36%). The observed abundance of fire salamander larvae and paedomorphic newts was also low in the studied pond. On one hand, the rarity of this coexistence pattern may suggest that habitat characteristics may not be optimal or that competition or predation processes might be operating. However, these hypotheses remain to be tested. On the other hand, as this is the only known case of breeding in Southern Larzac, it could be considered to be at a high risk of extirpation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (9 ULg)
See detailFire test on normal and high-strength reinforced concrete columns
Aldea, C. M.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in NIST Special Publication 919 (1997)

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (4 ULg)
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See detailFire tests and calculation methods for circular concrete columns
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Fire Technology (2003), 39(1), 89-97

The introduction sets the scene of the present paper i.e. the extensive research works performed at the University of Liege in order to derive acceptable calculation methods for the re design of concrete ... [more ▼]

The introduction sets the scene of the present paper i.e. the extensive research works performed at the University of Liege in order to derive acceptable calculation methods for the re design of concrete columns. It is explained that all previous works have been based on square or rectangular cross sections, for which corner spalling was observed very often, whereas circular section are nowadays becoming more and more popular. In order to examine the influence of the circular shape on the behavior under re conditions, an experimental research study has been performed recently at the University of Liege. This paper describes the test procedure, the observations made, and the values obtained for the re resistance. Theoretical methods have been developed for a quick, safe, and efficient design of concrete columns under re conditions. These methods have been applied successfully to the recently tested circular columns. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (4 ULg)