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See detailEvaluation of Everolimus (EVE) in HER2+ advanced breast cancer (BC) with activated PI3K/mTOR pathway : exploratory biomarker observations from the BOLERO-3 trial
JERUSALEM, Guy ULg; ANDRE, Fabrice; CHEN, David et al

in European Journal of Cancer (2013, September), 49(Supplement 3), 8

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See detailThe evaluation of Fair Trade as a Development Project– Methodological Considerations
Paul, Elisabeth ULg

in Development in Practice (2005), 15(2), 134-150

This article identifies the need for an appropriate methodology for evaluating Fair Trade, given that most evaluations to date have been in-house or commissioned reviews and hence have not followed a ... [more ▼]

This article identifies the need for an appropriate methodology for evaluating Fair Trade, given that most evaluations to date have been in-house or commissioned reviews and hence have not followed a consistent approach. Focusing on the development aspects of Fair Trade, the article reviews a range of impact evaluation methods and presents a detailed methodology for analyzing Fair Trade. This methodology incorporates standard project evaluation criteria and is based on a wide range of proven methods for collecting and analysing data, principally qualitative but also quantitative. This framework is a modular package from which practitioners may select according to their needs and means, while still retaining an overarching logic. The article illustrates its use by reference to evaluations undertaken in Costa Rica, Ghana, Nicaragua, and Tanzania. The approach allows for a comprehensive understanding of Fair Trade programmes and enables these to be compared with conventional development projects. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of false transrectal ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnoses in sheep by measuring the plasma level of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins
Karen, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2003), 43(6, NOV-DEC), 577-586

The present study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pregnancy diagnoses made by transrectal ultrasonography could be confirmed by measurements of plasma concentration of ovine pregnancy ... [more ▼]

The present study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pregnancy diagnoses made by transrectal ultrasonography could be confirmed by measurements of plasma concentration of ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAG). A total of 424 Awassi x Merino ewes were synchronized for estrus and examined by transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 1, the ewes (n = 156) were repeatedly scanned in a standing position on d 29, 36 and 50 of gestation. Similarly, the ewes (n = 268) in Experiment 2 were scanned on d 24, 29 and 34 of gestation, but these ewes were fasted for 12 h prior to the examination and the abdominal wall of each animal was lifted up by the hands of the assistant during the scanning. Blood samples were withdrawn after each transrectal ultrasonographic examination in both experiments. Ovine PAG concentrations were measured in plasma by a heterologous radioimmunoassay and the cut-off value for pregnancy was greater than or equal to 1 ng.mL(-1). Based on the lambing performance, in Experiment 1, altogether 47 false negative and 38 false positive diagnoses were made by transrectal ultrasonography in 24 and 33 ewes, respectively between d 29 and 50 of gestation. In Experiment 2, altogether 8 false negative and 13 false positive diagnoses both were made in 7 ewes between d 24 and 34 of gestation. In both experiments, all ewes with false negative diagnoses had ovPAG concentrations higher than the threshold level for pregnancy diagnosis and all ewes with false positive diagnoses had ovPAG concentrations lower than the threshold of pregnancy. Furthermore, by the PAG-RIA test all lambed or aborted ewes (n = 63) were correctly diagnosed as pregnant and with three exceptions, all non-lambed ewes (n = 361) were correctly diagnosed as non-pregnant during the examined periods of both experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of false ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnoses in cows by measuring plasma levels of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1).
Szenci, Otto; Taverne, M. A. M.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1998), 142(2), 304-306

Between days 27 and 59 after artificial insemination (AI),189 ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnoses were made in 56 dairy cows using a 7·5 MHz linear-array rectal transducer. Blood samples were withdrawn ... [more ▼]

Between days 27 and 59 after artificial insemination (AI),189 ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnoses were made in 56 dairy cows using a 7·5 MHz linear-array rectal transducer. Blood samples were withdrawn from a jugular vein on the day of AI, on day 21, and after each ultrasonographic examination between days 27 and 31, days 34 and 38, days 41 and 45 and days 55 and 59 after AI. Plasma concentrations of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG-1) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that before day 31, ultrasonographic scanning was not very sensitive because six of the 30 calving cows were incorrectly diagnosed as non-pregnant. In five of these animals, the uterus was located far cranial to the pelvic inlet. Five of the cows examined between days 27 and 31 were pregnant on the basis of plasma bPAG-1 levels on the same day, using 0·5 ng/ml as the cut-off point. Plasma levels of bPAG-1 and progesterone proved that four of the cows which had early positive ultrasonographic diagnoses but did not produce a calf, were pregnant when they were examined. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Fe(III) adsorption onto palygorskite surfaces
Middea, Antonieta; Lima Alves Pinheiro Fernandes, Thais; Neumann, Reiner et al

in Applied Surface Science (2013), 282

In this work, the adsorption of Fe(III) onto Brazilian palygorskite nanoparticles was investigated and the modifications of the mineral–aqueous solution interface properties were evaluated. We also ... [more ▼]

In this work, the adsorption of Fe(III) onto Brazilian palygorskite nanoparticles was investigated and the modifications of the mineral–aqueous solution interface properties were evaluated. We also investigated the influence of the adsorbent concentration and the best contact time for the adsorption to occur. The results showed that an increase in adsorbent dosage also increased the Fe(III) adsorption and the Langmuir model fitted the experimental data, showing that palygorskite is a potential clay mineral for the removal of cations from solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of food born lactic acid bacteria for their use as protective cultures in food
Dortu, C.; Thonart, Philippe ULg

Poster (2004, December 17)

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See detailEvaluation of frequency and type of errors detected by a computerized record and verify system during radiation treatment
Barthelemy, Nicole ULg; Sabatier, Jacques; Dewé, Walthère ULg et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (1999), 53(2), 149-54

Background: Computerized record and verify systems (RVS) have been introduced to improve the precision of radiation treatment delivery. These systems prevent the delivery of ionizing radiations when the ... [more ▼]

Background: Computerized record and verify systems (RVS) have been introduced to improve the precision of radiation treatment delivery. These systems prevent the delivery of ionizing radiations when the settings of the treatment machine do not match the intended parameters within some maximal authorized deviation. Purpose: To assess the potential alteration of the frequency of errors associated with the use of RVS during radiation treatment delivery. Materials and methods: The software of the RVS was altered in order to record the settings actually used for radiation treatment delivery whereas the verification function was suppressed. At the end of the study period, the settings used during daily administration of radiation treatment were compared to the parameters recorded in the RVS using the computer. They were also compared with the planned ones written in the patient treatment chart. Results: Out of the 147 476 parameters examined during the study period, 678 (0.46%) were set erroneously. At least one error occurred in 628 (3.22%) of the 19 512 treated fields. An erroneous parameter was introduced in the RVS memory in 22 (1.17%) of the 1885 fields. Conclusions: RVS has the potential to improve precision of radiation treatment delivery by detecting a significant number of setting errors. However, excessive confidence in RVS could lead to repeated errors as there is a potential for the entry of erroneous parameters into the RVS memory. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of GC-MS/MS for determination of PBDEs in fish and shellfish samples
Pirard, Catherine; Eppe, Gauthier ULg; Massart, Anne-Cécile ULg et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2005), 67

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See detailEvaluation of geochemical determinism of trace elements in forest soils at regional scales. Lessons from the Permanent Forest Condition Survey.
Colinet, Gilles ULg; Baize, Denis; Lacroix, Daniel et al

Conference (2006)

The natural concentration of some elements in soil varies regionally according to lithology and locally with site-specific soil forming conditions such as relief or vegetation characteristics. Knowledge ... [more ▼]

The natural concentration of some elements in soil varies regionally according to lithology and locally with site-specific soil forming conditions such as relief or vegetation characteristics. Knowledge of the natural total concentrations of trace metals is now considered as prerequisite for the detection and assesment of anthropogenic contaminations. The Permanent Forest Inventory is a programme financed by the Ministry of the Walloon Region which aims at assessing and monitoring the forest condition in Southern Belgium. A part of this programme is dedicated to the implementation of a soil quality monitoring network. The observation plots are located at the intersection of a regular grid. Ten percent of the forest plots are planned to be sampled each year, which theorically supposes a time-frequency of 10 years for the monitoring considerations. Up to now, three field campaigns have been completed and 245 soil samples analyzed. Once a plot precisely located on the field, soil is sampled by mixing twenty 20cm-deep cores taken at the perimeter of a 10m large circle. Environmental observations complete the field work. These concern the physical environment, the soil morphology and the vegetation characteristics. The following parameters are measured in the laboratory: total organic carbon, total nitrogen, pHwater, pHKCl, exchangeable acidity and aluminium, cationic exchangeable capacity, NH4Cl-exctractible cations, total, mineral, and exchangeable P, and aqua-regia extractible concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, and Cd. Statistical analysis were then performed on the results in order to identify the driving factors of the soil properties, especially the geochemical determinism. Relationships between parameters and between parameters and field observations were thus investigated. Then the relevance of some classifications to differenciate the soil properties was evaluated and finally the spatial structure of the parameters was compared to the geographical distribution patterns of lithology, soil associations, or ecological territories. Although some diversity can be found among the soil series in this survey, soils developped from shales and/or sandstones are largely dominant. The first results therefore show a large extreme-based variability and moderate variation coefficients. The exchangeable cations and carbonate–sensitive parameters are the most variable. Frequency distributions are often largely skewed. Exchangeable cations appear to be more closely linked to acidity status than organic content while pseudo-total concentrations show rather good linear relationships between each other, to the exception of Pb and Cd. Both elements seem linked to specific lithologies, the presence of limestone for Pb, some clay-rich parent material or limestone for Cd. Among the soil characteristics, the nature and the abundance of the coarse fragments associated to the fine earth is the most differenciating criteria for pseudo-total content. Finally, there are clear convergences between spatial distributions of most of the elements and lithology or small natural regions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of GnRH treatment 12 days after AI in the reproductive performance of dairy cows
Szenci, Otto; Takacs, Edit; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(8), 1811-1815

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of GnRH administered at Day 12 post-AI on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 103) on a large Hungarian ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of GnRH administered at Day 12 post-AI on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 103) on a large Hungarian dairy farm were allocated randomly to treated (n = 54) or control (n = 49) groups. Twelve days after AI, treated cows received a GnRH agonist i.m., while the control group received a placebo (physiological saline). Progesterone radioimmunoassay was used to determine the correct timing of artificial insemination (Day 0) and the incidence of luteal insufficiency on Day 12. Ultrasonography and radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein were used to detect pregnancy and late embryonic/fetal mortality between Days 32 and 55 after AI. Three cows from each group were inseminated when progesterone concentrations were > 1.0 ng/mL, and six cows (four from the treated and two from the control group) had luteal insufficiency (progesterone < 1.0 ng/mL) on Day 12. Late embryonic/fetal mortality occurred in three treated cows and in two control cows. When these cows were removed from the model, calving rates after first service were 59.6% (28/47) and 59.1% (26/44) for treated and control cows, respectively (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between treated and control cows when they were inseminated before or after Day 100 from calving. In summary, administration of a GnRH agonist on Day 12 after AI did not improve reproductive performance in dairy cows. However, our approach may be used for the field evaluation of different treatment protocols. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of grain shear stress from experiments in a pebble-bedded flume
Petit, François ULg

in Earth Surface Processes & Landforms (1989)

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See detailEvaluation of grain shear stresses required to initiate movement of particles in natural rivers
Petit, François ULg

in Earth Surface Processes & Landforms (1990)

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See detailEvaluation of Heat Stress Effects on Production Traits and Somatic Cell Score of Holsteins in a Temperate Environment
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Bormann, Jeanne; M'Hamdi, Naceur et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2013), 96(3), 1844-1855

This study was aimed to evaluate the degree of thermal stress exhibited by Holsteins under a continental temperate climate. Milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell count test-day records collected between ... [more ▼]

This study was aimed to evaluate the degree of thermal stress exhibited by Holsteins under a continental temperate climate. Milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell count test-day records collected between 2000 and 2011 from 23,963 cows in 604 herds were combined with meteorological data from 14 public weather stations in Luxembourg. Daily values of six different thermal indices (TI) weighted in term of temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed were calculated by averaging hourly TI over 24 hours. Heat stress thresholds were firstly identified by a broken-line regression model. Regression models were thereafter applied to quantify milk production losses due to heat stress. The tipping points at which milk and protein yields declined were effectively identified. For fat yield, no valid threshold was identified for any of the studied TI. Daily fat yields tended to decrease steadily with increasing values of TI. Daily somatic cell scores (SCS) pattern was marked by increased values at both lowest and highest TI ranges with a more pronounced reaction to cold stress for apparent temperature indices. Thresholds differed between TI and traits. For production traits, they ranged from 62 (TI1) to 80 (TI3) for temperature-humidity indices (THI) and from 16 (TI5) to 20 (TI6) for apparent temperature indices. Corresponding SCS thresholds were higher and ranged from 66 (TI1) to 82 (TI3) and from 20 (TI5) to 23 (TI6), respectively. The largest milk decline per unit of mild, moderate, and extreme heat stress levels of 0.164, 0.356, and 0.955 kg, respectively, was observed when using the conventional THI (TI1). The highest yearly milk, fat, and protein losses of 54, 5.7, and 4.2 kg respectively were detected by TI2, the THI index that is adjusted for wind speed and solar radiation. The latter index could be considered as the best indicator of heat stress to be used for forecast and herd management in a first step in temperate regions under anticipated climate changes. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of heterophile antibodies interference on Liaison PTH (Diasorin)
Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Carlisi, Ignazia ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2007, June), 45

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See detailEvaluation of high resolution Russian satellite photographs for map revision up to the scale 1:25,000
Muller, Fabrice; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg; Kaczynski, Roman

in Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission IV meeting (1994)

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See detailEvaluation of host defense mechanisms and improvement after trauma
Damas, Pierre ULg

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1983), 34(3), 151-153

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See detailEvaluation of Housing Heat Gains due to Metabolism, Artificial Lighting, Appliances and Domestic Hot Water User
Hauglustaine, Jean-Marie ULg

(1981, October)

The evaluation of sensible heat gains due to house occupancy is possible by taking into account the family occupancy pattern, the main source of information that gives up: - the rooms occupied by any ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of sensible heat gains due to house occupancy is possible by taking into account the family occupancy pattern, the main source of information that gives up: - the rooms occupied by any member of the family (with the activity realized at each moment of the day) ; - the use of domestic hot water ; - the use of appliances. Two household occupancy patterns are chose, corresponding to most common families. The calculation of incidental heat gains due to metabolism takes into account radiative and convective exchange from human body to its ambiance. The activities realized along the day are known, and so on the illumination levels. The necessary artificial lighting electrical power and the periods of switching-on are determined with the help of simplified methods. Heat losses wasted at production, storage, distribution and use of domestic hot water are situated. Internal heat gains lost by domestic appliances (gas or electric cooker, refrigerator, deep-freezer…) are estimated taking into account characteristics (volume, size) of appliance and for a typical use. Then internal heat gains due to human occupancy become possible to evaluate hour by hour and room by room, which is interesting for estimation of peak overheating temperature or decrement of consign temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae) oviposition behaviour toward aphid-infested plants using a leaf disc system.
Almohamad, Raki; Verheggen, François ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2006), 71(2 Pt B), 403-12

Several aphidophagous beneficials such as parasitoids and predators are known to respond positively to aphid infested plants. Semiochemicals from the latter association play an important role in the ... [more ▼]

Several aphidophagous beneficials such as parasitoids and predators are known to respond positively to aphid infested plants. Semiochemicals from the latter association play an important role in the foraging of predators in a tritrophic approach. In this work, three host plants infested with green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer were used to study the effect of prey density and aphid colony location on plant toward Episyrphus balteatus female. Their reproductive behaviour and efficiency (in terms of fecundity) were observed in net cages. Three kinds of experiments were performed using a disc leaf on agar diet in small Petri dishes under different conditions: 1) leaf disc of broad bean (Vicia faba) were infested with different aphid prey densities, 2) three host plants (Vicia faba, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum nigrum) infested with 3 different aphid prey densities and 3) three different heights of aphid colony location on V. faba plant infested with constant aphid density were also tested using leaf disc system. Aphid-free leaf discs were also used as control for predator behaviour observations. Oviposition rates of hoverfly on leaf disc system vary significantly with prey aphid densities. The means of eggs per laying were 0.9, 5.3, and 31.2 for 0, 10 and 100 aphid densities respectively. E. balteatus females were also able to evaluate and adjust oviposition rates according to different aphid prey densities/host plant. The 5 and 20 cm stakes were the most attractive heights of aphid colony location for the hoverfly oviposition. The means of eggs per laying were 16.7, 18.5 and 5.8 for 5, 20 and 40cm heights respectively. Our leaf disc system was found to be a practical and efficient way to assess chemical cues from aphids according to different conditions on the hoverfly reproductive behaviour. [less ▲]

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