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See detailEarly maturation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and sexual precocity after exposure of infant female rats to estradiol or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Rasier, Gregory; Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Gerard, Arlette ULg et al

in Biology of Reproduction (2007), 77(4), 734-742

An increase in the frequency of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro and a reduction in LH response to GnRH in vivo characterize hypothalamic-pituitary maturation before ... [more ▼]

An increase in the frequency of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro and a reduction in LH response to GnRH in vivo characterize hypothalamic-pituitary maturation before puberty in the female rat. In girls migrating for international adoption, sexual precocity is frequent and could implicate former exposure to the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), since a long-lasting DDT derivative has been detected in the serum of such children. We aimed at studying the effects of early transient exposure to estradiol (E 2) or DDT in vitro and in vivo in the infantile female rat. Using a static incubation system of hypothalamic explants from 15-day-old female rats, a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in GnRH interpulse interval (IPI) was seen during incubation with E 2 and DDT isomers. These effects were prevented by antagonists of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4 propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors and estrogen receptor. Also, o,p '-DDT effects were prevented by an antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon orphan dioxin receptor (AHR). After subcutaneous injections of E, or o,p '-DDT between Postnatal Days (PNDs) 6 and 10, a decreased GnRH IPI was observed on PND 15 as an ex vivo effect. After DDT administration, serum LH levels in response to GnRH were not different from controls on PIND 15, whereas they tended to be lower on PND 22. Subsequently, early vaginal opening (VO) and first estrus were observed together with a premature age-related decrease in LH response to GnRH. After prolonged exposure to E 2 between PNDs 6 and 40, VO occurred at an earlier age, but first estrus was delayed. We conclude that a transient exposure to E 2 or o,p '-DDT in early postnatal life is followed by early maturation of pulsatile GnRH secretion and, subsequently, early developmental reduction of LH response to GnRH that are possible mechanisms of the subsequent sexual precocity. The early maturation of pulsatile GnRH secretion could involve effects mediated through estrogen receptor and/or AHR as well as AMPA/kainate subtype of glutamate receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly MAVEN Deep Dip campaign reveals thermosphere and ionosphere variability
Bougher, S.; Jakosky, B.; Halekas, J. et al

in Science (2015), 350(6261),

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and ... [more ▼]

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-To-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly medieval brickmaking: a cross-Channel perspective based on recent luminescence and archaeomagnetic dating results
Blain, Sophie ULg; Lanos, Philippe; Bailiff, Ian et al

in Ratilainen, Tanja; Bernotas, Rivo; Herrmann, Christofer (Eds.) Fresh Approaches to the Brick Production and Use in the Middle Ages (2014)

The integration of dating methods in building archaeology has resulted in an advance in the qualitative and quantitative information available for the study of the history of architecture and building ... [more ▼]

The integration of dating methods in building archaeology has resulted in an advance in the qualitative and quantitative information available for the study of the history of architecture and building techniques. To examine the question of the origin of post-Roman ceramic building materials, archaeological studies of early medieval buildings in France and England have been combined with scientific dating methods and applied to their component tiles and bricks. The latter were sampled and analysed using luminescence dating techniques. The results show that, as well as the practice of reusing bricks or tiles salvaged from abandoned Roman sites, brickmaking was not a forgotten skill in north-western France and appears to have been continuously practised in the region. At the same time in England, the use of ceramic spolia was the rule and the reintroduction of post-Roman bricks in the island appears to be relatively late, although recent luminescence results indicate that this was earlier than the arrival of Cistercian builders in the late 12th century. Finally, the combined application of archaeomagnetism and luminescence to the dating of bricks has revealed unexpected and systematic evidence of an early medieval brickmaking process in north-western France. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly medieval glass tiles from Saint-Sauveur (Burgundy, France)
Van Wersch, Line ULg; Mathis, François ULg; Bonnin, Myrtho et al

Conference (2015, September 09)

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See detailEarly Middle Ordovician evidence for land plants in Argentina (eastern Gondwana)
Rubinstein, C. V.; Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; de la Puente, G. S. et al

in New Phytologist (2010), 188

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See detailEarly neurogenesis and teratogenesis in whole mouse embryo cultures. Histochemical, immunocytological and ultrastructural study of the premigratory neuronal-glial units in normal mouse embryo and in mouse embryos influenced by cocaine and retinoic acid
Gressens, Pierre; Gofflot, Françoise; Van Maele-Fabry, Genevieve et al

in Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology (1992), 51(2), 206-219

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See detailEarly neurophysiological diagnosis of true neurogenic « thoracic outlet syndrome » (TOS)
Hua, MT; DUBUISSON, Annie ULg; Zeevaert, Bernard et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailEarly neurophysiological diagnosis of true neurogenic « thoracic outlet syndrome » (TOS)
HUA, MT; DUBUISSON, Annie ULg; Zeevaert, Bernard et al

in Journal of Neurology (2004)

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See detailEarly neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease
Bastin, Christine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014), 68

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See detailEarly neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease
Bastin, Christine ULg

Conference (2014, March 06)

Considering that brain pathology due to Alzheimer’s disease starts many years before the clinical symptoms become evident, subtle cognitive changes may exist already in the predementia phase. Different ... [more ▼]

Considering that brain pathology due to Alzheimer’s disease starts many years before the clinical symptoms become evident, subtle cognitive changes may exist already in the predementia phase. Different approaches have been used to detect initial cognitive impairments indicative of Alzheimer’s disease. One approach is the assessment of the predictive power of neuropsychological tools in characterizing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus MCI patients who subsequently develop Alzheimer’s disease. Another approach is the longitudinal evaluation of large cohorts of older adults in population-based studies. Findings from several studies suggest that a memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall is a useful tool to distinguish patients at an early stage of Alzheimer disease from MCI non-converters. Impaired semantic memory has also been proposed as a neuropsychological marker of predementia Alzheimer’s disease. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to predict progression to Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, combining neuropsychological scores of memory and executive functions and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination between stable MCI and converters than neuroimaging data alone. Altogether, it is possible to detect cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable Alzheimer’s disease already in the predementia stage. Such at risk people are thought to be the best target for therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly normalization of luteinizing hormone pulsatility after successful transsphenoidal surgery in women with microprolactinomas
Stevenaert, Achille ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg; Vandalem, J. L. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1986), 62(5), 1044-1047

In eight hyperprolactinemic amenorrheic women who had a microprolactinoma, LH secretion was examined by measuring its concentration in blood samples collected every 15 min for 6 h before and 8 days after ... [more ▼]

In eight hyperprolactinemic amenorrheic women who had a microprolactinoma, LH secretion was examined by measuring its concentration in blood samples collected every 15 min for 6 h before and 8 days after successful selective adenomectomy. Computer analysis was used for LH peak evaluation. In both circumstances, serum PRL and basal estradiol (E2) levels were also determined. Before operation, the number of LH peaks ranged from zero to one per 6 h in seven patients and was two per 6 h in the eighth patient. In all patients, serum PRL was normal on the eighth postoperative day, while E2 levels remained low, similar to the values usually found in the early follicular phase of the cycle in normal women. Postoperatively, mean LH levels were similar to preoperative levels, but there was a dramatic increase in the number of LH peaks (three to five per 6 h) in five of the eight patients. These observations confirm the impairment of LH pulsatility in hyperprolactinemiaand demonstrate that normalization of PRL levels by surgery can restore LH pulsatile secretion in certain women as early as the eighth day after operation in the absence of a significant change in serum E2 levels. Thus, the preoperative impaired pulsatility of LH secretion was probably a central effect of hyperprolactinemia. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis in Belgium: a decade review
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Maquet, Julie; Ducoffre, Geneviève et al

in American Society of Microbiology (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 43rd Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2003, September)

Background: In the late 1990s, Belgium has reached the era of “group B streptococcal (GBS) prevention” and after 1996, some institutions, but not the majority, had implemented intrapartum ... [more ▼]

Background: In the late 1990s, Belgium has reached the era of “group B streptococcal (GBS) prevention” and after 1996, some institutions, but not the majority, had implemented intrapartum antibioprophylaxis for GBS prevention. Concern exists that one unintended consequence of GBS prevention efforts through chemoprophylaxis may be an increase in the rate of serious neonatal infections due to Gram negative bacteria (GNB). To monitor trends, continued surveillance of neonatal sepsis is needed. Methods: On a weekly basis, laboratories of the Belgian sentinel network notified each case of neonatal bacteremia or meningitis occurring within 28 days after birth. We reviewed on a year-base data collected from 1991-2001 for early–onset diseases (EOD; < 5 days). Results: A yearly mean of 47 cases (24-90) were notified by 28 (16-35) laboratories. Overall GBS remained the leading cause and represented annually 37.9% (25-54.7%) of EOD and did not show significant change. It was followed by E.coli 11.4%, coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) 11.9%, S.aureus 9.9%, Listeria sp 3.9%, S.pyogenes (GAS) 2.5%, S.pneumoniae 2.7%, H.influenzae 2.7% and others. During the decade, whereas a significant reduction in the rate of E.coli and other GNB EOD occurred (p <0.01), significant increases in the rate of EOD due to GAS (p <0.001), S.aureus (p <0.001), and CNS (p <0.01), were found. For CNS, we did not have data to distinguish definite or possible infections from contaminations. Conclusions: 1) During the last decade, GBS has remained the leading cause of neonatal EOD. 2) A decline in the rate of E.coli and other GNB infections occurred. 3) In the late 1990s, S.aureus and CNS were more frequently reported. 4) An increase in GAS occurrence was found 5) Potential change in pathogens overtime requires confirmation by ongoing surveillance. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly onset neonatal sepsis or meningitis, in Belgium, in the era of prevention for perinatal group B streptococcal diseases
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Ducoffre, Geneviève et al

in ASM (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 46th Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2006, September)

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See detailEarly onset of puberty: Tracking genetic and environmental factors
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Rasier, Gregory; Gerard, Arlette ULg et al

in Hormone Research (2005), 64(Suppl. 2), 41-47

Under physiological conditions, factors affecting the genetic control of hypothalamic functions are predominant in determining the individual variations in timing of pubertal onset. In pathological ... [more ▼]

Under physiological conditions, factors affecting the genetic control of hypothalamic functions are predominant in determining the individual variations in timing of pubertal onset. In pathological conditions, however, these variations can involve different genetic susceptibility and the interaction of environmental factors. The high incidence of precocious puberty in foreign children migrating to Belgium and the detection in their plasma of a long-lasting 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) residue suggest the potential role of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals in the early onset of puberty. This hypothesis was confirmed by experimental data showing thattemporary exposure of immature female rats to DDT in vivo results in early onset of puberty. We compared the gene expression profile of hypothalamic hamartoma associated or not with precocious puberty in order to identify gene networks responsible for both hamartoma-dependent sexual precocity and the onset of normal human puberty. In conclusion, pathological variations in the timing of puberty may provide unique information about the interactions of either environmental conditions or genetic susceptibility with the hypothalamic mechanism controlling the onset of sexual maturation, as shown by examples of precocious puberty following exposure to endocrine disrupters or due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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