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See detailEvidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms
Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick ULg et al

in Polar Science (2010), 4

Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the ... [more ▼]

Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub- Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a changing size-frequency distribution of landslides in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan, Central Asia
Schlögel, Romy; Torgoev; De Marneffe, Cédric et al

in Earth Surface Processes & Landforms (2011), 36/12

There is a strong possibility that environmental change (whether climate or land use) will be manifest as changes in the size–frequency distribution of landslides. Here, evidence is presented for this ... [more ▼]

There is a strong possibility that environmental change (whether climate or land use) will be manifest as changes in the size–frequency distribution of landslides. Here, evidence is presented for this from western Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Remote sensing and spatial analysis have been applied to map mass movements in the central part of the Maily‐Say Valley and to detect recent landslide activations. The evolution of landslide activity over the past 50 years has been analysed on the basis of pre‐existing landslide maps and new analyses of aerial photographs as well as Quickbird images. Five inventories were produced for the years 1962 (based on the existing map of 1962 and aerial photographs of 1962), 1984 (based on the existing map of 1977 and aerial photographs of 1984), 1996 (based on aerial photographs of 1996), 2002 (based on the existing map of 2003 and Quickbird imagery of 2002) and 2007 (based on Quickbird imagery of 2007). The geomorphologic features contained in the catalogues represent the landslide bodies observed from remote imagery of the corresponding year. Mapped landslides are generally considered as the result of a series of slope failure events. Size–frequency analyses applied to the five landslide inventories show that both the number and size of unstable slopes increased from 1962 (162 objects) to 2007 (208 objects) and the power‐law exponent decreased over time. This changing power‐law exponent may indicate that landslide‐related hazards are increasing. This tendency is documented in more detail for two active landslide zones, one in the main valley and one located to the west of it. Landslide detection methods were used to assist the evolution of slope instabilities. Choosing appropriate thresholds, the image subtraction method based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) allowed accurate detection of new sliding activation in these two zones. This confirmed the results of the more extensive survey that there is a systematic shift in power law exponents and size–frequency distributions for Central Asian landslides. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a complex phylogeographic structure in the common dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius (Rodentia: Gliridae)
Mouton, Alice ULg; Grill, Andrea; Sara, Maurizio et al

in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2012), 105(3), 648-664

This is the first mitochondrial phylogeography of the common dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758), a hibernating rodent strictly protected in Europe (Habitat Directive, annex IV; Bern ... [more ▼]

This is the first mitochondrial phylogeography of the common dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758), a hibernating rodent strictly protected in Europe (Habitat Directive, annex IV; Bern Convention, annex III). The 84 individuals of M. avellanarius, sampled throughout the distributional range of the species, have been sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA gene (cytochrome b, 704 base pairs). The results revealed two highly divergent lineages, with an ancient separation around 7.7 Mya and a genetic divergence of 7.7%. Lineage 1 occurs in Western Europe (France, Belgium, and Switzerland) and Italy, and lineage 2 occurs in Central–Northern Europe (Poland, Germany, Latvia, and Lithuania), on the Balkan Peninsula, and in Turkey. Furthermore, these two lineages are subdivided into five sublineages genetically isolated with a strong geographical association. Therefore, lineage 1 branches into two further sublineages (Western European and Italian), whereas lineage 2 contained three sublineages (Central–Northern European, Turkish, and Balkan). We observed low genetic diversity within the sublineages, in contrast to the significant level of genetic differentiation between them. The understanding of genetic population structure is essential for identifying units to be conserved. Therefore, these results may have important implications for M. avellanarius conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a highly complex phylogeographic structure on a specialist river bird species, the dipper (Cinclus cinclus).
Hourlay, F.; Libois, Roland ULg; D'Amico, F. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution (2008), 49(2), 435-44

This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the white-throated dipper (Cinclus cinclus), a Palearctic, temperate, passerine bird that is exclusively associated with flowing water. Our results reveal ... [more ▼]

This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the white-throated dipper (Cinclus cinclus), a Palearctic, temperate, passerine bird that is exclusively associated with flowing water. Our results reveal a complex phylogeographic structure with at least five distinct lineages for the Western Palearctic region. As for many species of the Western Palearctic fauna and flora, this genetic structure is probably linked to the isolation of populations in different southern refuges during glacial periods. Furthermore, the isolation of populations in Scandinavia and/or Eastern regions, but also in Morocco and probably in Corsica, was accentuated by ecological and biogeographic barriers during Quaternary interglacial periods. During glacial periods, Italy, Sicily and the Balkano-Carpathian region acted as major refuge zones for the dipper. At the end of the last ice age, Western Europe was repopulated by dippers from an Italian refuge, while Eastern Europe was recolonised by Balkano-Carpathian birds. A large contact zone between these two lineages was evidenced and extends from Luxembourg to Hungary. Finally, our results indicate the need to clarify the taxonomic status of the dipper, especially concerning the European subspecies whose validity appears uncertain. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a limited contribution of feto-maternal interactions to trophoblast differentiation along the invasive pathway
Goffin, Frédéric ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Malassine, A. et al

in Tissue Antigens (2003), 62(2), 104-116

Trophoblast differentiation is a key event in human placental development. During extravillous trophoblast (EVT) differentiation, stem cells from the anchoring villi detach from their basement membrane ... [more ▼]

Trophoblast differentiation is a key event in human placental development. During extravillous trophoblast (EVT) differentiation, stem cells from the anchoring villi detach from their basement membrane and proliferate to form aggregates called trophoblast cell columns (TCCs). They subsequently invade the decidua and differentiate into interstitial and endovascular trophoblasts. The influence of the decidua on EVT differentiation is controversial. We therefore compared the pattern of trophoblast differentiation marker expression in viable intrauterine and tubal pregnancies, as decidual cell markers (prolactin [PRL] and insulin-like growth factor binding Protein-1 [IGFBP1]) were only expressed in endometrial implantation sites. Extravillous trophoblast differentiation in anchoring villi from uterine and ectopic pregnancies exhibited a comparable phenotypical switch: alpha6 integrin subunit, E-cadherin, EGF receptor, Ki 67 and connexin 40 were localized in the proximal part of the TCC, while alpha5beta1 and alpha1 integrins, c-erb B2, hPL and HLA-G were expressed by invasive cytotrophoblasts. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p57 were mainly detected in invasive cytotrophoblasts some distance from the columns. However, the TCC was markedly longer in tubal pregnancy than in intrauterine pregnancy. These findings suggest that the decidua is not necessary to trigger EVT invasion, but that it is likely to limit the extent of the TCC and to accelerate the onset of EVT migration. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a protein immunologically related to pregnancy specific proteins in ruminant gonads
Zoli, AP; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Ectors, F

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Ruminant Reproduction Symposium (1990)

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See detailEvidence of a reentrant Peierls distortion in liquid GeTe
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Godlevsky, V.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2000), 85(9), 1950-1953

The local atomic order of semiconducting liquid GeTe is studied using first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. Our work points out a high degree of alternating chemical order in the liquid and ... [more ▼]

The local atomic order of semiconducting liquid GeTe is studied using first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. Our work points out a high degree of alternating chemical order in the liquid and demonstrates the presence of a Peierls distortion close above the melting temperature. This distortion, absent in the high temperature crystalline structure of NaCl type, is a remnant of the atomic arrangement in the A7 low temperature crystalline phase. It disappears slowly with temperature, as the liquid evolves from a semiconducting to a metallic state. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a type 1/type 2 dichotomy in the correlation between quasar optical polarization and host-galaxy/extended emission position angles
Borguet, Benoît ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Letawe, Géraldine ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 478

Aims.For Seyfert galaxies, the AGN unification model provides a simple and well-established explanation of the type 1/type 2 dichotomy through orientation-based effects. The generalization of this ... [more ▼]

Aims.For Seyfert galaxies, the AGN unification model provides a simple and well-established explanation of the type 1/type 2 dichotomy through orientation-based effects. The generalization of this unification model to the higher luminosity AGNs that quasars are remains a key question. The recent detection of type 2 radio-quiet quasars seems to support such an extension. We propose a further test of this scenario. Methods: On the basis of a compilation of quasar host-galaxy position angles consisting of previously published data and of new measurements performed using HST Archive images, we investigate the possible existence of a correlation between the linear polarization position angle and the host-galaxy/extended emission position angle of quasars. Results: We find that the orientation of the rest-frame UV/blue extended emission is correlated to the direction of the quasar polarization. For type 1 quasars, the polarization is aligned with the extended UV/blue emission, while these two quantities are perpendicular in type 2 objects. This result is independent of the quasar radio loudness. We interpret this (anti-)alignment effect in terms of scattering in a two-component polar+equatorial model that applies to both type 1 and type 2 objects. Moreover, the orientation of the polarization -and then of the UV/blue scattered light- does not appear correlated to the major axis of the stellar component of the host-galaxy measured from near-IR images. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a verbal overshadowing effect in children
Vanootighem, Valentine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg; Dehon, Hedwige ULg

Poster (2011, August 01)

The report of verbal descriptions of a culprit by adult witnesses may impair their later identification ability, a phenomenon known as the “verbal overshadowing effect (VO)” (Schooler & Englster-Schooler ... [more ▼]

The report of verbal descriptions of a culprit by adult witnesses may impair their later identification ability, a phenomenon known as the “verbal overshadowing effect (VO)” (Schooler & Englster-Schooler, 1990). In spite of a large body of literature on the suggestibility of children testimony, only one study has examined whether descriptions also impaired children’s identification abilities in a single group of children (8-9 years old) and no evidence of VO was found (Memon & Rose, 2002). However, some procedural details were not controlled in this experiment and the absence of a control adult group did not allow determining whether the procedure used was able to induce a VO effect. Hence, 2 experiments were conducted on several groups of children (7-8, 10-11, 13-14 years old) and adults to determine the influence of development on the VO effect. Overall, a VO effect on face identification was found in both experiments. The quality and influence of descriptors across the ages were also examined. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of abnormal vasodilator reserve in coronary spasm.
Legrand, Victor ULg; Mancini, G. B.; Bates, E. R. et al

in The American journal of cardiology (1986), 57(6), 481-2

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See detailEvidence of an atypical scale development during the settlement phase of a coral reef fish
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Lecchini, David; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

Poster (2009, April)

As the majority of coral reef fishes, the Convict Surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) has a complex life cycle that involves an ontogenetic change in morphology, physiology and behaviour as ... [more ▼]

As the majority of coral reef fishes, the Convict Surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) has a complex life cycle that involves an ontogenetic change in morphology, physiology and behaviour as its pelagic larval stage colonizes the benthic habitat. Abrupt and spectacular changes in skeletal structures occurring when a fish takes on its juvenile form were highlighted in flatfish, bonefish, tarpon, eels, pearlfish and lampreys. However, few studies are devoted to the changes in skeleton during the settlement period of demersal coral reef fishes. In the present study conducted at Rangiroa Atoll (French Polynesia), we highlight an unexpected scales development in A. trisostegus during a fifteen days period just after the reef settlement. Fish was collected during the settlement and reared in aquaria. The osseous skeleton was displayed by a standard Alizarin red S staining technique. At settlement (t0) (SL = 22-25 mm), A. triostegus showed calcified and very long plates, lying in the dermis on the whole body. After three days, some small scales developed on the caudal peduncle. The plates seemed unchanged from the head to the pectoral girdle but were thinner on the trunk. The thin plates are pricked with whitish spots, which seem to indicate a poorer fixation of the alizarin corresponding to a decalcification process. Six days after the settlement, the squamation extended anteriorly to the pectoral girdle by the addition of new scales. Thin plates were always present on the head. Then the density of scales rapidly increased along the trunk during the following three days. The scales appeared on the head nine days after the settlement. Clearly, the plates do not transform into scales. The plates disappearance and the scales appearance appear as two parallel phenomena in the development. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of an equilibrium between selenides and osmium(VIII) reagents and selenoxides and osmium(VI) reagents
Krief, A.; Destree, A.; Durisotti, V. et al

in Chemical Communications (2002), (6), 558-559

Driving the equilibrium between selenides and osmium( VIII) reagents with selenoxides and osmium( VI) by a subsequent reaction (rearrangement of allyl selenoxides to allyl alcohols or addition of osmium ... [more ▼]

Driving the equilibrium between selenides and osmium( VIII) reagents with selenoxides and osmium( VI) by a subsequent reaction (rearrangement of allyl selenoxides to allyl alcohols or addition of osmium( VIII) species on C C double bonds) to one side, allows the transformation of methyl geranyl selenides to linalool and of methyl citronellyl selenoxide to 6,7-dihydroxy citronellyl selenide. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of an intramolecular interaction between the two domains of the BlaR1 penicillin receptor during the signal transduction
Hanique, Sophie; Colombo, Maria-Luigi; Goormaghtigh, Erik et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(14), 14264-14272

The BlaR1 protein is a penicillin-sensory transducer involved in the induction of the Bacillus licheniformis beta-lactamase. The amino-terminal domain of the protein exhibits four transmembrane segments ... [more ▼]

The BlaR1 protein is a penicillin-sensory transducer involved in the induction of the Bacillus licheniformis beta-lactamase. The amino-terminal domain of the protein exhibits four transmembrane segments (TM1-TM4) that form a four-alpha-helix bundle embedded in the plasma bilayer. The carboxyl-terminal domain of 250 amino acids (BlaR-CTD) fused at the carboxyl end of TM4 possesses the amino acid sequence signature of penicillin-binding proteins. This membrane topology suggests that BlaR-CTD and the BlaR-amino-terminal domain are responsible for signal reception and signal transduction, respectively. With the use of phage display experiments, we highlight herein an interaction between BlaR-CTD and the extracellular, 63-amino acid L2 loop connecting TM2 and TM3. This interaction does not occur in the presence of penicillin. This result suggests that binding of the antibiotic to BlaR1 might entail the release of the interaction between L2 and BlaR-CTD, causing a motion of the alpha-helix bundle and transfer of the information to the cytoplasm of the cell. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD, and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy experiments indicate that in contrast to the behavior of the corresponding Staphylococcus aureus protein, the beta-lactam antibiotic does not induce a drastic conformational change in B. licheniformis BlaR-CTD. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of an original scale development during the settlement phase of a coral reef fish (Acanthurus triostegus)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Lecchini, David; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Applied Ichthyology (2010), 26

As the majority of coral reef fishes, the Convict Surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) has a complex life cycle that involves an ontogenetic change in morphology, physiology and behaviour as ... [more ▼]

As the majority of coral reef fishes, the Convict Surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) has a complex life cycle that involves an ontogenetic change in morphology, physiology and behaviour as its pelagic larval stage colonizes the benthic habitat. Few studies are devoted to the changes in skeleton during the settlement phase of coral reef fishes. In the present study, we highlighted an unexpected scales development in A. trisostegus just after the reef settlement. At settlement (t0), A. triostegus showed calcified and very thin vertical plates, lying in the dermis on the whole body. During the first 9 days after settlement, thin vertical plates regressed and adult scales began to appear simultaneously. At 12 days post-settlement, the whole body was covered with small scales. Overall, such a rapid skeletal transformation is an example of morphological changes dealing with metamorphosis of coral reef fishes. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of association between interferon regulatory factor 5 gene polymorphisms and asthma.
Wang, Chuan; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Koppelman, Gerard H. et al

in Gene (2012), 504(2), 220-5

Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder hallmarked by chronic inflammation in the respiratory system. Exacerbations of asthma are correlated with respiratory infections. Considering the implication of ... [more ▼]

Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder hallmarked by chronic inflammation in the respiratory system. Exacerbations of asthma are correlated with respiratory infections. Considering the implication of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in innate and adaptive immunity, we investigated the preferential transmission patterns of ten IRF5 gene polymorphisms in two asthmatic family cohorts. A common IRF5 haplotype was found to be associated with asthma and the severity of asthmatic symptoms. Stratified analysis of subgroups of asthmatic individuals revealed that the associations were more pronounced in nonatopic asthmatic individuals. In addition, the risk alleles of IRF5 polymorphisms for asthma were almost completely opposite to those for autoimmune disorders. Our study provides the first evidence of association between IRF5 and asthma, and sheds light on the related but potentially distinct roles of IRF5 alleles in the pathogenesis of asthma and autoimmune disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of cardiovascular dysfunction during Pasteurella haemolytica - induced acute pneumonia in calves
Amory, Hélène ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1990)

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See detailEvidence of complex phylogeographic structure for the threatened rodent Leopoldamys neilli endemic to limestone karsts of Thailand
Latinne, Alice ULg; Waengsothorn, Surachit; Herbreteau, Vincent et al

Conference (2011, July 21)

Limestone karsts are highly threatened biodiversity hotspots supporting huge levels of endemic species. Karsts are patchy distributed within Southeast Asia and their isolation from one another give them ... [more ▼]

Limestone karsts are highly threatened biodiversity hotspots supporting huge levels of endemic species. Karsts are patchy distributed within Southeast Asia and their isolation from one another give them the features of “islands on the continent”. We have studied the phylogeography of Neill’s Rat Leopoldamys neilli, a threatened murine rodent species endemic to limestone karsts of Thailand, in order to assess the influence of its endemicity to karst habitat on its phylogeographic pattern. Two hundred twenty-two individuals of L. neilli were collected in 26 limestone karsts throughout the geographical range of this species and were used in this study. Phylogeographic structure and population genetics of L. neilli were investigated on the basis of two mitochondrial markers, the cytochrome b gene and the cytochrome c oxydase subunit I gene, two nuclear fragments, the β-fibrinogen intron 7 and the intron 1 of the X-linked gene G6pd, and 12 microsatellite loci. Our study gave evidence of a complex and strong geographic structure of the genetic diversity for L. neilli. Several highly differentiated genetic lineages were observed throughout Thailand. These results suggest a severe fragmentation of L. neilli’s populations, correlated to the fragmented distribution of its habitat and highlight its high endemicity to limestone karsts. In conclusion, this study revealed an unexpected high level of intraspecific diversity within L. neilli. These results consolidate the importance to strengthen the protection of limestone habitats and to preserve not only their huge interspecific but also intraspecific diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of complex phylogeographic structure for the threatened rodent Leopoldamys neilli, in Southeast Asia
Latinne, Alice ULg; Waengsothorn, Surachit; Herbreteau, Vincent et al

in Conservation Genetics (2011), 12

Leopoldamys neilli is a threatened murine rodent species endemic to limestone karsts of Thailand. We have studied the phylogeography of L. neilli using two mitochondrial markers (cytb, COI) and one ... [more ▼]

Leopoldamys neilli is a threatened murine rodent species endemic to limestone karsts of Thailand. We have studied the phylogeography of L. neilli using two mitochondrial markers (cytb, COI) and one nuclear fragment (bfibr), in order to assess the influence of its endemicity to karst habitat. One hundred fifteen individuals of L. neilli were collected in 20 localities throughout the geographic range of this species in Thailand. Our study revealed strong geographic structure of the mtDNA genetic diversity: six highly differentiated, allopatric genetic lineages were observed in our dataset. They exhibit a very high degree of genetic divergence, low gene flow among lineages and low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversities within lineages. Our results suggest that L. neilli’s populations are highly fragmented due to the scattered distribution of its karst habitat. The most divergent lineage includes the populations from western Thailand, which have been separated from the other genetic lineages since at least the Early Pleistocene. The other lineages are more closely related and have diverged since the Middle Pleistocene. This study revealed an unexpected high level of genetic differentiation within L. neilli and highlighted the high endemicity of this species to limestone karsts. Our results enhance the importance of protecting limestone habitats to preserve not only the species but also intraspecific diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of cutinase activity released by Ascochyta pinodes and Ascochyta pisi.
Nasraoui, B.; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg; Barthelemy, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1990), 55(3a),

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