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See detailEvaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves
Laruelle, Goulven G; Durr, Hans H; Slomp, Caroline P et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2010), 37

The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global coastal ocean was evaluated from a compilation of air-water CO2 fluxes scaled using a spatially-explicit global typology of inner estuaries ... [more ▼]

The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global coastal ocean was evaluated from a compilation of air-water CO2 fluxes scaled using a spatially-explicit global typology of inner estuaries (excluding outer estuaries such as large river deltas) and continental shelves. The computed emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from estuaries (+0.27 +/- 0.23 PgC yr(-1)) is similar to 26% to similar to 55% lower than previous estimates while the sink of atmospheric CO2 over continental shelf seas (-0.21 +/- 0.36 PgC yr(-1)) is at the low end of the range of previous estimates (-0.22 to -1.00 PgC yr(-1)). The air-sea CO2 flux per surface area over continental shelf seas (-0.7 +/- 1.2 molC m(-2) yr(-1)) is the double of the value in the open ocean based on the most recent CO2 climatology. The largest uncertainty of scaling approaches remains in the availability of CO2 data to describe the spatial variability, and to capture relevant temporal scales of variability. Citation: Laruelle, G. G., H. H. Durr, C. P. Slomp, and A. V. Borges (2010), Evaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15607, doi:10.1029/2010GL043691. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of some parameters influencing the drug delivery from a dry powder inhalation device using an in vitro model of the horse airways
Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (1997), 28(6), 557-564

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breathing pattern, air humidity and position of the device on the delivery of an aerosol generated by a dry powder inhalation (DPI) device (Inhalator M ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breathing pattern, air humidity and position of the device on the delivery of an aerosol generated by a dry powder inhalation (DPI) device (Inhalator M). The in vitro inhalation study was performed using the cascade impaction method (Andersen Sampler) adapted to imitate nasal breathing. The amount of ipratropium found in the device, the artificial upper airways and the six stages of the Andersen Sampler was measured using high precision liquid chromatography. Stage 1 of the Andersen Sampler was considered to be the respirable fraction and stages 2 to 6 to be the non-respirable fraction. It was concluded that the theoretical respirable fraction of ipratropium obtained after DPI through Inhalator M was influenced by relative air humidity, air flow and the position of the device, whereas the number of successive inspirations and the duration of inspiration did not affect this fraction of the drug. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of some production parameters in Kabyle local rabbit population
Moula, Nassim ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Do Duc, Luc ULg et al

Poster (2013, October 11)

In Algeria, the rabbit production is mainly based on local population to ensure a cheap supply of urban markets proteins. This sector may represent an important source of protein which is in large deficit ... [more ▼]

In Algeria, the rabbit production is mainly based on local population to ensure a cheap supply of urban markets proteins. This sector may represent an important source of protein which is in large deficit in the country. The rabbit production can be justified by its advantages such as short life cycle and high prolificacy. The objective of the present study is to evaluate production performances of Kabyle local rabbit population. Litter size, growth rate, body slaughter weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate are considered. The experiment was carried out on 30 animals (6 males and 24 females) for reproduction in the Ath Waghlis region (north-east Algeria). Rabbits have been raised in pens with 1 male and 4 females per pen. The commercial feed was supplied ad libitum to animals. Results reported shown that total number of rabbits born, number born alive, number to weaned, slaughter weight at 84 days of age, feed conversion ratio (from weaning to slaughter) and survival rate (from birth to slaughter) were 7.1, 6.1, 5.3 rabbits, 1.90kg, 3.16 and 73% respectively. The performances of the Kabyle breed could be improved by purebred selection as well as by crossing with exotic breeds. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of species richness estimators based on quantitative performance measures and sensitivity to patchiness and sample grain size
Willie, Jacob; Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Tagg, Nikki et al

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2012)

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See detailEvaluation of spectrophotometric methods for antioxidant compound measurement in relation to total antioxidant capacity in beverages.
Tabart, Jessica ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 120

The validity of different colorimetric methods used to quantify various families of antioxidant compounds was evaluated with standard compounds. The colorimetric tests for global evaluation of flavonoids ... [more ▼]

The validity of different colorimetric methods used to quantify various families of antioxidant compounds was evaluated with standard compounds. The colorimetric tests for global evaluation of flavonoids, anthocyans, and flavanols were found generally unreliable, as reactions could be different for individual compounds within a family (anthocyanins or flavonols or flavan-3-ols) and not specific to one family. In the flavonoid test, for example, flavonols reacted very well, anthocyanins did not react, and flavanons reacted only slightly. The same methods were applied also to beverages known for their antioxidant content (apple, orange, grape, and vegetable juices, ice tea, and red wine) and the data were compared with the results of HPLC analysis of specific compounds. The values obtained in a colorimetric test were generally higher than the sum of the values obtained for the corresponding individual compounds by HPLC analysis, mainly because other compounds can interfere with the colorimetric tests. For example, in wine, anthocyanin concentrations obtained by colorimetric test were 9068  1407 µ mol /100ml (mean  SEM), higher than the sum of the six main anthocyanidins detected by HPLC, only 41 µmol/100 ml. The relative antioxidant capacity values determined for beverages on the basis of colorimetric tests could exceed by far the values previously measured in radical-scavenging tests (for instance, the antioxidant capacity attributable to anthocyans in wine on the basis of the colorimetric test was 50 times higher than the total antioxidant capacity measured by the ORAC assay). In conclusion, colorimetric tests for flavonoids, anthocyans, and flavanols appeared generally unreliable for estimating their content and thus the antioxidant capacity reliable to these compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Structural Fire Performance. Today and Tomorrow
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Hanus, François ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

The most recent applications in evaluation of structural fire performance performed at the University of Liege are described. Five topics are discussed: analysis of 3D structures, joints in steel ... [more ▼]

The most recent applications in evaluation of structural fire performance performed at the University of Liege are described. Five topics are discussed: analysis of 3D structures, joints in steel structures, spalling in concrete structures, cellular beams and tensile membrane action. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of surgery procedures for tagging eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) with biotelemetry transmitters
Baras, Etienne; Jeandrain, Denys ULg

in Hydrobiologia (1998), 371/372

Externally attached telemetry transmitters are unsuitable to tag yellow eels Anguilla anguilla (L.), in streams where they exhibit cryptic life habits and hide in narrow cavities between rocks. We ... [more ▼]

Externally attached telemetry transmitters are unsuitable to tag yellow eels Anguilla anguilla (L.), in streams where they exhibit cryptic life habits and hide in narrow cavities between rocks. We evaluated the adequacy of surgical implantation and closing procedures for tagging eels with biotelemetry transmitters. Epoxy dummy transmitters (18_8 mm, 1.6–1.7 g) were implanted in eels anaesthetised with 2-phenoxy-ethanol (0.9 ml l−1), through a 20mm mid ventral incision made in the posterior quarter of their body cavity. The incision was either left open, or closed in different ways: stitches (absorbable or non absorbable suture material) or commercial-grade cyanoacrilate adhesive (LoctiteTM). Fish were stocked in a 4 m2 flow through tank (15–17 _C), controlled daily for mortality and weekly for evaluating the healing process. No transmitter was expelled over a 12-week period, even in eels with unclosed incisions, of which 50% healed within 28 days (t50). Regardless of the nature of the filament, suturing induced skin and muscle necrosis, caused significantly higher mortality rates (60% after 10 weeks) and paradoxically slowed down the healing rate (40 and 45 d, respectively). Cyanoacrilate suppressed the inflammatory response and granted higher survival rate (90%), but did not permit to speed up the closing process (t50 = 52 d), as eels actively bit and removed the adhesive within hours. This behaviour was suppressed when we applied a freshly cut fragment of the eel dorsal fin as a biological bandage over the drying cyanoacrilate. The adhesive remained in place for one to two days and permitted to substantially increase the healing rate (t50 = 15 d). These results substantiate the efficiency of surgery techniques for tagging eels with radio transmitters, at least for units of small weight and bulk. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D et al

in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (2008), 9

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. CONCLUSION: In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of systolic function in calves by Doppler echocardiography: preliminary results
Brihoum, M; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Proceedings of the XXIVth World Buiatrics Congress (2006)

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See detailEvaluation of tactile sensors in apple firmness measurement
Petit, Catherine; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Kleynen, Olivier et al

in Proceedings of the Conference 'Physical Methods in Agriculture, Appoach to precision and quality' (2001)

The objective of the work consists to develop a non-destructive fruit firmness measurement. The tactile sensor technology was chosen. The force measurement acting between the fruit-sensor as well as the ... [more ▼]

The objective of the work consists to develop a non-destructive fruit firmness measurement. The tactile sensor technology was chosen. The force measurement acting between the fruit-sensor as well as the contact area are coupled with other meaqsurements, like the color of the fruit. The results of the measurements are compared with the firmness reference values (Magness-Taylor test) and also with the acoustic impulse response technique. Several parameters correlated with firmness are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Temocillin for treatment of nosocomial infections
LAYIOS, Nathalie ULg; CIUTEA, Mirela ULg; LONGUEVILLE, Manon et al

Poster (2014, September)

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See detailEvaluation of the acoustic comfort of air-treatment systems with a multi-task procedure
Minard, Antoine; Robin, Benjamin; Fournier, Francette et al

in E.A.A. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 2012 Euronoise Congress (2012, June)

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See detailEvaluation of the aging patient’s voice by means of the VHI correlated to the DS16 and the SF-36
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Provin, Sarah; Verduyckt, Ingrid et al

Conference (2008, May 31)

Objective vocal changes linked to the age have been largely studied these last 20 years. However, few authors have showed an interest in the subjective evaluation of the aging voice. Our research aimed ... [more ▼]

Objective vocal changes linked to the age have been largely studied these last 20 years. However, few authors have showed an interest in the subjective evaluation of the aging voice. Our research aimed the study of the aging voice by means of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) Jacobson et al., (1997) in 90 subjects divided into three groups: « 30 elderly subjects in a nursing home », « 30 elderly subjects living at home » and « 30 young subjects » as the control group. We compared the results from these three groups and controlled for several variables such as age, living place, personality, dependency and repetition, that can have an impact on the VHI score. The DS16 (Denollet, 1998) and the SF-36 (Ware et al, 1993) were used to test personality and dependency. Our results showed that the scores on the global and physical scales are higher for all groups at the retest (p=0,046; p=0,015). Although the VHI seems adapted to the aging subject, some improvements are suggested concerning the items addressing the professional life and social life (F8, F16, F22, E24 et E29). We also observe correlations between the three subscales (p<0,001). Concerning the DS16, the personality trait « negative affect » and « social inhibition » are correlated to the global score at the test and the retest (P=0,002 ; P =0,001 and P=0,048 ; P=0,015). Type-D personality raises the physical scores (P=0,018 ; P=0,006) and the global scores (P=0,014 ; P=0,003). Moreover, the VHI is correlated to 6 dimensions of general health related quality of life and with the global score of the SF-36 (P<0,001). The elderly subjects obtain higher functional (P=0,007 ; P=0,006), physical (P=0,009 ; P<0,001) and global (P=0,003 ; P<0,001) scores than the young subjects. Moreover, the subjects living in a nursery home obtain a higher emotional score on the univariate analysis (P=0,008 ; P=0,02) than those living at home. At the multivariate analysis, the variable « nursery home » has a significant impact on the functional score (P=0,02). Finally, a multivariate linear regression shows that the variable sex increases all the scores at the VHI (P=0,048 ; P=0,044 ; P=0,03 ; P=0,023) and the variable « dependency » (P<0,001) increases the emotional, physical and global score. Although vocal quality in the elderly might seem only slightly altered, age is a factor that increases functional, physical and global scores at the VHI. However, sex, dependency and personality type are also influencing vocal self-evaluation and can moderate the effect of age. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the anesthetic-lipid association constant. A monolayer approach.
Guilmin, T.; Goormaghtigh, E.; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1982), 685(2), 169-76

A new approach is presented which allows to describe the binding of different local anesthetics to lipids. Lipids (DL- alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin) are spread at ... [more ▼]

A new approach is presented which allows to describe the binding of different local anesthetics to lipids. Lipids (DL- alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin) are spread at the air-water interface and the anesthetic (procaine, butacaine, tetracaine) injected into the aqueous subphase. The equilibrium constants associated to the interfacial reaction: D+ (subphase) +L- (monolayer) in equilibrium DL (monolayer) (where D+ denotes the anesthetics, L- the lipid anionic site and DL the complex) are calculated from an experimental evaluation of the surface potential of the lipid monolayer. This mode of determination is based essentially on the good correlation between the experimental values of the surface potential and the theoretical predictions from the Gouy-Chapman theory. Fluorescence measurements on liposomes are carried out in order to locate the position of the drug in the lipid layer. This method can be extended to any positively charged drug-anionic lipid interaction. [less ▲]

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