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See detailExhaled nitric oxide as a marker of asthma control in smoking patients.
Michils, A.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Peche, R. et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2009), 33(6), 1295-301

Exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)), which is a reliable marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is partially suppressed by tobacco smoking. Consequently, its potential as a biomarker in asthma ... [more ▼]

Exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)), which is a reliable marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is partially suppressed by tobacco smoking. Consequently, its potential as a biomarker in asthma management has never been evaluated in smoking patients. In the present study, the authors tested the validity of F(eNO) to predict asthma control in this population. F(eNO) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were recorded at least once in 411 nonsmoking (345 with at least two visits) and 59 smoking (51 with at least two visits) asthma patients. Despite similar mean ACQ scores (1.5 versus 1.7), F(eNO) was reduced in smoking asthmatics (18.1 ppb versus 33.7 ppb). A decrease in F(eNO) of <20% precludes asthma control improvement in nonsmoking (negative predictive value (NPV) 78%) and in smoking patients (NPV 72%). An increase in F(eNO) <30% is unlikely to be associated with deterioration in asthma control in both groups of patients (NPV = 86% and 84% in nonsmoking and smoking patients, respectively). It is concluded that, even in smokers, sequential changes in F(eNO) have a relationship with asthma control. The present study is the first to indicate that cigarette smoking does not obviate the clinical value of measuring F(eNO) in asthma among smokers. [less ▲]

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See detailExhaled nitric oxide thresholds associated with a sputum eosinophil count >=3% in a cohort of unselected patients with asthma.
Schleich, FLorence ULg; Seidel, Laurence ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg et al

in Thorax (2010), 65(12), 1039-1044

Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that ... [more ▼]

Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that identifies a sputum eosinophil count >/=3% in an unselected population of patients with asthma has been poorly studied. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients with asthma aged 15-84 years recruited from the asthma clinic of University Hospital of Liege. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between sputum eosinophil count and FeNO, taking into account covariates such as inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), smoking, atopy, age and sex. Results Derived from the ROC curve, FeNO >/=41 ppb gave 65% sensitivity and 79% specificity (AUC=0.777, p=0.0001) for identifying a sputum eosinophil count >/=3%. Using logistic regression analysis, a threshold of 42 ppb was found to discriminate between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma (p<0.0001). Patients receiving high doses of ICS (>/=1000 mug beclometasone) had a significantly lower FeNO threshold (27 ppb) than the rest of the group (48 ppb, p<0.05). Atopy also significantly altered the threshold (49 ppb for atopic vs 30 ppb for non-atopic patients, p<0.05) and there was a trend for a lower threshold in smokers (27 ppb) compared with non-smokers (46 ppb, p=0.066). Age and sex did not affect the relationship between FeNO and sputum eosinophilia. When combining all variables into the logistic model, FeNO (p<0.0001), high-dose ICS (p<0.05) and smoking (p<0.05) were independent predictors of sputum eosinophilia, while there was a trend for atopy (p=0.086). Conclusion FeNO is able to identify a sputum eosinophil count >/=3% with reasonable accuracy and thresholds which vary according to dose of ICS, smoking and atopy. [less ▲]

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See detailExhaust Heat Recovery Rankine System for passenger cars: modelling and design
Glavatskaya, Yulia; Lemort, Vincent ULg; Podevin, Pierre et al

(2011, July)

Nowadays, in average, one third of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted throughout the exhaust gases. The recovery of this amount of energy would enable a reduction of the fuel consumption. One ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, in average, one third of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted throughout the exhaust gases. The recovery of this amount of energy would enable a reduction of the fuel consumption. One solution is to integrate an exhaust heat recovery system based on a Rankine cycle. The first and most crucial step in the design is the definition of its architecture, the definition of the rated operating conditions and the sizing of the different components whilst considering the heat recovery over customer driving cycles. This paper presents a steady-state model of a steam Rankine cycle built by interconnecting sub-models of the heat exchangers, the pump and the expander. All the models were developed under EES (Engineering Equation Solver) environment. The models of heat exchanger are developed using the ε-NTU method. A heat exchanger is subdivided into three zones, each of them being characterized by both the exhaust gases and water side pressure drop as well as heat transfer coefficient. The evaluation of the two-phase zone pressure drop and heat transfer with respect to the vapour quality was carried out. The model of rotary piston expander describes the evolution of the fluid through the device and was split into three global steps: pressure drop across the supply port, isentropic and expansion at constant volume, internal and external heat transfers. The overall simulation model is finally used to predict the performance of the heat recovery system as the operating conditions and geometrical characteristics of each component are modified. An optimal sizing of the system is proposed and the underlying methodology is discussed. The analysis of the results pointed out that the levels of high/low pressure and the amount of superheat are the main parameters that impact the performance of the cycle and the sizing of the components. [less ▲]

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See detailExhaustion of blood glucose response and enhancement of insulin response after repeated glucagon injections in type-2 diabetes: potentiation by progressive hyperglycemia.
Castillo, M. J.; Scheen, André ULg; Paolisso, G. et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (1996), 57(5), 395-402

AIMS: To investigate the hyperglycemic and insulinemic response to repeated glucagon injections in Type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. METHODS: In overnight fasted Type-2 diabetic patients ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To investigate the hyperglycemic and insulinemic response to repeated glucagon injections in Type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. METHODS: In overnight fasted Type-2 diabetic patients, three i.v. glucagon (1 mg) injections were given as a bolus at two-hour intervals. In the hour preceding each glucagon injection, 6 patients received saline and they were tested at near-baseline blood glucose levels, while 8 patients received a glucose-controlled glucose infusion and they were tested at increasing blood glucose levels (7.5 +/- 0.2, 12.9 +/- 0.5 and 18.7 +/- 0.7 mmol/l). Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min after each glucagon injection. RESULTS: In the patients tested at near-baseline blood glucose levels, the blood glucose rise induced by glucagon was smaller after repeated injections. By contrast, the B-cell response to glucagon was well preserved. In the patients tested at increasing blood glucose levels, the blood glucose response to glucagon was abolished after repeated injections. By contrast, the B-cell response was significantly potentiated. The respective areas under the curve of plasma insulin levels in response to glucagon were 563 +/- 72, 1047 +/- 154 and 1844 +/- 305 m U x 30 min/l (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, repeated glucagon injections, even when administered in a short (4 h) period of time, do not exhaust the B-cell. Endogenous insulin secretion is even potentiated at increasing blood glucose levels. By contrast, the hyperglycemic response to glucagon is significantly abolished, particularly at high blood glucose levels. [less ▲]

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See detail‘L’exigence de mémoire’ à l’épreuve de la diversité
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Foblets, Marie-Claire; Schreiber, Jean-Philippe (Eds.) Les Assises de l’interculturalité (2013)

La contribution analyse les « exigences de mémoire » telles que recommandées par le rapport final des Assises de l’Interculturalité qui souligne l’importance de l’histoire et de la mémoire pour l’identité ... [more ▼]

La contribution analyse les « exigences de mémoire » telles que recommandées par le rapport final des Assises de l’Interculturalité qui souligne l’importance de l’histoire et de la mémoire pour l’identité de tout être humain. Deux thématiques sont abordées dans ce rapport : le négationnisme et le colonialisme. Concernant le négationnisme, le rapport indique qu’il convient de conserver la législation belge réprimant la négation, la minimisation, la justification ou l’approbation du génocide commis par le régime national-socialiste allemand pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En effet, une telle législation s’avère nécessaire pour lutter contre le racisme. Le Comité de pilotage ayant rédigé le rapport propose toutefois d’élargir le champ d’application de cette loi à d’autres génocides. Concernant le colonialisme, le rapport final se penche sur la manière silencieuse dont la Belgique envisage son passé colonial qui n’est pas sans conséquence pour l’importante communauté congolaise présente sur le territoire belge. Pour cette raison, le Comité de pilotage propose une reconnaissance de la responsabilité de la Belgique pour les actes commis durant l’époque coloniale, accompagnée, entre autres, d’un projet de Musée de l’immigration. Ces recommandations sont mises en perspective par rapport à certains enjeux mémoriels au sein de nos sociétés contemporaines diversifiées. C’est ainsi que la concurrence des victimes est d’abord envisagée. En insistant sur le nécessaire processus de reconnaissance des souffrances passées, les propositions font échos à une certaine concurrence des victimes qui a pu voir le jour entre des individus qui voient leur passé nié ou relégué au second plan. D’une manière générale, les exigences de mémoire énoncées dans le rapport peuvent contribuer à une concurrence mémorielle renvoyant à la compétition complexe et parfois douloureuse entre des groupes sociaux multiples qui souhaitent défendre et promouvoir le souvenir de certains faits historiques. Cette concurrence mémorielle se manifeste avec d’autant plus d’acuité que nos sociétés contemporaines sont de plus en plus diversifiées et plurielles. En outre, en insistant sur l’importance de la reconnaissance de certaines souffrances, le rapport final permet de relever l’influence que peuvent jouer les considérations électoralistes dans le système politique belge. À cet égard, la répression de la négation du Génocide des Arméniens se révèle être un cas d’école. En soulignant l’importance de la répression du négationnisme, le rôle du pouvoir judiciaire est également précisé puisque certaines juridictions belges ont eu l’occasion d’apporter leur pierre à l’édifice et de participer activement à la définition du négationnisme. Au final, les exigences de mémoire formulées dans le rapport final des Assises de l’Interculturalité permettent de mettre en discussion le fondement même de la démocratie. Alors que les interventions politiques sur des questions de mémoire sont souvent dépeintes de manières négatives, les recommandations du Comité de pilotage montrent qu’un système démocratique doit pouvoir garantir le débat et la discussion sur n’importe quel sujet en évitant certains tabous. [less ▲]

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See detailL'exigence de motivation des décisions ordonnant un repérage ou une écoute téléphonique
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2001)

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See detailExigences bioclimatiques du veau à la naissance
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Dechamps, P.

Article for general public (1985)

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See detailExigences climatiques et habitat des moutons
Dechamps, P.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1986), 130(5), 329-342

Heat exchange between the sheep and its environment is investigated with reference to animal heat production and loss and methods of determining lower critical temp. (LCT) for various breeds. LCT could ... [more ▼]

Heat exchange between the sheep and its environment is investigated with reference to animal heat production and loss and methods of determining lower critical temp. (LCT) for various breeds. LCT could vary from -25 to +17C after shearing and from -25 to -1C when air speed is increased from 0.27-4.29 m/s. The effects of cold and heat on animal development are considered. Housing materials, arrangements, floorings, surfaces and equipment are discussed. Temp. for ewes may range from 8-18C (with a tolerance from -5 to +27C) and for lambs between 10-28C. Air speeds should be between 0.1-0.3 m/s and minimum ventilation flow would be 15-25 m/h for ewes and 10m/h for lambs. [less ▲]

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See detailExigences climatiques et modes de logement des veaux d'élevage
Dechamps, P.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1984), 128

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See detailLes exigences constitutionnelles en matière d'indépendance du Pouvoir judicaire
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2008)

Exposé donné devant la Commission des affaires juridiques du Parlement européen sur les exigences d'indépendance du Pouvoir judiciaire et de séparation des Pouvoirs, telles qu'elles sont consacrées par ... [more ▼]

Exposé donné devant la Commission des affaires juridiques du Parlement européen sur les exigences d'indépendance du Pouvoir judiciaire et de séparation des Pouvoirs, telles qu'elles sont consacrées par les dispositions de la Constitution belge, dans le cadre d'une réflexion menée par le Parlement européen sur la portée et le respect de ces principes dans les différents Etats-membres de l'Union, en ce compris dans les noveaux Etats-membres qui ont adhéré en 2004 et en 2007. [less ▲]

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See detailExile and Caribbeanness in Caryl Phillips's Fiction
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

Doctoral thesis (1997)

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See detailExiste-il une hiérarchie des valeurs européennes ?
Piet, Grégory ULg

Scientific conference (2008, June 04)

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See detailExiste-il une hiérarchie des valeurs européennes ?
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2009), 2

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See detailExiste-t'il une Europe de l'épargne?
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (1993), (32), 37-59

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See detailExiste-t-il des communautés sur Internet ? La réponse de trois études du mouvement du logiciel libre
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

in Actes des travaux du comité de recherche « Sociologie de la communication » (2011)

L'Open Directory Project, Debian et Wikipedia sont trois collectifs issus du mouvement du logiciel libre. Leur comparaison permet de dégager les traits communs et les différences d'organisation sociale de ... [more ▼]

L'Open Directory Project, Debian et Wikipedia sont trois collectifs issus du mouvement du logiciel libre. Leur comparaison permet de dégager les traits communs et les différences d'organisation sociale de ces trois collectifs médiatisés par la technologie.Nous examinons dans quelle mesure ces éléments empiriques s'accordent avec les définitions classiques de communauté (fut-elle virtuelle). Nous interrogeons dès lors l'opportunité de caractériser ces phénomènes au moyen d'une telle notion et identifiant deux alternatives : soit modifier les définitions classiques, soit proposer de nouvelles notions. Finalement, nous proposons la notion plus adéquate de collectifs médiatisés orientés vers un projet. [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il des limites juridiques à la privatisation des entreprises publiques?
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (2002)

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See detailExiste-t-il des progres dans le traitement du cancer du pancreas metastatique?
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg; Fillet, Georges ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 146-8

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the western world. The authors review the different chemotherapeutic regimens for the palliative approach of this disease. 5-fluorouracil has been ... [more ▼]

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the western world. The authors review the different chemotherapeutic regimens for the palliative approach of this disease. 5-fluorouracil has been the only drug with some efficacy for a longtime. Recently a clinical benefit has been obtained with gemcitabine. Polychemotherapy regimens based on gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and/or epirubicin have been administered in clinical phase II trials. The superiority of polychemotherapy in terms of palliative benefits or survival is uncertain. Palliative care remains an important issue. [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il un Coelome chez les Ascidies ?
Van Beneden, Édouard ULg

in Zoologischer Anzeiger (1881), 4(88), 375-378

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See detailExiste-t-il un droit à la migration? La cigogne et la maison
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

in Crépeau, F; Nakache, D; Atak, I (Eds.) Les migrations internationales contemporaines. Une dynamique complexe au coeur de la globalisation (2009)

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