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See detailDrought Variation and Its Sensitivity Coefficients to Climatic Factors in the Yellow River Basin
Liu, Qin ULg

in Chinese Journal of Agrometeorology (2016), 37(6), 623-632

Investigation of the variation in drought and regional response to climate change is widely accepted to be very important for ecological security and agricultural production, and can provide basis ... [more ▼]

Investigation of the variation in drought and regional response to climate change is widely accepted to be very important for ecological security and agricultural production, and can provide basis information for developing appropriate measures to reduce droughts over the Yellow River Basin (YRB). In this study, the relative humidity index (M) was calculated from a data set of daily climate variables in 102 meteorological stations over the Yellow River Basin and in sequence, its sensitivity coefficients to key meteorological variables were firstly investigated using a partial derivative method. The results witnessed that the drought degree was detected to be stronger in the upper region than the middle and lower region. Moderate, slight, moderate and extra severe drought were found in spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively and extra severe drought was found in entire year. M was detected to increase from the northwest to the southeast region and the extra severe drought region was mainly located in Shaanxi, Shanxi, north Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. The meteorological stations whose relative humidity index increased were mainly located in the upper region, while in the southeast region of YRB. Accordingly, the M is proved to be positively sensitive to solar radiation (RS) and relative humidity (RH), while negatively sensitive to air temperature (T) and wind speed (WS). The M was most sensitive to RS and T for summer in upper and middle region respectively. Furthermore, the most sensitive variable turned to be RH for spring, autumn, winter and entire year in the whole basin. The declining of RH controlled a negative trend for M in spring and summer over the whole basin, while RS was primarily responsible for the change of M in autumn in upper and lower region respectively. However, the primarily controlling variable turned to be T, WS and WS for winter in upper, middle and lower region. As for the entire year, RS, RH and RH mainly governed M in upper, middle and lower basin respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDrought, conflict and children’s undernutrition in Ethiopia 2000–2013: a meta-analysis
Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg et al

in Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2017), 95

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See detailDrought-related vulnerability and risk assessment of groundwater in Belgium: estimation of the groundwater recharge and crop yield vulnerability with the B-CGMS
Jacquemin, Ingrid ULg; Verbeiren, Boud; Vanderhaegen, Sven et al

Poster (2016, April 19)

Due to common belief that regions under temperate climate are not affected by (meteorological and groundwater) drought, these events and their impacts remain poorly studied: in the GroWaDRISK, we propose ... [more ▼]

Due to common belief that regions under temperate climate are not affected by (meteorological and groundwater) drought, these events and their impacts remain poorly studied: in the GroWaDRISK, we propose to take stock of this question. We aim at providing a better understanding of the influencing factors (land use and land cover changes, water demand and climate) and the drought-related impacts on the environment, water supply and agriculture. The study area is located in the North-East of Belgium, corresponding approximatively to the Dijle and Demer catchments. To establish an overview of the groundwater situation, we assess the system input: the recharge. To achieve this goal, two models, B-CGMS and WetSpass are used to evaluate the recharge, respectively, over agricultural land and over the remaining areas, as a function of climate and for various land uses and land covers. B-CGMS, which is an adapted version for Belgium of the European Crop Growth Monitoring System, is used for assessing water recharge at a daily timestep and under different agricultural lands: arable land (winter wheat, maize...), orchards, horticulture and floriculture and for grassland. B-CGMS is designed to foresee crop yield and obviously it studies the impact of drought on crop yield and raises issues for the potential need of irrigation. For both yields and water requirements, the model proposes a potential mode, driven by temperature and solar radiation, and a water-limited mode for which water availability can limit crop growth. By this way, we can identify where and when water consumption and yield are not optimal, in addition to the Crop Water Stress Index. This index is calculated for a given crop, as the number of days affected by water stress during the growth sensitive period. Both recharge and crop yield are assessed for the current situation (1980 – 2012), taking into account the changing land use/land cover, in terms of areas and localization of the agricultural land and where the proportion of the different crops had considerably evolved through time (e.g., increase of grain maize and potatoes while winter cereals decrease). The preliminary results of the recharge lead to an average value in the area showing a significant negative trend, in both simulations with fixed (base = 1980) and changing land cover. In the same time, we could observe an increasing number of water stress periods, especially for maize, one of the main crops in the area. Finally, a preliminary test will be presented for the horizon 2040, for which we use meteorological time series (for high and low hydrologic impacts) given by the CCI-HYDR Perturbation Tool (Ntegeka V. and Willems P., 2009). This preliminary test aims to (1) evaluate the amplitude of the potential recharge deficit and, (2) especially, to define vulnerability zones, affected by frequent water stress, in connection with irrigation needs which could possibly increase the groundwater extraction. [less ▲]

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See detailDrought-related vulnerability and risk assessment of groundwater resources under temperate conditions
Verbeiren, Boud; Huysmans, Marijke; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2013, September)

Drought hazards are usually associated with (semi-)arid regions. Due to the assumed insignificance of drought hazards under temperate conditions this field remains poorly studied. This study aims at ... [more ▼]

Drought hazards are usually associated with (semi-)arid regions. Due to the assumed insignificance of drought hazards under temperate conditions this field remains poorly studied. This study aims at filling this gap by: (1) Increasing understanding of influencing factors determining drought in a temperate context; (2) Developing a methodology and quantitative tools aimed at planning and decision support with respect to groundwater management. In the first place drought is a phenomenon caused by deficient precipitation for a large area and significant duration and as such it is mainly a meteorological-related hazard. In case the temporary water deficiency affects groundwater bodies, the term groundwater drought is used. Groundwater droughts develop slowly but can have considerable socio-economic and environmental consequences. Groundwater drought is a complex phenomenon. Three main variables are important: groundwater recharge, groundwater level and groundwater discharge. Groundwater recharge is important as it is the source (inflow) of all groundwater. The groundwater table gives an indication of the storage, while groundwater discharge represents the outflow from the groundwater system. Next to natural meteorological variations also human induced factors play a role. In the Belgian context the main influencing factors determining the inflow and potentially resulting in a recharge deficit and an overall deterioration of groundwater resources are climate and land use/land cover. Groundwater demand for human activities has a direct effect on groundwater storage (level). The combined effect of these factors makes that some groundwater bodies are under pressure. In these groundwater bodies the outflow exceeds the inflow generating a reduction in storage and hence an unsustainable situation. A thorough knowledge of all three influencing factors and their interaction or combined effect is essential for a reliable estimate of the groundwater budget and a sustainable management. Hence, there is a need for an improved understanding of groundwater drought and the human-induced factors influencing the groundwater balance. This should form the basis for an integrated approach which allows tackling these negative effects and safeguarding sustainability of groundwater resources. [less ▲]

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See detailDrought-stress and plant resistance affect herbivore performance and proteome: the case of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Verdugo, Jaime; Sauge, Marie-Helene; Laccroze, Jean-Philippe et al

in Pysiological Entomology (2015), 40

Abstract. Little is known about the simultaneous effects of drought stress and plant resistance on herbivorous insects. By subjecting the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer to well-watered and ... [more ▼]

Abstract. Little is known about the simultaneous effects of drought stress and plant resistance on herbivorous insects. By subjecting the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer to well-watered and drought-stressed plants of both susceptible and resistant peach (Prunus persica), the effects of both stressors on aphid performance and proteomics are tested. Overall, the influence of thewater treatment on aphid performance is less pronounced than the effect of host plant genetic resistance. On the susceptible cultivar, aphid survival, host acceptance and ability to colonize the plant do not depend on water treatment. On the resistant cultivar, aphid survival and ability to colonize are higher on drought-stressed than on well-watered plants. A study examining the pattern of protein expression aiming to explain the variation in aphid performance finds higher protein expression in aphids on the drought-stressed susceptible cultivars compared with the well-watered ones. In the susceptible cultivar, the regulated proteins are related to energy metabolism and exoskeleton functionality, whereas, in the resistant cultivar, the proteins are involved with the cytoskeleton. Comparison of the protein expression ratios for resistant versus susceptible plants reveals that four proteins are down-regulated in well-watered plants and 15 proteins are down-regulated in drought-stressed plants. Drought stress applied to the susceptible cultivar induces the regulation of proteins in M. persicae that enable physiological adaptation to maintain an almost unaltered aphid performance. By contrast, for aphids on the resistant cultivar subjected to drought stress, the down-regulation of proteins responds to an induced host susceptibility effect. [less ▲]

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See detailDrowsiness monitoring for road safety
Wertz, Jérôme ULg; François, Clémentine ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailDrowsiness monitoring: a matter of life and death !
Wertz, Jérôme ULg; François, Clémentine ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

Conference (2012, March 19)

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See detailDrug consumption in a Belgian subpopulation of peaple older than 45 years
Gosset, Christiane ULg; Tellier, V; De Prins, L et al

Conference (1997)

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See detailDRUG DELIVERY NANOCARRIERS TO CROSS OF THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
Palazzo, Claudio ULg; Karim, Reatul ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in Grumezescu, Alex (Ed.) Nanobiomaterials in drug delivery (2016)

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a brain protective structure composed by endothelial cells, astrocytes and pericytes characterized by specific transport systems expressed on their surface. Moreover, the ... [more ▼]

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a brain protective structure composed by endothelial cells, astrocytes and pericytes characterized by specific transport systems expressed on their surface. Moreover, the tight junctions, in the paracellular space, and the adherens junctions, in the basolateral space of the endothelial cells create a physical barrier hardly crossable from the most part of common drugs. Despite the BBB is vital for the central nervous system (CNS), it restricts drug delivery to this tissue. To overcome this obstacle many drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed. Polymeric nanocarriers, solid lipid nanocarriers (SLN) and liposomes are developed to deliver drugs otherwise not able to pass the BBB, due to their physico-chemical characteristics. Besides their capacity to pass biological barriers, the potential advantages of nanocarriers are their capability to load a high quantity of drug with low cytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug delivery systems based on amphiphilic polyphosphate-copolymers
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg; Clement, Benoît ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg et al

Poster (2013, September 18)

Thanks to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their structure similar to natural biomacromoleculesn such as nucleic acids, polyphosphates (PPhos) are of prime interest as biomaterials. In ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their structure similar to natural biomacromoleculesn such as nucleic acids, polyphosphates (PPhos) are of prime interest as biomaterials. In contrast to poly--caprolactone and polylactides, PPhos properties and functionality are easily tuned via the nature of the pendant group of the starting cyclic monomer. For example, by varying the length of the alkyl chain the hydrophobicity of the PPhos can be adjusted. In this work, an efficient organo-catalytic system was developed to synthesize a series of amphiphilic diblock copolymers, i.e. poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polyphosphate (PEO-b-PPhos) by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates. This novel approach prevents metallic residues to polute the final product, and which is highly desirable when biomedical applications are foreseen. For drug delivery application, the micellization of these novel diblock copolymers in aqueous media was investigated, as well as, encapsulation of an hydrophobic drug. Data on, the influence of the polyphosphate nature of the polymer on drug loading will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug delivery systems based on PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg; Clément, Benoit; Riva, Raphaël ULg et al

Poster (2014, May)

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See detailDrug delivery to inflamed colon by nanoparticles: comparison of different strategies
Coco, Régis; Plapied, Laurence; Pourcelle, Vincent et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2013), 440(1), 3-12

For inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment, local delivery of molecules loaded in nanoparticles to the inflamed colon could be a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate how drug ... [more ▼]

For inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment, local delivery of molecules loaded in nanoparticles to the inflamed colon could be a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate how drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles target the site of inflammation and to analyse the influence of different colon-specific delivery strategies. Three different polymeric nanoparticles were formulated using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model drug. pH-sensitive nanoparticles were made with Eudragit® S100. Mucoadhesive nanoparticles were created with trimethylchitosan (TMC). A mix of polymers, PLGA, PEG-PLGA and PEG-PCL, were used to obtain a sustained drug delivery. Furthermore, ligands targeting immune cells (i.e. mannose) or the inflamed colon (i.e. a specific peptide) were grafted on the PEG chain of PCL. Interaction of nanoparticles with the intestinal epithelium was explored using Caco-2 monolayers designed to mimic an inflamed epithelium and then visualized using confocal laser microscopy. TMC nanoparticles had the highest apparent permeability for OVA in the untreated model. However, in the inflamed model, there were no difference between TMC, PLGA-based and Eudragit® nanoparticles. The uptake of nanoparticles in the inflamed mouse colon was assessed in a horizontal diffusion chamber. Mannose-grafted PLGA nanoparticles showed the highest accumulation of OVA in inflamed colon. Based on these results, active targeting of macrophages and dendritic cells may be a promising approach for targeting the colon in IBD. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug eluting stent implantation in patients requiring concomitant vitamin K antagonist therapy. One-year outcome of the worldwide e-SELECT registry.
Sabate, Manel; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Abizaid, Alexandre et al

in International journal of cardiology (2013), 168(3), 2522-7

BACKGROUND: Outcome of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) in patients treated with an antivitamin K (VKA) agent before the PCI procedure is unknown. METHODS: A total of 7651 patients were selected among 15,147 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Outcome of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) in patients treated with an antivitamin K (VKA) agent before the PCI procedure is unknown. METHODS: A total of 7651 patients were selected among 15,147 recipients of SES, included in the worldwide e-SELECT registry, only from those centers which included at least one patient requiring VKA: 296 were pretreated with a VKA agent (VKA group), whereas 7355 patients from the same enrolling medical centers were not (NON-VKA group). The rates of 1) major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause deaths, myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization, 2) stent thrombosis (ST) and 3) major bleeding (MB) in the 2 study groups were compared at 1, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: The patients in VKA group were on average older as compared to those in NON-VKA group (67.7 +/- 9.9 vs.62.9 +/- 10.7, P<0.001). The indications for pre-procedural anticoagulation were atrial fibrillation in 177 (59.8%), presence of a prosthetic valve in 21 (7.1%), embolization of cardiac origin in 17 (5.7%), pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis in 17 (5.7%), and miscellaneous diagnoses in 64 (21.6%) patients. At 1 year, the rates of MACE and MB were higher in the VKA vs. the NON-VKA group (8.3% and 3% vs. 5.3% and 1.2%, P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The 1-year rates of definite and probable ST were remarkably low in both groups (0.38% vs. 1.1%, p=0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Selected patients anticoagulated with VKA agent may safely undergo SES implantation. Those patients may receive a variety of APT regimen at the cost of a moderate increased risk of MB. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug interactions of clinical importance with antihyperglycaemic agents: an update.
Scheen, André ULg

in Drug Safety : An International Journal of Medical Toxicology & Drug Experience (2005), 28(7), 601-31

Because management of type 2 diabetes mellitus usually involves combined pharmacological therapy to obtain adequate glucose control and treatment of concurrent pathologies (especially dyslipidaemia and ... [more ▼]

Because management of type 2 diabetes mellitus usually involves combined pharmacological therapy to obtain adequate glucose control and treatment of concurrent pathologies (especially dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), drug-drug interactions must be carefully considered with antihyperglycaemic drugs. Additive glucose-lowering effects have been extensively reported when combining sulphonylureas (or the new insulin secretagogues, meglitinide derivatives, i.e. nateglinide and repaglinide) with metformin, sulphonylureas (or meglitinide derivatives) with thiazolidinediones (also called glitazones) and the biguanide compound metformin with thiazolidinediones. Interest in combining alpha-glucosidase inhibitors with either sulphonylureas (or meglitinide derivatives), metformin or thiazolidinediones has also been demonstrated. These combinations result in lower glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels than with either monotherapy. Even if modest pharmacokinetic interferences have been reported with some combinations, they do not appear to have important clinical consequences. No significant adverse effects, except a higher risk of hypoglycaemic episodes that may be attributed to better glycaemic control, occur with any combination. Challenging the classical dual therapy with sulphonylurea plus metformin, there is a recent trend to use alternative dual combinations (sulphonylurea plus thiazolidinedione or metformin plus thiazolidinedione). In addition, triple therapy with the addition of a thiazolidinedione to the metformin-sulphonylurea combination has been recently evaluated and allows glucose targets to be reached before insulin therapy is considered. This triple therapy appears to be safe, with no deleterious drug-drug interactions being reported so far.Potential interferences may also occur between glucose-lowering agents and other drugs, and such drug-drug interactions may have important clinical implications. Relevant pharmacological agents are those that are widely coadministered in diabetic patients (e.g. lipid-lowering agents, antihypertensive agents); those that have a narrow efficacy/toxicity ratio (e.g. digoxin, warfarin); or those that are known to induce (rifampicin [rifampin]) or inhibit (fluconazole) the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Metformin is currently a key compound in the pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes, used either alone or in combination with other antihyperglycaemics. There are no clinically relevant metabolic interactions with metformin, because this compound is not metabolised and does not inhibit the metabolism of other drugs. In contrast, sulphonylureas, meglitinide derivatives and thiazolidinediones are extensively metabolised in the liver via the CYP system and thus, may be subject to drug-drug metabolic interactions. Many HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are also metabolised via the CYP system. Even if modest pharmacokinetic interactions may occur, it is not clear whether drug-drug interactions between oral antihyperglycaemic agents and statins may have clinical consequences regarding both efficacy and safety. In contrast, a marked pharmacokinetic interference has been reported between gemfibrozil and repaglinide and, to a lesser extent, between gemfibrozil and rosiglitazone. This leads to a drastic increase in plasma concentrations of each antihyperglycaemic agent when they are coadministered with the fibric acid derivative, and an increased risk of adverse effects.Some antihypertensive agents may favour hypoglycaemic episodes when co-prescribed with sulphonylureas or meglitinide derivatives, especially ACE inhibitors, but this effect seems to result from a pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction rather than from a pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction. No, or only modest, interferences have been described with glucose-lowering agents and other pharmacological compounds such as digoxin or warfarin. The effects of inducers or inhibitors of CYP isoenzymes on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the glucose-lowering agents of each pharmacological class has been tested. Significantly increased (with CYP inhibitors) or decreased (with CYP inducers) plasma levels of sulphonylureas, meglitinide derivatives and thiazolidinediones have been reported in healthy volunteers, and these pharmacokinetic changes may lead to enhanced or reduced glucose-lowering action, and thus hypoglycaemia or worsening of metabolic control, respectively. In addition, some case reports have evidenced potential drug-drug interactions with various antihyperglycaemic agents that are usually associated with a higher risk of hypoglycaemia. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug Interactions with Normal and TEN Epidermal Keratinocytes.
Paquet, Philippe; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; PIERARD, Gérald ULg

in Current Drug Safety (2012), 7(5), 352-6

Human epidermal keratinocytes (EKs) are metabolically involved in various drug transport mechanisms, as well as in detoxification or activation processes. The overall cell mechanisms of drug ... [more ▼]

Human epidermal keratinocytes (EKs) are metabolically involved in various drug transport mechanisms, as well as in detoxification or activation processes. The overall cell mechanisms of drug metabolization, and more specifically drug processing are reviewed in normal EKs. The overall drug metabolism involves different phases corresponding to the uptake, biotransformation and anti-transport steps. In EKs, both the enzymes and transportassociated proteins are different from those involved in the hepatocyte metabolism. Some cytochrome P450 enzymes and the flavin-containing mono-oxygenases are particularly involved in EKs. Basically, EKs represent key cells likely involved during the initial stage of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Only limited advances have been made so far in this field. Nevertheless, mitigating EKs metabolic disturbances in TEN probably represent a promising specific treatment of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug loading of polymer implants by supercritical CO2 assisted impregnation: a review
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2015), 209

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has ... [more ▼]

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has attracted growing attention to load Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into polymer implants since it enables to recover a final implant free of any solvent residue and to operate under mild temperature which is suitable for processing with thermosensitive drugs. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art and the application of the scCO2 assisted impregnation process to prepare drug-eluting implants. It introduces the process and presents its advantages for biomedical applications. The influences of the characteristics of the implied binary systems and of the experimental conditions on the drug loading are described. Then, the various current applications of this process for manufacturing drug-eluting implants are reviewed. Finally, the new emerging variations of this process are described. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug loading of sutures by supercritical CO2 impregnation: effect of polymer/drug interactions and thermal transitions
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2015), 300(6), 596-610

This paper aims at exploring the scCO2 impregnation of three commonly implanted polymer sutures made of poly-l-lactide (PLLA), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) with two anti ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at exploring the scCO2 impregnation of three commonly implanted polymer sutures made of poly-l-lactide (PLLA), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) with two anti-inflammatory drugs namely ketoprofen and aspirin. For all the investigated polymer/drug systems, the drug loading increases with temperature and pressure. It appears that two main criteria must be fulfilled by the polymer to achieve high drug loading: (i) a good affinity between the polymer and the drug and (ii) a high chain mobility to favor the diffusion of the drug into the matrix. As the investigated PLLA fulfills these two requirements, drug loading up to 32.5% with ketoprofen and 8.1% with aspirin has been achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug quality control by capillary electrophoresis
Crommen, Jacques ULg; Bechet, I.; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

Conference (1994)

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See detailDrug related problems and interventions of pharmacists on prescribed medicines in Belgium
De Wulf, Isabelle; Boussery, Koen; De Vriese, Carine et al

in International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy [=IJCP] (2013, June), 35(3), 497

Aim of project/study (1) To study the frequency and nature of drug related problems (DRP) detected by community pharmacists and internship students when dispensing prescribed medicines. (2) To investigate ... [more ▼]

Aim of project/study (1) To study the frequency and nature of drug related problems (DRP) detected by community pharmacists and internship students when dispensing prescribed medicines. (2) To investigate the nature and frequency of interventions by pharmacists. (3) To study whether there is a difference between DRP detection at the moment of dispensing versus in a quiet setting. [less ▲]

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