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See detailEffects of procaine and d-tubocurarine on the activity of membrane bound acetylcholinesterase
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Gridelet, J.

in Biochemical Pharmacology (1974), 23

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See detailEffects of process water recycling during flotation of copper and cobalt oxidised ores from Luiswishi deposit in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Shengo, Michel; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Kalenga, Pierre

in Desalination and Water Treatment (2015), 55(7), 117

Laboratory flotation tests with copper–cobalt oxidized ore from the Luiswishi deposit in the Katanga province were done using process water being recycled to different degrees. Grade and recovery of ... [more ▼]

Laboratory flotation tests with copper–cobalt oxidized ore from the Luiswishi deposit in the Katanga province were done using process water being recycled to different degrees. Grade and recovery of copper and cobalt were followed by 10, 20 and 80% process to fresh water addition with the results from these conditions being compared to those without water recycling. When process water was recycled at 10%, 83.7% copper and 84.1% cobalt were recovered at the rougher stage bringing the cleaner stage to a concentrate with recovery of 53 and 60% for copper and cobalt, respectively. However, recycling process water, up to 20 and 80%, has reduced the recovery of copper in the final concentrate to 23 and 6%, respectively, and of cobalt to 46 and 27%, respectively. Monitoring of dissolved oxygen content, pulp pH and Es potential during flotation, coupled with thermodynamic estimation of the predominant chemical compounds in the system, has enabled to evaluate the effects on flotation from the undesirable compounds’ formation during process water recycling. DRIFT spectroscopy was used to identify the nature of the chemical compounds formed on malachite and heterogenite surface during their sulphidisation in the presence of thiosulphate ions. Thiosulphate ions depending on their concentration could promote or hinder malachite and heterogenite flotation by inducing changes in pulp physicochemical parameters or by altering mineral surface properties. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Processing on the Compositions and Physicochemical Properties of Fibre Concentrate from Cooked Fruit Pomaces
Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Bchir, Brahim ULg; Aguedo, Mario ULg et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2013)

This study examined the influence of applied tech- nologies namely desugaring, grinding, and bleaching on the compositions (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, and pectins), physicochemical properties ... [more ▼]

This study examined the influence of applied tech- nologies namely desugaring, grinding, and bleaching on the compositions (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, and pectins), physicochemical properties (water-holding capacity (WHC), swelling capacity (SWC), oil-holding capacity (OHC)) and the colour of dietary fibre (DF) during the production of fibre concentrates from unusual cooked apple and pear pomaces. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and optical microscopy were also performed to monitor process-induced modifica- tion. All the processing conditions affected the compositions and physicochemical properties of DF. The bleaching treat- ment induced the greatest changes on DF producing yellow cellulose-rich fibre concentrates with improved WHC from 3.2 to 10.0 g/g and improved SWC from 4.0 to 8.8 ml/g. Otherwise, reduction of the particle size influenced hydration properties and colours of DF. WHC and SWC tended to increase with the particle size whereas smaller granulometric size increased the lightness of fibres. Desugaring increased the DF content in both pomaces by 1.2-fold with slight modifica- tion of apple insoluble dietary fibre ratio. Fibre concentrates had improved WHC and SWC up to 1.4-fold. All processes had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on OHC of DF except with ultrafine apple fibre concentrates. Results showed that pro- cessing had overall positive effects on DF contents and hy- dration properties of pomaces from cooked fruits. Bleached fibre concentrates from apple pomace had the highest WHC (10.0 g/g) whereas that of pear had the highest fibre content (89.9 %). Fibres from cooked fruit pomaces may therefore be used as textural ingredients or functional foods. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of prodelphinidins isolated from Ribes nigrum leaves on chondrocyte metabolism and COX activity
Angenot, Luc ULg; Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Damas, Jacques et al

Poster (2002, October 29)

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See detailEffects of prodelphinidins isolated from Ribes nigrum on chondrocyte metabolism and COX activity
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg; Bassleer, C. et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2002), 365(6), 434-441

Articular diseases. such as osteoarthritis, is the clinical expression of the loss of cartilage function. COX inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of such pathologies for their beneficial effects ... [more ▼]

Articular diseases. such as osteoarthritis, is the clinical expression of the loss of cartilage function. COX inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of such pathologies for their beneficial effects on inflammation but often produce a negative activity on cartilage synthesis. In this study, we determined the effect of different prodelphinidins, the major compounds isolated from Ribes nigrum leaves, on the proteoglycans (PGs), type II collagen (coll. II) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) production by differentiated human chondrocytes cultivated in long term (12 days) and in clusters as well as their inhibition potential on COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Gallocatechin trimer (GC-GC-GC) showed the higher stimulation of PGs and coll. II production (1 mug ml(-1)) and the synthesis of PGE(2) was significantly reduced by gallocatechin dimer (GC-GC), gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (GC-EGC) and GC-GC-GC at 10 and 100 mug ml(-1). The inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis was confirmed by the in vitro test on purified COX enzymes, showing the selectivity of prodelphinidins on COX-2. However, the prodelphinidins had no effects on COX activity in the whole blood assay. Our studies suggest that the prodelphinidins fractions from R. nigrum may be useful as an additive agent in the prevention of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Proglumide and Enprostil on Omeprazole-Induced Fundic Endocrine Cell Hyperplasia in Rats
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Latour, Pascale ULg; Gast, Pierrette ULg et al

in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (1993), 17(11), 792-6

Long-term treatment with omeprazole induces hyperplasia of enterochromaffin-like cells, closely related to hypergastrinemia. We studied whether proglumide, an antagonist of gastrin/CCK receptor, and ... [more ▼]

Long-term treatment with omeprazole induces hyperplasia of enterochromaffin-like cells, closely related to hypergastrinemia. We studied whether proglumide, an antagonist of gastrin/CCK receptor, and enprostil, a synthetic prostaglandin E2 derivative, might inhibit this hyperplasia. Six groups of 8 rats were treated for 10 weeks: a) untreated controls; b) omeprazole 10 mumol/kg; c) proglumide 500 mg/kg; d) enprostil 30 micrograms/kg; e) association of omeprazole and proglumide; f) association of omeprazole and enprostil. Serum gastrin levels were measured at different times during treatment. After sacrifice, fundic argyrophil cells were assessed by Grimelius' staining. Serum gastrin levels and argyrophil cell density were not modified in proglumide- and enprostil-treated groups, as compared with controls. Omeprazole increased significantly these two parameters. When given with omeprazole, proglumide decreased significantly serum gastrin levels and argyrophil cell density, as compared to omeprazole alone, while enprostil did not modify significantly these two parameters. These results indicate that proglumide, but not enprostil, can counteract the omeprazole-induced argyrophil cell hyperplasia in rats. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of prolactin deficiency on myelopoiesis and splenic T lymphocyte proliferation in thermally injured mice.
Dugan, Amy L.; Thellin, Olivier ULg; Buckley, Donna J. et al

in Endocrinology (2002), 143(10), 4147-4151

The importance of prolactin (PRL) in mammopoiesis and milk production is undisputed. However, previous studies investigating the role of PRL in immune function have yielded inconsistencies. These ... [more ▼]

The importance of prolactin (PRL) in mammopoiesis and milk production is undisputed. However, previous studies investigating the role of PRL in immune function have yielded inconsistencies. These inconsistencies have led to our hypothesis that the immunomodulatory effects of PRL are only manifest under conditions in which the organism is subjected to stress. Thermal injury is a well-known stressor. The goal of this study was to determine whether the lack of PRL enhanced the negative effects of thermal injury-induced immune alterations utilizing a mouse model in which the PRL gene had been disrupted. Mice received either sham or burn treatment, and were sacrificed 4 days later. The immune parameters studied were the capacity of bone marrow cells to form granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (GM-CFU) in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and the ability of the splenic T lymphocytes to proliferate in response to phytohemagglutin (PHA). As shown by others, our results reveal that burn increased the number of GM-CFU compared to sham controls; however, this elevation was only significant in the PRL-/- mice. Thermal injury increased PHA-stimulated proliferation of splenic T lymphocytes, however this increase was only significant in the PRL+/- group. We conclude that under conditions of a controlled stress event (thermal injury) [a] the increase in the GM-CFU is exaggerated in the absence of PRL, and [b] the enhancement of PHA-induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes required PRL. This study supports the hypothesis that the immunomodulatory effects of PRL are manifest when the organism is subjected to stress. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of propofol on endothelial cells subjected to a peroxynitrite donor (SIN-1).
Mathy, Marianne ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Kohnen, S. et al

in Anaesthesia (2000), 55(11), 1066-71

We investigated the effect of propofol on endothelial cells subjected to the peroxynitrite (ONOO-) donor 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1). Cells were incubated overnight with 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM SIN-1 ... [more ▼]

We investigated the effect of propofol on endothelial cells subjected to the peroxynitrite (ONOO-) donor 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1). Cells were incubated overnight with 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM SIN-1, with or without 10-3 M propofol (Diprivan). Cytotoxicity, assessed by measuring the release of pre-incorporated 51Cr, increased when the concentration of SIN-1 increased, and was significantly decreased by 10-3 M propofol (90%, 78% and 28% of protection against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM SIN-1, respectively). Cell protection against 1 mM SIN-1 was tested with 0.03-1.0 mM propofol and this was compared to tyrosine, a target molecule for peroxynitrite. Propofol protected cells in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.98; p < 0.001) and was as effective as tyrosine. Finally, using high-performance liquid chromatography, we demonstrated that propofol reacted with ONOO- more rapidly than did tyrosine, inhibiting nitrotyrosine formation. In the absence of propofol, 3.5 mM ONOO- with 1 mM tyrosine yielded 39.6% nitrotyrosine, but nitrotyrosine was not produced when 5 mM propofol was added. We conclude that propofol protects endothelial cells against the toxicity of ONOO-. The anti-oxidant properties of propofol can be partially attributed to its scavenging effect on peroxynitrite, a property that might be relevant in pathological situations involving a significant contribution of peroxynitrite to tissue damage. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of pulsatile delivery of insulin and glucagon in humans.
Paolisso, G.; Scheen, André ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in American Journal of Physiology (1989), 257(5 Pt 1), 686-96

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the respective effects of continuous intravenous delivery of both insulin and glucagon compared with those of pulsatile insulin (and continuous glucagon ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the respective effects of continuous intravenous delivery of both insulin and glucagon compared with those of pulsatile insulin (and continuous glucagon), pulsatile glucagon (and continuous insulin) and both hormones administered in a pulsatile manner (but out of phase) on various parameters of glucose turnover. The study was performed on six healthy male volunteers submitted to a 325-min glucose-controlled glucose intravenous infusion using the Biostator. The endogenous secretion of pancreatic hormones was inhibited by somatostatin (2 micrograms/min). Four combinations of continuous and pulsatile infusions of insulin and glucagon were performed on different days and in random order. The amounts of hormone infused were identical in all instances and were 0.2 mU.kg-1.min-1 (continuous insulin), 67 ng/min (continuous glucagon), 1.3 mU.kg-1.min-1 and 435 ng/min with a switching on-off length of 2-11 min (for intermittent insulin and glucagon delivery, respectively). In the case of pulsatile administration of both hormones, the pulses of insulin and glucagon were given out of phase with a 6-min interval. Blood glucose levels and glucose infusion rate were monitored continuously by the Biostator, and classic methodology using a D-[3-3H]glucose infusion allowed to study glucose turnover. When compared with pulsatile insulin and continuous glucagon, pulsatile glucagon and continuous insulin were characterized by a significantly higher endogenous (hepatic) glucose production. When both insulin and glucagon were delivered in a pulsatile manner, the effect of pulsatile glucagon was predominant, maintaining a high endogenous glucose production. Under no circumstance was an effect on glucose utilization or clearance detected. This study demonstrates that pulsatile delivery of insulin or glucagon in humans has greater effects in modulating endogenous glucose production than continuous infusion. Furthermore, when both insulin and glucagon are delivered intermittently and out of phase, the stimulatory effect of glucagon on endogenous glucose production prevails over the inhibitory effect of insulin. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of purified Z- and E-guggulsterones from guggul-gum extract on human preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation through the study of gene expression of adipose markers.
Hanon, Emilien ULg; Keophiphath, Mayoura; Jacquemond-Collet, Ingrid et al

Poster (2009)

The rising prevalence of obesity within both industrialized and emerging societies is a major public health problem. Indeed obesity is a usual risk factor in the development of metabolic and ... [more ▼]

The rising prevalence of obesity within both industrialized and emerging societies is a major public health problem. Indeed obesity is a usual risk factor in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases which nowadays rank among the highest causes of premature death. Therefore, modulating fat mass expansion represents a worldwide challenge. In this context, adipocyte differentiation, which corresponds to the cellular transition of a fibroblastic cell (the preadipocyte) to a highly specialized cell accumulating triglycerides (the adipocyte), is a decisive process in the expansion of adipose tissue during life span and consequently, in the development of obesity. Adipogenesis markers such as PPARg2, C/EBPa, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), perilipin (PLIN) and the adipokines (leptin and adinopectin) are known to be expressed throughout the different stages of adipocyte differentiation. Guggulsterones are the principal bioactive steroidal components found in the oleoresin (guggul gum) collected from the indian guggul tree, Commiphora mukul (Hook, ex Stocks) Engl. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the two purified diastereoisomeric forms of guggulsterones (Z- and E-) on the human preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of raloxifene on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis : 4-year results from the MORE trial
Delmas, PD; Ensrud, KE; Harper, K et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2000), 15(S1), 556

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See detailThe effects of raloxifene on incident vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis : 4-year results from the MORE trial
Eastell, R; Adachi, J; Harper, K et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2000), 15(S1), 229

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See detailThe effects of rater bias on hypothesis testing when using different assessment methods for estimating disease severity.
CHIANG, KUO-SZU; Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 26

Bias (over and underestimates) in estimates of disease severity, and the impact of that inaccuracy on hypothesis testing using different disease scales was explored. Nearest percent estimates (NPE), the ... [more ▼]

Bias (over and underestimates) in estimates of disease severity, and the impact of that inaccuracy on hypothesis testing using different disease scales was explored. Nearest percent estimates (NPE), the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale and four different linear category scales (5% and 10% increments, with and without additional grades at low severity) were compared. Actual values and estimates by 4 different raters of the severity (0 to 100%) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat were used to develop distributions for a simulation model. The simulations were based on i) all the 4 raters data combined, ii) only the most accurate rater estimates, and iii) only the most biased rater. Regardless of the effect of rater ability, we found that, there were lower type II error rates with NPEs as compared with the other category scales at severities of 80 to 100%. On the other hand, with lower severities (0 to 20%), the 5% and 10% scales with additional grades had type II error rates comparable to those for the NPEs. Raters who overestimated severity and used the H-B scale had the highest risk of a type II error when the mean disease severity was low. Knowledge of how rater ability and scale type can affect hypothesis testing can be used to improve disease assessment as well as to provide a logical framework for developing standard area diagrams. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of raw and processed Mucuna priurens seed based diets on the growth parameters and meat characteristics of Benin local Guinea fowl (Meleagris numida, L)
Dahouda, M.; Toleba, S. S.; Youssao, A. K. I. et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2009), 8(9), 882-889

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See detailEffects of reducing sugar concentration on in vitro tuber formation and sprouting in yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex).
Ondo Ovono, Paul ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2009), 99(1), 55-59

The effects of reducing sucrose level on tuber formation (% of cultures with microtubers), development (length and fresh weight of microtubers) and sprouting in yam Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata ... [more ▼]

The effects of reducing sucrose level on tuber formation (% of cultures with microtubers), development (length and fresh weight of microtubers) and sprouting in yam Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex in vitro were investigated. Only 29% of the explants showed tuber formation after 3 weeks in the presence of 1% sucrose in contrast to 100% with 3%. After 120 days of culture, the length and the weight of the tubers obtained in the presence of 1% sucrose were less than with 3% sucrose. Addition of sorbitol to keep osmolarity at the same level did not restore normal rate of tuber formation. Similar results were obtained with the use of reduced fructose or glucose level. Microtuber sprouting was also affected by sucrose level incorporated into the tuberisation medium. Tubers obtained on reduced sucrose level sprouted later and the increase of osmolarity with sorbitol did not restore normal sprouting. The bigger tubers obtained on high sucrose media could contain more carbohydrate reserves that could partially explain a higher sprouting rate. These results can be used for optimising in vitro conditions for mass production of microtubers in yam and especially in Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex, a very important species in West Africa. They specially showed the importance of tuberisation conditions on precocity of tuberisation, on tuber length and weight and on their further sprouting. [less ▲]

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