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See detailThe economic and environmental feasibility of biogas buses in Liege
Mostert, Martine ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in 2013 BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days - Proceedings (2013, May 30)

Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have ... [more ▼]

Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have negative impacts on climate and human health. This paper analyzes the economic and environmental feasibility of using biogas buses for public transport in Liège. The idea of implementing biogas buses is based on the proposed recycling of organic waste by the company INTRADEL, which manages and treats waste in the region. The economic and environmental advantages and drawbacks of biogas buses are developed and compared with those of the current diesel bus fleet. The main conclusion of this study is that, while internalizing external costs due to pollution, the use of biogas buses becomes an attractive option compared with classical diesel buses. Nevertheless, it requires investment and might lead to resistance to change. However, it remains a good solution for the reduction of CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic and environmental impacts of several retrofit options for residential buildings
Gendebien, Samuel ULg

Master's dissertation (2011)

Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our actual residential building consumption which represents about 40% (25% for the residential sector and 15% for the non-residential sector) of the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our actual residential building consumption which represents about 40% (25% for the residential sector and 15% for the non-residential sector) of the total energy consumption in Europe. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental and economical impact of several retrofit options for residential buildings. Our study focuses on the Walloon Region of Belgium. A “bottom-up” methodology is applied: this methodology focuses first on a micro-analysis. Results from this micro-analysis are then used and extended to a macro-analysis. The presented methodology does not permit to determine with precision the global consumption of residential buildings in the Walloon Region. However, the latter methodology allows pointing out some economical and environmental trends related to the different investigated retrofit options. The first part of this end-of-study work offers an overview of the Walloon building stock by presenting statistic data on the Walloon residential houses. From these latter statistic data, it is possible to divide the Walloon building stock by means of arborescence. Each type of building is characterized by constructive data (mean area, Uwall, Uwindow…) and by heating production system efficiency. Thanks to these data, it is possible to determine the gas and electrical annual consumption for each type of residential building by means of a computer program that simulates residential building. The latter computer program is also used to determine the annual energy consumption of envelope retrofitted houses. Retrofit options related to heat and/or cool production are also investigated. A macro-point of view study is carried out in order to determine the potential of energy saving of each investigated options. An environmental comparison between the several envisaged retrofit options is realized in terms of CO2 emission, final and primary annual energy consumption for each type of building. An economical study is carried out in order to determine the profitability of each investigated options for citizens. The work also proposes a reflection about the actual incentive policies. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic and financial crisis and pooling of military resources
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Europe Diplomatie and Defence (2010), (326), 2

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See detailEconomic and Production Consequences of Liver Fluke Disease in Double-Muscled Fattening Cattle
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B = Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B (1991), 38(3), 203-208

The frequency of liver fluke disease in fattening units was determined by the analysis of random faeces samples issued from 1,513 Belgian White Blue bulls aged from 5 to 7 months and weighing from 200 to ... [more ▼]

The frequency of liver fluke disease in fattening units was determined by the analysis of random faeces samples issued from 1,513 Belgian White Blue bulls aged from 5 to 7 months and weighing from 200 to 300 kg. 12.5% of the investigated bulls were positive for liver fluke disease. These bulls were spread over 56.5% of the investigated fattening units. Furthermore the infestation rate varied from 0 to 33.3% inside the fattening units. In order to assess the economic consequences of bovine fascioliasis in double-muscled cattle and the beneficial effects of a treatment against such a disease, a trial including 30 Belgian White Blue bulls, weighing 365 +/- 9 kg and aged from 10 to 12 months, was conducted in a selected fattening unit. On the basis of faecal examinations, the 30 animals were subdivided in negative (group A; n = 10) and positive animals (n = 20) for fascioliasis, the latter being either treated with nitroxinil (group B; n = 10) or not (group C; n = 10) on day 0 of this trial which was conducted during 75 days. The daily body gains in group C (1.661 +/- 0.140 kg) were significantly lower than those in group A (1.975 +/- 0.120 kg). On the other hand there was no significant difference between the daily body gains registered in group B (1.960 +/- 0.085 kg) and A. The estimated financial loss, due to flukes and accounted on a 75 day-period, averaged 2,748 Belgian Francs per bull in group C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic and Production Repercussions of Deworming by Pulse Release Device and Oral Suspension in Grazing Double-Muscled Fattening Cattle
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B = Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B (1991), 38(3), 238-240

In this field trial, the repercussions of 2 administration forms of oxfendazole, namely a single administration of a front-loaded device (group 1; n = 18) and a repeated administration of a 90.6 per cent ... [more ▼]

In this field trial, the repercussions of 2 administration forms of oxfendazole, namely a single administration of a front-loaded device (group 1; n = 18) and a repeated administration of a 90.6 per cent oral suspension (group 2; n = 18), were compared in first season-grazing double-muscled fattening bulls. The comparison was based on the production performances, the mean worm egg counts and the product- and labour-costs. The daily body gains determined on the whole trial period, i.e. 1.312 +/- 0.055 kg and 1.270 +/- 0.056 kg for groups 1 and 2 respectively, and mean worm egg counts per gram (on days 0 and 130:200.0 +/- 44.3 and 94.4 +/- 27.4 for group 1; 366.7 +/- 98.4 and 100.0 +/- 33.6 for group 2) did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, the total costs were lower with a front-loaded device (1,021 Belgian Francs) than with oral suspension (1,248 Belgian Francs per bull). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Economic and Statistical Designs of Control charts for Censored and Non-Normal Data
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Davis, Darwin, Edward et al

Scientific conference (2011, December)

In this research, we are dealing with constructing the statistical design (SD) and economic statistical design (ESD) of Shewhart and CUSUM control charts for reliability data which are right censored ... [more ▼]

In this research, we are dealing with constructing the statistical design (SD) and economic statistical design (ESD) of Shewhart and CUSUM control charts for reliability data which are right censored. This is the case which happens more frequently in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailAn economic appraisal of MOOC platforms: business models and impacts on higher education
belleflamme, paul; Jacqmin, Julien ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We start by using various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We then discuss how the private provision of MOOCs, seen as ... [more ▼]

We start by using various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We then discuss how the private provision of MOOCs, seen as pure public goods, can be sustained. Based on the theory of multisided platforms, we analyse five ways to monetize the MOOC business. Our conclusion is that the most sustainable approach is what we call the ‘subcontractor model’, flavored by touches of the other four models. We then claim that MOOC platforms can play a key transformative role in the higher education sector by making teaching practices evolve, rather than by replacing incumbent institutions. Finally, we derive a number of directions for public policy: governments should act to foster the cooperation between MOOC platforms and other higher education institutions, so as to improve the benefits that can arise from these technological innovations; a particular focus should also be given to professors in order to encourage them to innovate in their teaching practices [less ▲]

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See detailAn Economic Appraisal of MOOC Platforms: Business Models and Impacts on Higher Education
Jacqmin, Julien ULg; belleflamme, paul

in CESifo Economic Studies (2016), 62(1), 148-169

We use various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We discuss how the private provision of MOOCs can be sustained. Using the ... [more ▼]

We use various economic and pedagogical concepts to understand the specificities of MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) platforms. We discuss how the private provision of MOOCs can be sustained. Using the theory of multisided platforms, we analyze five ways to monetize the MOOC business. We then claim that MOOC platforms can play a key transformative role in the higher education sector by making teaching practices evolve, rather than by replacing incumbent institutions. Finally, we derive a number of directions for public policy [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building
Dumont, Olivier ULg; Carmo, carolina; Georges, Emeline ULg et al

Conference (2016)

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See detailAn economic case for transnational and international transmission
Ernst, Damien ULg

Speech/Talk (2015)

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See detailEconomic Design of Control Charts In Presence of Censored Data
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Speech/Talk (2011)

we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of ... [more ▼]

we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of use and flexibility for the case where the process distribution is Weibull, although the method can be applied to any distribution. We illustrate the performance of our method through simulation and the application through the use of an actual data set. Our results indicate that Z ̅ and S2 control charts perform well in detecting shifts in the scale and shape parameters. We also provide a guide that would enable a user to interpret out-of-control signals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe economic effectiveness of economic land supply
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline

Conference (2016, July 05)

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See detailEconomic efficiency of milk production farms in Hanoi Suburbs, Vietnam
Le Dinh, Khan; Phan Dang, Thang ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2014, November 14)

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year ... [more ▼]

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year. However, fresh milk production satisfies about 20-25% of milk consumption. The rural areas of Hanoi Province are large for dairy production. This province builds the 7 agro-ecological sub-regions for the development of dairy farming, in which Ba Vi District is a most of sub-regions for dairy production development. But the average size is about 2.5 cows per farm. This research aims to better understand how the factors in milk sector adapt to current economic conditions in Hanoi suburbs through analyzing farming systems. These studies were conducted from January to August 2012 on 43 dairy farms with different production scales at Ba Vi District to characteristic of dairy farming systems. The data were collected by interviewing and keeping records at the farms that have milk production. The results showed that three dairy production systems in these zones: (1) Dairy small farming system has from 1 to 3 cows per farm; (2) The medium farming system has from 4 to 5 cows per farm; and (3) The dairy intensive farming system has more 5 cows per farm. The economic activities were really diversified with landless per household farm such as rice production, gardens, grass production and sylviculture. Land resources per farm of intensive farming system were largest including 9,239 m² for garden around the household; 2,574 m² for rice land; 563 m² of grass area and 3,325 m² for sylviculture. While the small farming system has the lowest potential land, each household has only 2,815 m² of garden; 1,795 m² of rice land; 2,095 m² of grazing land. The medium farming system has about 3,150 m² of garden; 2,220 m² of rice land and 3,891 m² of grazing land. Milk production cycle was quite long with intensive farming system, up to 324 days comparing with 299 days per cycle with medium farming system and to 306 days per cycle with small-scale farmers. This difference was not statistically signification (P> 0.05). Average milk production yield per cow was high with medium farming system (16 kg per cow per day) in comparison with 15 kg per day at intensive and small farming systems (P> 0.05). Milk production yield has been improved in the past years with crossbreed cows such as Holstein-Friesian 50% and 75%. But this productivity was still considered to be lower than the milk production yield with dairy cows raised in Moc Chau District under Son La Province with 20.5 kg per cow per day and 6,250 kg of milk per cow per cycle). In addition, in the period from 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate have continued to rise for the farmers, while feed prices increased in the period from 2006 to 2010 and these feed prices were stable between 2011 and 2012. In the period of 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate increased from 0.17 USD per kg in 2006 to 0.60 USD per kg in 2012 and feed prices were from 0.15 USD per kg in 2006 increasing to 0.39 USD per kg in 2012. The net incomes were calculated per a cow per year reached 1,274 USD with the small-scale farming households to 1,476 USD with medium farming system. The net income per kg of fresh milk at farm gate obtained from 0.28 USD with small farming system to 0.31 USD with medium farming system. The net household income was high from dairy production, from 2,437 USD per farm per year with small farming system to 5,487 USD per farm per year with intensive farming system. The net labor family income gained from 997 USD per active per year with small farming system to 2,757 USD per active per year with intensive farming system. Thus, dairy production farms in recent years in Hanoi Suburbs provide very high economic efficiency for farmers in comparison with other agricultural activities at the farms. This explains why the rate of dairy family farming has grown very fast in the studied zones in the period from 2009 to 2012. This trend will continue to grow in the future. This research was also showed that the price of fresh milk plays a crucial role for profitable at farm level. But medium farming system with the size from 4 to 5 dairy cows per farm is more profitable with current economic conditions at farms. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic evaluation of an osteoporosis screening campaign: using FRAX as a prescreening tool
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(2), 38-39

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See detailEconomic evaluation of chronic hepatitis C treatment by interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in Belgium
Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(4), 233-236

With present treatments for chronic hepatitis C by the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin, it is possible to obtain a sustained viral response in a large number of patients. This viral response ... [more ▼]

With present treatments for chronic hepatitis C by the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin, it is possible to obtain a sustained viral response in a large number of patients. This viral response is associated with long-term disappearance of the C virus, improvement of histology, improvement in quality of life and, most than likely, a reduction in the risk of premature death or infection-linked complications. This therapy is, however, expensive and the number of potentially treatable patients is high in view of the relatively high prevalence of the disease in the population. An economic evaluation is thus indispensable in order, on the one hand, to assess the cost-effectiveness ratio of the treatment (i.e. the extra cost to be paid for obtaining the greater effectiveness provided by the therapeutic combination in comparison with absence of treatment or treatment by interferon alone), and, on the other hand, to estimate practically the global cost of treatment for Belgium (i.e. the annual expense for society according to the number of patients treated per year). [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic evaluation of climate information in Sahel: case of farm households in Burkina Faso
Zongo, Bétéo ULg; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Barbier, Bruno et al

in Book of Proceedings (2014, October)

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See detailEconomic evaluation of OSIRIS® (osteoporosis index of risk), a prescreening tool for prediction of osteoporosis risk, using decision trees and Markov models
Combescure, C.; Daures, J. P.; Chevallier, T. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 88

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See detailAn Economic Evaluation of Quantitative Ultrasonometry as Pre-Screening Test for the Identification of Patients with Osteoporosis
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Disease Management & Health Outcomes (2008), 16(6), 429-438

Background: Screening for osteoporosis has been recommended to identify patients at high risk of fracture in order to provide preventative treatment. Given the limited availability of dual-energy x-ray ... [more ▼]

Background: Screening for osteoporosis has been recommended to identify patients at high risk of fracture in order to provide preventative treatment. Given the limited availability of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and health resources, quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) has emerged as an attractive tool for the mass screening scenario. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a screening strategy using QUS as a pre-screening tool for bone densitometry would be cost effective and, if so, at what cut-off thresholds. Methods: Decision analytic models were used to compare the cost effectiveness and cost utility of several screening strategies: DXA measurement alone and pre-screening strategies that use different QUS index cut-off thresholds. For each strategy, and for hypothetical cohorts of women, we estimated the number of DXA scans required, the number of osteoporotic patients detected and missed, the total screening cost, and the incremental cost per patient detected. A validated Markov microsimulation model with a lifetime horizon and from a healthcare perspective was also computed in order to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of the alternative screening strategies combined with 5 years of alendronate therapy for women who have osteoporosis (T-score -2.5 or less). Results: The DXA strategy had the highest cost and the highest number of patients with osteoporosis detected. Pre-screening strategies using QUS reduced the number of DXA scans per patient with osteoporosis detected and the total screening cost but they also missed patients with osteoporosis as the QUS index decreased. Pre-screening strategies using QUS T-scores of 0.0, -0.5, -2.0, and -2.5 were dominated by extended dominance, as their incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were higher than that of the next more effective alternative. The cost-effectiveness and cost-utility frontiers included no screening, pre-screening using QUS T-scores of -1.0 and -1.5, and DXA measurement alone. Conclusion: These results suggest that QUS may be useful as a pre-screening tool for bone densitometry given the limited availability of DXA and health resources, and that the QUS index T-scores of -1.0 and -1.5 are the most appropriate index. [less ▲]

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See detailAn economic evaluation of strontium ranelate for the treatment of male osteoporosis
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012, March), 23(Suppl. 2), 305-306

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg)