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See detailEvidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in an in vitro model of sepsis-induced kidney injury
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Lécart, Sandrine et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2014), 1837(10), 1790-1800

To investigate the role of oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial impairment in the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis, we developed a sepsis-induced in vitro model using proximal ... [more ▼]

To investigate the role of oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial impairment in the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis, we developed a sepsis-induced in vitro model using proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). This investigation has provided key features on the relationship between oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity defects. LPS treatment resulted in an increase in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), suggesting the cytosolic overexpression of nitric oxide and superoxide anion, the primary reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This oxidant state seemed to interrupt mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by reducing cytochrome c oxidase activity. As a consequence, disruptions in the electron transport and the proton pumping across the mitochondrial inner membrane occurred, leading to a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, a release of apoptotic-inducing factors and a depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Interestingly, after being targeted by RNS and ROS, mitochondria became in turn producer of ROS, thus contributing to increase the mitochondrial dysfunction. The role of oxidants in mitochondrial dysfunction was further confirmed by the use of iNOS inhibitors or antioxidants that preserve cytochrome c oxidase activity and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. These results suggest that sepsis-induced AKI should not only be regarded as failure of energy status but also as an integrated response, including transcriptional events, ROS signaling, mitochondrial activity and metabolic orientation such as apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of pre-prosomatostatin mRNA in human normal and tumoral anterior pituitary gland
Pagesy, P.; Li, J. Y.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULg et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (1989), 3(8), 1289-94

Expression of the SRIH gene was investigated in six human normal anterior pituitaries, six GH-, three PRL-, three mixed GH/PRL-secreting and four nonsecreting adenomas. Total cellular RNA and poly(A ... [more ▼]

Expression of the SRIH gene was investigated in six human normal anterior pituitaries, six GH-, three PRL-, three mixed GH/PRL-secreting and four nonsecreting adenomas. Total cellular RNA and poly(A+) mRNAs were analyzed by dot and Northern blot hybridization to a 3'-end labeled oligonucleotide probe specific for the human pre-proSRIH mRNA. A weak but detectable pre-proSRIH hybridization signal was present in human normal anterior pituitaries and in the four groups of adenomas. The size of this pre-proSRIH mRNA was indistinguishable from that found in our hypothalamic samples and close to that described in the literature. The wide variation of the signal intensity from one case to the other in each group of the different types of normal and tumoral antehypophyseal samples prevented establishment of any correlation between the level of pre-proSRIH mRNA and the nature of the pituitary tissue. The presence of SRIH mRNA in human normal and tumoral anterior pituitary tissues provides a sound basis to substantiate the hypothesis of a SRIH biosynthesis in the human anterior pituitary gland. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of rainbow trout prolactin interaction with its receptor through unstable homodimerisation.
Le Rouzic, Philippe; Sandra, Olivier; Grosclaude, Jeanne et al

in Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology (2001), 172(1-2), 105-13

This study aims to characterise Prolactin receptor (PRLR) in rainbow trout for which no information is available despite the availability of Salmonid PRL preparations. By screening a freshwater rainbow ... [more ▼]

This study aims to characterise Prolactin receptor (PRLR) in rainbow trout for which no information is available despite the availability of Salmonid PRL preparations. By screening a freshwater rainbow trout intestine cDNA library with a probe corresponding to the extracellular domain (ECD) of tilapia PRLR, we have cloned a 2.5 kb insert coding for the PRLR. The mature protein of 614 amino acid residues is similar to PRLR isolated in tilapia and also the long form of mammalian PRLR. Analysis of PRLR gene expression in osmoregulatory organs revealed the presence of a unique transcript, thus confirming the involvement of this hormone in the control of osmoregulation in this fish species. By using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, kinetic measurement of interaction between trout PRL and its receptor ECD was studied. This approach allowed us to demonstrate the formation of a transient, unstable homodimeric complex. This unstability could explain the inability to perform binding experiments using homologous PRL. In contrast, heterologous lactogenic ligands were able to interact through a more stable complex. Whether these characteristics of PRL-receptor interaction in rainbow trout are different to what occurs in tilapia where a homologous radioreceptor assay was developed would require further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of the Image. A few Suggestions for a Cultural History of Photography
Havelange, Carl ULg

in WIMBÖCK, Gabriele; LEONHARD, Karin; FRIEDRICH, Markus (Eds.) Evidentia. Reichweiten visueller Wahrnehmung in der Frühen Neuzeit (2007)

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See detailEvidence of upward filed-aligned currents at the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's noon magnetosphere: observations and theory
Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Talboys, D. L. et al

Conference (2007, June 26)

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See detailEvidence of West European defined miospore zones in the Uppermost Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of the Amazonas Basin (Brazil).
Loboziak, S; Streel, Maurice ULg; Caputo, M.V. et al

in Geobios (1991), 24(1), 5-11

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See detailEvidence of wind-induced temperature anomalies in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean in winter-spring 2010
Troupin, Charles ULg; Machín, Francis

Poster (2011, April)

During the first months of 2010, the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic displayed anomalously high temperatures, with values seldom observed during the last decades. In situ and remote sensing data ... [more ▼]

During the first months of 2010, the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic displayed anomalously high temperatures, with values seldom observed during the last decades. In situ and remote sensing data are used to evaluate horizontal, vertical and temporal extensions of the anomalies. The repercussions on the seasonal evolution of the mixed layer are examined; in particular, it is shown that the northwest Africa coastal upwelling is significantly weakened in comparison to previous years. The consequences on the biological variables are examined by means of satellite-derived measurements. A simple mechanism related to changes in wind intensity is proposed in order to explain our observations. The wind weakening coincides with a strongly negative value of the North Atlantic Oscillation index. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence on the Determinants of Innovation in a Sample of Spanish firms
Artige, Lionel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

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See detailEvidence That Breast Cancer Associated Microcalcifications Are Mineralized Malignant Cells
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Bellahcene, Akeila ULg

in International Journal of Oncology (1998), 12(2), 305-8

Microcalcifications are often associated with both benign and malignant human breast lesions. Around 40% of mammary carcinoma present such ectopic mineralization and frequently, they are the only ... [more ▼]

Microcalcifications are often associated with both benign and malignant human breast lesions. Around 40% of mammary carcinoma present such ectopic mineralization and frequently, they are the only mammographic feature that indicate the presence of a tumoral lesion. Microcalcifications associated with breast cancer are usually composed of hydroxyapatite, the bone specific mineral. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of such crystals within breast malignant tissue have not been elucidated. A possible clue could be provided by the recent demonstration that breast cancer cells express several bone matrix proteins including osteonectin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein (BSP). This latter phospho-protein is involved in the initiation of hydroxyapatite crystallisation and its expression in breast cancer has been associated to the presence of hydroxyapatite microcalcifications. We examined 10 human breast cancer lesions which were characterized by the presence of microcalcifications and high expression of BSP. Histological examination of the lesions suggested, in most of the cases, that the microcalcifications were breast cancer cells which became mineralized. Hydroxyapatite stained in blue by hematoxylin appears concentrated around single of associated cancer cells. Staining of these tissue sections with 4',6 diamidino-2-phenylindole which specifically labels DNA led us to demonstrate that the mineralizated structures contain cells. These data are the first direct demonstration that breast microcalcifications are fossils of cancer cells. The mechanisms for such a phenomenon remain to be demonstrated. We speculate that the high expression of BSP could create an appropriate microenvironment for the crystallisation of calcium and phosphate into hydroxyapatite. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the dominant thymic peptide of the insulin superfamily
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Achour, Imane; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in The Endocrine Society (Ed.) Proceedings of the 75th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society (1993)

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See detailEvidence that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the dominant thymic peptide of the insulin superfamily
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Achour, Imane; Robert, Françoise et al

in Thymus (1993), 21(2), 115-127

Central T-cell tolerance of neurondocrine functions has been proposed to be primarily induced by the thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine self antigens. The present study aimed at characterizing the human ... [more ▼]

Central T-cell tolerance of neurondocrine functions has been proposed to be primarily induced by the thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine self antigens. The present study aimed at characterizing the human thymic insulin-related self antigen able to represent the pancreatic islet ß cell function in face of the developing T cells. Immunofluorescence studies were performed on human and rat thymic sections, as wess as on the rat IT-45R1 thymic epithelial cell line using several antibodies to epitopes of the insulin peptide family. These studies identify beyond any doubt that IGF2 is the dominant thymic peptide of the insulin family. The sequence of an insulin-derived autoantigen is proposed. This autoantigen is a nonamer and has a hydrophobic residue leucine at position 9. In human species, this autoantigen would primarily be tolerogenic for the pancreatic ß-cell endocrine function during fetal development. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence that oral tiludronate is a first line prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Ethgen, D; DEROISY, Rita ULg et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1991), 48

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See detailEvidence that oral tiludronate is a first line prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Ethgen, D; DEROISY, Rita ULg et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme et des Maladies Osteo-Articulaires (1992), 59

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See detailEvidence that oral tiludronate is a highly effective therapy of Paget's disease of bone
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Roux, C; Picot, C et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1994), 25

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See detailEvidence that the interaction between circulating IgA and fibronectin is a normal process enhanced in primary IgA nephropathy.
Davin, J. C.; Li Vecchi, M.; Nagy, J. et al

in Journal of Clinical Immunology (1991), 11(2), 78-94

A solid-phase ELISA was set up to measure the direct binding capacity (BC) of different, commercially available, purified human IgA preparations to plates coated with human fibronectin (FN). It was found ... [more ▼]

A solid-phase ELISA was set up to measure the direct binding capacity (BC) of different, commercially available, purified human IgA preparations to plates coated with human fibronectin (FN). It was found that secretory, polymeric, and, to a much lesser extent, monomeric IgA exhibited elevated FN-BC as compared to their BC to plates coated with bovine serum albumin. This binding was specific since not observed with human IgG or IgM antibodies. In addition, we noted that this interaction was dose dependent, Ca2+ dependent, saturable, and not covalent, was inhibited by soluble FN, but not by a prior incubation of FN-coated plates with anti-human fibronectin antibodies, and appeared to involve on the dimeric FN other structures than its heparin-binding, collagen-binding, or C1q-binding domains. Similar experiments conducted with normal plasma indicated that plasma IgA, but not plasma IgG or IgM, was also capable of significant binding to FN-coated plates. In contrast, serum IgA did not significantly bind to those plates under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Thus, the coagulation process induces a strong decrease in the FN-BC of circulating IgA, which implies the necessity of using plasma rather than serum to study such interactions. The apparent molecular weight of plasma IgA interacting with FN-coated plates ranged between 450 and 900 kd, and its major binding characteristics were quite similar to those observed with purified polymeric IgA. The FN-BC of plasma IgA was then measured by the same ELISA in 30 patients with primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and in 23 healthy controls. The mean FN-BC of plasma IgA was significantly higher in patients than in normal controls. This enhancement was due mainly to the augmentation in the concentration of circulating "macromolecular" IgA and was significantly correlated with the plasma levels of IgA-FN complexes. However, the pathogenetic role of these findings was probably not determinant since similar observations were made in alcoholic liver cirrhosis without urinary abnormalities and since the FN-BC of plasma IgA or the plasma levels of IgA-FN complexes were not correlated with the various biological parameters of evolutivity of primary IgAN. In conclusion, these studies suggest that the ability of polymeric IgA to directly bind to FN is involved in the formation of circulating IgA-FN complexes and that this normal binding process, although enhanced in IgAN, is probably not responsible for kidney injury, at least in the patients studied. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence that the phagocytosis mediated by the peanut agglutinin-like activity of IgG(Fc) receptors of human monocytes is selectively modulated by estradiol and natural estrogens
Malaise, Michel ULg; Franchimont, P.; Mahieu, P. R.

in Journal of Clinical Immunology (1988), 8(6), 495-502

The percentage of human monocytes (MCs) that are able to form rosettes with, and to phagocytose, IgG-coated sheep red blood cells (IgG-SRBCs) has been first determined in vitro by a classical rosette ... [more ▼]

The percentage of human monocytes (MCs) that are able to form rosettes with, and to phagocytose, IgG-coated sheep red blood cells (IgG-SRBCs) has been first determined in vitro by a classical rosette assay in 12 postmenopausal (PM) women. Half of them never received any suppletive estrogen (E) therapy at the time of testing, whereas the other six were chronically treated with E. Three different preparations of the same anti-SRBC IgG antibody batch were coated to SRBCs: the first one was the starting antibody preparation [IgG(total] and the other two were purified by affinity chromatography either on Sepharose-concanavalin A (Con A) or on agarose-peanut agglutinin (PNA) columns specifically recognizing terminal, and/or accessible, alpha-mannosyl [IgG(Con A)] or beta-galactosyl [IgG(PNA)] residues of the Fc domain, respectively. The three IgG preparations exhibited similar hemagglutinating antibody titers (1/100). All experiments were conducted using a coating range of 5000 to 6000 IgG antibody molecules per SRBC. In PM women with E, the rosetting capacity of autologous MCs (percentage of MCs rosetting at least three IgG-SRBCs), their phagocytosing capacity (percentage of MCs ingesting at least three IgG-SRBCs), and the phagocytosis index (number of SRBCs ingested/100 MCs) were similar for each IgG-SRBC preparation considered. In contrast, in PM women without E, the capacity of MCs to phagocytose IgG(PNA)-SRBCs, as well as the phagocytosis index measured with those SRBCs, was strongly reduced (P less than 0.01 at least), when compared to the same parameters determined using IgG(total)-SRBCs and IgG(Con A)-SRBCs. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence that the relations between novelty-induced activity, locomotor stimulation and place preference induced by cocaine qualitatively depend upon the dose: A multiple regression analysis in inbred C57BL/6J mice
Brabant, Christian ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2005), 158(2), 201-210

It has been speculated that an individual's response to novelty is a reliable predictor of its vulnerability to develop addiction. However, the relationships between response to novelty and the ... [more ▼]

It has been speculated that an individual's response to novelty is a reliable predictor of its vulnerability to develop addiction. However, the relationships between response to novelty and the development of drug-induced conditioned place preference are still unclear. The present study investigates the relationships between locomotor responses to novelty, cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation and conditioned place preference in C57BL/6J mice with multiple regression analyses. Four groups of mice receiving saline, 4, 8 or 12 mg/kg cocaine (i.p.) were submitted to an 8-day unbiased counterbalanced place conditioning protocol. Levels of locomotion on the pre-conditioning session were used as a score of locomotor response to a novel environment. The locomotor activity on the first cocaine-pairing session of the conditioning procedure served as a measure of the locomotion-activating response to a single injection of cocaine. Cocaine-induced dose-dependent locomotor stimulant effects and a significant place preference at all tested doses. A positive correlation was found between the locomotor responses to novelty and the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine, but was significant only for the highest dose of cocaine (12 mg/kg). In contrast, there was a negative correlation between the locomotor response to novelty and the conditioned place preference induced by 4 mg/kg cocaine. Finally, the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine do not correlate with cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at any tested dose of cocaine. The relationships between locomotor response to novelty and both cocaine-induced stimulant and rewarding effects can be differentially affected by the dose in inbred C57BL/6J mice. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence that the Two-Way Communication Checklist identifies patient-doctor needs discordance resulting in better 6-month outcome.
van Os, J.; Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (2008), 118(4), 322-6

OBJECTIVE: To assess an intervention aimed at reducing patient-professional carer needs discordance. METHOD: In a group of 460 patients with schizophrenia, the Two-Way Communication Checklist (2-COM), an ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess an intervention aimed at reducing patient-professional carer needs discordance. METHOD: In a group of 460 patients with schizophrenia, the Two-Way Communication Checklist (2-COM), an instrument to rate needs, was completed at baseline, 2 months and 6 months by both the patient and the professional carer, allowing for the quantification of patient-carer needs discordance. RESULTS: Reduction in patient-reported 2-COM needs in the group with low baseline needs discordance was much greater at 2 and 6 months (2 months: beta = -0.65, P < 0.001; 6 months: beta = -1.00, P < 0.001) than in the group with high baseline discordance (2 months: beta = -0.35, P < 0.001; 6 months: beta = -0.49, P < 0.001). Reduction in needs discordance between baseline and 2 months (beta = -0.07, P = 0.004) as well between 2 and 6 months (beta = -0.05, P = 0.020) was associated with greater levels of CGI clinical improvement. CONCLUSION: The fact that patient-carer needs discordance impacts negatively, and its reduction positively, on 6-month outcome suggests that systematic inventory of patient-carer views on needs is necessary. [less ▲]

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