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Conf. on Quality, Management and Availability of Data for Hydrology and Water Resources Management (1999)Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULg) Groundwater vulnerability assessment using physically based modelling: from challenges to pragmatic solutionsPopescu, Ileana Cristina; Gardin, Nicolas; Brouyère, Serge et alin Refsgaard, J. C.; Kovar, K.; Haarder, E. (Eds.) et al Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Credibility in Modelling (2008)Numerous groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping techniques have been developed taking into consideration a variable number of factors. The most common techniques are based on calculation of an index ... [more ▼]Numerous groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping techniques have been developed taking into consideration a variable number of factors. The most common techniques are based on calculation of an index expressing the protective effect of underground formations overlying the groundwater resource. The limitation of most of these methods is related to their use of a qualitative definition of groundwater vulnerability, as opposed to a definition based on a quantitative description of contaminant migration. A physically-based point of view and definition of the vulnerability is proposed and based on three factors describing a pollution event, which are the contaminant transfer time from the hazard location to the 'target', the contamination duration at the 'target' and the level of contaminant concentration reached at the 'target'. This concept allows a clear distinction between conventional aspects and physically-based results in the building of a final vulnerability indicator. This methodology has the further advantage to consider the possible impact of runoff conditions occurring at the land surface and possibly leading to lateral contamination of groundwater through downstream preferential infiltration features. Practically, this method needs to describe and simulate the pollutant migration in the unsaturated zone and possibly in the saturated zone in order to assess the breakthrough curve at the 'target'. Preliminary application is illustrated on a case-study located in a limestone basin in Belgium. Perspectives are proposed towards a generalisation of the vulnerability concept for risk assessment within a pressure - state - impact framework. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 198 (22 ULg) Group B Streptococcal Disease in Belgium: Culture and Rapid screeningMELIN, Pierrette Conference (1999, February 25)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Group B Streptococcal Disease in Belgium: Epidemiology, Screening Methods, PreventionMELIN, Pierrette Conference (1999, March 06)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn: Maternal GBS-Screening Methods and Antimicrobial ProphylaxisMelin, Pierrette in European Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Touch Briefings (2008), 3Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg) Group B Streptococcal infectionsMELIN, Pierrette Scientific conference (2001, November 17)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Group B Streptococcal infections in BelgiumMELIN, Pierrette Conference (2001, December)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Group B Streptococcal Infections in BelgiumMELIN, Pierrette Conference (2001, November 30)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Group B Streptococcal Infections in BelgiumMelin, Pierrette Conference (2002, March 13)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Group B streptococcal policies in the French Community of BelgiumMELIN, Pierrette Scientific conference (2001, November 17)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Group B streptococcal ScreeningMELIN, Pierrette Scientific conference (2001, November 17)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Group B streptococcal Screening, Diagnosis and Clinically Relevant ResistanceMelin, Pierrette Conference (2010, June 17)In the setting of a maternal GBS-screening program and successful implementation of the strategy, efforts to improve screening for GBS status remain important. Critical factors that influence the accuracy ... [more ▼]In the setting of a maternal GBS-screening program and successful implementation of the strategy, efforts to improve screening for GBS status remain important. Critical factors that influence the accuracy of detecting GBS maternal colonization are the choice of culture media, the body sites sampled, and the timing of sampling. The evolution of the different culture options to improve the GBS-screening strategy will be reviewed. Despite efforts related to sampling and culture procedures, false-negative GBS-screening contributing to continuing EOGBS cases and false-positive screening leading to unecessary IAP, occur. As GBS carriage is highly variable, the predictive values of GBS antenatal cultures are not always good predictors of the maternal GBS status at presentation for delivery. Rapid non-cultural GBS screening methods have been developed: antigenic tests are not sensitive enough to replace antenatal screening cultures but available real-time PCR have faired better in the detection of GBS. Real-time PCR tests could improve effectiveness of the screening-based strategy and lead to a further reduction of the incidence of EOGBS disease. However questions of costs and logistics remain unanswered. Either for therapy or for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, penicillin G for its bactericidal activity and narrow spectrum, remains the agent of choice. But in the true penicillin allergic patients, clindamycin or erythromycin have been recommended as alternative drugs. However, probably as a consequence of the important use of macrolides, related drug resistance among streptococcal isolates is currently recognized in many countries. Epidemiology of resistance to antimicrobial agents will be presented. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULg) Group B streptococcal Screening, Diagnosis and Clinically Relevant ResistanceMelin, Pierrette in DEVANI Training (Ed.) European Workshop Current Insights into Group B Streptococcal Diseases (2009, May)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (5 ULg) Group B Streptococci colonization in mothers and babiesMELIN, Pierrette ; Osterrieth, Paul; Foidart, J. M.Conference (1987, April) Group B streptococci, a European perspective with results of the DEVANI projectMELIN, Pierrette in DUCOFFRE, GENEVIèVE (Ed.) Abstract book of 27th Annual Meeting "Diagnostic et surveillance des maladies infectieuses" (2011, November)In 2011, neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases remain a global public health concern. Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely ... [more ▼]In 2011, neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases remain a global public health concern. Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely adopted, incidence of neonatal early onset disease (EOD) has dramatically declined, however despite preventive strategies cases still occur. The strategy was not expected to prevent all cases and there are challenges and limitations to this preventive approach. The best strategy for European countries is still a matter of debate and intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) is not widely recommended. To adopt the best preventive strategy, we first need better data assessing more accurately the true burden of GBS diseases in the different countries. Furthermore, as the current screening-based strategy for prevention is highly effective but imperfect, given the challenges, limitations and potential complications of maternal IAP, a new approach is still needed. Maternal immunization against GBS is an attractive alternative for the prevention of not only neonatal diseases but also stillbirths and maternal diseases. Vaccines against GBS may likely become the most effective and sustainable long-term preventive strategy. But the development of vaccines with global relevance has been hampered by changes in the distribution of GBS serotypes of strains causing diseases over time and in different parts of the world. A multivalent vaccine to cover against the more prevalent serotypes suitable for European populations might not be suitable for Asian or African populations. To overcome type-specificity, new developments target vaccines based on conserved surface antigenic proteins, such as Sip protein located at the cell surface of all GBS and on immunogenic proteins from GBS pili. A pilus-based GBS vaccine is appealing and could become a globally relevant reality. The DEVANI (DEsign of a Vaccine Against Neonatal Infections) programme funded through the European Commission Seventh Framework was launched on 1 January 2008 with the key objective being the assessment of European GBS epidemiology to facilitate the design of a new vaccine that will confer neonatal immunity through a durable maternal immune response. A major component was to undertake pan European surveillance of maternal colonisation, maternal GBS antibody responses and neonatal diseases in eight European countries. Through 2009 and 2010, all Belgian laboratories sending any neonatal GBS invasive isolate to the National Reference Centre for GBS were invited to bring their contribution to this project. Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom established specific GBS screening studies during 2008/10. Maternal vaginal/rectal swabs and sera were taken between 34-37 weeks gestation and processed using a standardised microbiological screening protocol. Samples from neonatal cases were processed using local procedures. For each pregnant woman and each case of GBS neonatal disease, standardized case report forms were filled. GBS isolates were characterised using standardised serological and molecular typing methods for detection of all ten GBS capsular polysaccharide types (Ia to IX). Furthermore all the collected isolates were screened by multiplex PCR and FACS analysis to evaluate respectively gene presence and surface-exposure of pili. And clonal analysis of these isolates was performed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The main microbiological results of this pan European surveillance are following. Carriage rates among pregnant women in all countries ranged from 8% to 26%. The most common GBS capsular types were III (33%), Ia (25%) and V (8%). Among GBS from EOD, the major serotypes were III (43%), V (21%) and Ia (18%). In contrast among GBS isolated from neonatal late onset disease (LOD), serotype III was highly predominant (80.6%) followed mainly by Ia (12.5%). Analysis of the pattern of pili genes showed that all isolates contained at least one gene coding for pili. The most common gene patterns found were PI-2a alone, PI 1+2a and PI 1+2b, while the PI-2b gene alone was very rare. The most prominent result was that a majority of isolates from neonatal infections carried the PI-1+2b gene pattern, while the most common pattern among pregnant women was PI-1+2a. Most of analyzed strains express at least one pilus on their surface. The clonal analysis showed that 66 sequence types were found to belong to nine clonal complexes (CC). Among these nine CCs, five were prevailing and covered 92 % of GBS isolates tested. The GBS population in pregnant women was found to be more heterogeneous than the GBS isolated from neonatal infection cases. Among neonatal isolates, the most frequent CC was CC17 (43 %) known as a highly virulent clone. Among participating countries, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of clonal complexes. The analysis of the levels of specific antibodies as surrogate markers of protection is still ongoing. More detailed and additional results as the main conclusions will be presented. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Group b streptococcus infection in the perinatal period: proposed scheme of preventionBattisti, Oreste ; Vanclaire, J.; François, A. et alPoster (1992)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) A Group Communication FrameworkMathy, Laurent ; Leduc, Guy ; Bonaventure, Olivier et alin Bauerfeld, Wulf; Spaniol, Otto; Williams, F. (Eds.) Broadband Islands '94: Connecting with the End-User (1994, June)This paper presents a general architectural model for group communications which are communications that may involve more than two parties. The concept of group is presented and the concept of group ... [more ▼]This paper presents a general architectural model for group communications which are communications that may involve more than two parties. The concept of group is presented and the concept of group association, which is an instance of group communication, is analysed. Those group associations are modeled as a set of basic components called multicast conversations. At the service boundery, new architectural concepts are introduced to identify a group association as well as its multicast conversations. Then, facilities to handle the group associations and the multicast conversations are defined and the properties of data transfer on a group association are examined. Finally, the paper deals with aspects of group management. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg) A Group Communication FrameworkMathy, Laurent ; Leduc, Guy ; Bonaventure, Olivier et alReport (1994)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg) Group size of a permanent large group of agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African RepublicDevreese, Lieven; Huynen, Marie-Claude ; Stevens, Jeroen et alin Folia Primatologica : International Journal of Primatology = Internationale Zeitschrift für Primatologie = Journal international de Primatologie (2013), 84Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg) Group Theoretical Analysis of the Wave Function of the $[ 70,1^-]$ Nonstrange Baryons in the $1/N_c$ ExpansionMatagne, Nicolas; Stancu, Floarea in AIP Conference Proceedings (2008), 1038Using standard group theoretical techniques we construct the exact wave function of the $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ multiplet in the orbital, spin and flavor space. This symmetric wave function is compared to that ... [more ▼]Using standard group theoretical techniques we construct the exact wave function of the $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ multiplet in the orbital, spin and flavor space. This symmetric wave function is compared to that customarily used in the $1/N_c$ expansion, which is asymmetric. The comparison is made by analyzing the matrix elements of various operators entering the mass formula. These matrix elements are calculated by the help of isoscalar factors of the permutation group, specially derived for this purpose as a function of $N_c$. We also compare two distinct methods used in the study of the $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ multiplet. In the first method the generators are divided into two parts, one part acting on a subsystem of $N_c-1$ quarks called core and another on the separated quark. In the second method the system is treated as a whole. We show that the latter is simpler and allows to clearly reveal the physically important operators in the mass formula. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)