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See detailEnd-attaching copolymer adsorption: kinetics and effects of chain architecture
Dogan, J. R.; Stamm, Manfred; Toprakcioglu, C. et al

in Macromolecules (1993), 26(20), 5321-5330

In this study we report on the adsorption behavior of end-attaching triblock and diblock copolymers. The triblock copolymers consist of relatively short PEO end blocks and a much longer PS middle block or ... [more ▼]

In this study we report on the adsorption behavior of end-attaching triblock and diblock copolymers. The triblock copolymers consist of relatively short PEO end blocks and a much longer PS middle block or, in one case, of zwitterionic end groups with a PS middle block. The diblock materials consist of a PEO block of fixed length and varying polystyrene lengths. A silicon wafer with an oxide layer is used as the surface, and adsorption takes place from toluene; only the end groups adsorb, leaving the polystyrene block dangling in solution. We find that diblock copolymers which range from symmetric to moderately symmetric obey the scaling law for the surface coverage which was proposed in the theory of Marques and Joanny (i.e., sigma is-proportional-to 1/N(A), where N(A) is the number of segments in the adsorbing block). However, we find that for triblock copolymers of comparable asymmetry the surface coverage scales according to the relationship sigma is-proportional-to 1/beta2, where beta is the ratio of the size of the nonadsorbing block to that of the adsorbing block. This implies that moderately symmetric triblock copolymers behave like highly asymmetric diblock copolymers; the adsorption behavior is dominated by the nonadsorbing block size. Our experiments demonstrate the observation of extremely long-lived nonequilibrium states. On the basis of these observations we propose a simplified version of a recent theory of adsorption which is capable of qualitatively describing much of the experimentally observed phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-capping of polystyrene by aliphatic primary amine by derivatization of precursor hydroxyl end group
Fallais, Isabelle; Devaux, Jacques; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2000), 38(9), 1618-1629

A new and very efficient route for the synthesis of aliphatic primary amine terminated polystyrene (PS) is reported. In contrast to most known methods, only traditional commercially available reagents are ... [more ▼]

A new and very efficient route for the synthesis of aliphatic primary amine terminated polystyrene (PS) is reported. In contrast to most known methods, only traditional commercially available reagents are used. PS is synthesized by anionic polymerization with a lithium counter ion and the living chains are end-capped by a hydroxyl group upon addition of ethylene oxide followed by protonation. The -hydroxyl end group is tosylated and the tosylate is then reacted with sodium azide. The azide terminal group is finally reduced into primary amine. The different steps of functionalization have been fully characterized by SEC, ToF-SIMS, FTIR, and 1H NMR. The amine content (= 98%) has been determined by acid-base titration with perchloric acid. It clearly shows the efficiency of the synthetic method reported in this article although it is a multistep method. [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-grained wood-polyurethane composites, 1 Synthesis, morphology and characterization
Persenaire, Olivier; Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Degée, Philippe et al

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2004), 289(10), 895-902

In order to improve the dimensional stability of end-grained wood upon environmental humidity variations, a two-step procedure was thoroughly Studied which involved the osmotic impregnation of native ... [more ▼]

In order to improve the dimensional stability of end-grained wood upon environmental humidity variations, a two-step procedure was thoroughly Studied which involved the osmotic impregnation of native poplar wood by PEG, followed by the reactive impregnation with HMDI, leading to polymer chain extension and polyurethane formation. It came out that the efficiency of PEG and/or polyurethane grafting within ligno-cellulosic cell walls was intimately related to parameters such as concentration of the PEG impregnation bath, PEG molar mass, time and temperature of impregnation steps. Based on the different sample characterizations, Soxhlet extraction and density measurements, it came out that adequate experimental conditions are to carry out osmotic impreanation at 20degreesC for 24 h starting from an aqueous solution of PEG([PEG] = 0.5mol(.)L(-1) and (M) over bar (nPEG) = 400 or 1000) and reactive impregnation in bulk with a large excess of HMDI at 20degreesC for 2 h. Combining scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry demonstrated the selective impregnation of cell wall and wood rays which were collapsed in native wood and expanded in wood polyurethane composites. [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-of-season effects of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes of grassland species at different species richness levels
Lemmens, CMHM; De Boeck, H. J.; Gielen, B. et al

in Environmental and Experimental Botany (2006), 56

The combined effect of declining diversity and elevated temperature is a less-studied aspect of global change. We investigated the influence of those two factors and their possible interactions oil leaf ... [more ▼]

The combined effect of declining diversity and elevated temperature is a less-studied aspect of global change. We investigated the influence of those two factors and their possible interactions oil leaf ecophysiological processes in artificial grassland communities. Changes at the leaf level are at the basis of changes at the community level (and vice versa) but have remained largely unexplored in biodiversity experiments. We focused on end-of-season responses to assess whether species richness and air temperature affect the duration of the growing season. Grassland model ecosystems were used in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures, while the other half were Nvarnied 3 degrees C. Each chamber contained 24 plant communities, created with nine grassland species: three grass species. three nitrogen (N) fixers and three non-N-fixing dicots. Each plant community consisted of either one, three or nine species in order to create different species richness levels. Various ecophysiological variables (processes and characteristics) and above ground biomass were influenced by temperature. In several variables, the effects of temperature and species richness varied with species. No single-factor species richness effect was found due to opposite responses of the species canceling out the effect. We expect that these interactions may increase with time. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEnde einer Odyssee : Zur kritischen Edition der Lyrik Gertrud Kolmars
Viehöver, Vera ULg

in IASL Online (2003)

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See detailEndemic alveolar echinococcosis in southern Belgium?
Detry, Olivier ULg; Honore, Charles ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2005), 68(1, Jan-Mar), 1-4

Until now, Belgium has been considered as a low-risk country for alveolar echinococcosis. However it was recently demonstrated by necropsy series that, in some parts of southern Belgium (Wallonia), up to ... [more ▼]

Until now, Belgium has been considered as a low-risk country for alveolar echinococcosis. However it was recently demonstrated by necropsy series that, in some parts of southern Belgium (Wallonia), up to 51% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may be infected by E. multilocaris. The authors, working in a university hospital in southern Belgium, described in 2002 the first autoctuthonous Belgian case of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. More importantly, in 2004, they diagnosed three other patients with alveolar echinococcosis. One underwent surgical resection, but two others had bilateral pulmonary involvement at time of definite diagnosis. Palliative albendazole therapy was initiated. These patients had been diagnosed with hepatic mass from unknown origin for several months. The previous experience with the first case allowed the authors to consider and to confirm alveolar echinococcosis diagnosis, made by pathology and/or serological tests and imaging. These four patients with alveolar echinococcosis were living either in the Liege or the Luxembourg province. Considering the high prevalence of E. multilocaris infection of red foxes and the recent increase of the fox population due to rabies vaccination in southern Belgium, and also the presence of E. multilocaris infection of red foxes in northern Belgium, it is likely that not only Wallonia, but also maybe the whole Belgium, may face endemic alveolar echinococcosis in the next years. [less ▲]

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See detailEndemy of alveolar echinococcosis in Southern Belgium?
Honore, Charles ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Wauters, Odile ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2005, January), 68(1), 72

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See detailEndobronchial ultrasound and value of PET for prediction of pathological results of mediastinal hot spots in lung cancer patients.
Bauwens, Olivier; Dusart, Michelle; Pierard, Philippe et al

in Lung Cancer (2008), 61(3), 356-61

SUMMARY: In the staging of lung cancer with positron emission tomography (PET) positive mediastinal lymph nodes, tissue sampling is required. The performance of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA ... [more ▼]

SUMMARY: In the staging of lung cancer with positron emission tomography (PET) positive mediastinal lymph nodes, tissue sampling is required. The performance of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) using linear endobronchial ultrasound (real-time EBUS-TBNA) under local anaesthesia and the value of PET for prediction of pathological results were assessed in that setting. The number of eluded surgical procedures was evaluated. All consecutive patients with suspected/proven lung cancers and FDG-PET positive mediastinal adenopathy were included. If no diagnosis was reached, further surgical sampling was required. Lymph node SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake value) was assessed in patients whose PET was performed in the leading centre. One hundred and six patients were included. The average number of TBNA samples per patient was 4.9+/-1.1. The prevalence of lymph node metastasis was 58%. Sensitivity, accuracy and negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA in the staging of mediastinal hot spots were 95, 97 and 91%. Patients without malignant lymph node involvement showed lower SUVmax (respective median values of 3.7 and 10.0; p<0.0001). Surgical procedures were eluded in 56% of the patients. Real-time EBUS-TBNA should be preferred over mediastinoscopy as the first step procedure in the staging of PET mediastinal hot spots in lung cancer patients. In case of negative EBUS, surgical staging procedure should be undertaken. The addition of SUVmax cut-off may allow further refinement but needs validation. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocannabinoid signaling controls pyramidal cell specification and long-range axon patterning.
Mulder, Jan; Aguado, Tania; Keimpema, Erik et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2008), 105(25), 8760-5

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) have recently been identified as axon guidance cues shaping the connectivity of local GABAergic interneurons in the developing cerebrum. However, eCB functions during pyramidal ... [more ▼]

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) have recently been identified as axon guidance cues shaping the connectivity of local GABAergic interneurons in the developing cerebrum. However, eCB functions during pyramidal cell specification and establishment of long-range axonal connections are unknown. Here, we show that eCB signaling is operational in subcortical proliferative zones from embryonic day 12 in the mouse telencephalon and controls the proliferation of pyramidal cell progenitors and radial migration of immature pyramidal cells. When layer patterning is accomplished, developing pyramidal cells rely on eCB signaling to initiate the elongation and fasciculation of their long-range axons. Accordingly, CB(1) cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) null and pyramidal cell-specific conditional mutant (CB(1)R(f/f,NEX-Cre)) mice develop deficits in neuronal progenitor proliferation and axon fasciculation. Likewise, axonal pathfinding becomes impaired after in utero pharmacological blockade of CB(1)Rs. Overall, eCBs are fundamental developmental cues controlling pyramidal cell development during corticogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe endocannabinoid system: a promising target for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Current Protein & Peptide Science (2009), 10(1), 56-74

Type 2 diabetes is closely related to abdominal obesity and is generally associated with other cardiometabolic risk factors, resulting in a high incidence of cardiovascular complications. Several animal ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes is closely related to abdominal obesity and is generally associated with other cardiometabolic risk factors, resulting in a high incidence of cardiovascular complications. Several animal and human observations suggest that the endocannabinoid (EC) system is overactivated in presence of abdominal obesity and/or diabetes, and contributes to disturbances of energy balance and metabolism. Not only it regulates the intake of nutrients through central mechanisms located within the hypothalamus and limbic area, but it also intervenes in transport, metabolism and deposit of the nutrients in the digestive tract, liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and possibly pancreas. Activation of both central and peripheral CB1 receptors promotes weight gain and associated metabolic changes. Conversely, rimonabant, the first selective CB(1) receptor antagonist in clinical use, has been shown to reduce body weight, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood pressure, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein levels, and to increase HDL cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations in both non-diabetic and diabetic overweight/obese patients. In addition, a 0.5-0.7% reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels was observed in metformin- or sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and in drug-naive or insulin-treated diabetic patients. Almost half of metabolic changes occurred beyond weight loss, in agreement with direct peripheral effects. Rimonabant was generally well-tolerated, but with a slightly higher incidence of depressed mood disorders, anxiety, nausea and dizziness compared to placebo. New trials are supposed to confirm the potential role of rimonabant (and other CB1 neutral antagonists or inverse agonists) in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk cardiovascular disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocardite à Staphylococcus aureus.
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg

Conference (2004, February 11)

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See detailUne endocardite infectieuse compliquee: diagnostic, traitement et prophylaxie.
Paris, Catherine ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2012), 67(7-8), 398-402

The case of a 60-year-old male presenting fever of recent onset is reported. He had undergone a Bentall operation seven yeasr previously. An infective endocarditis caused by Entercoccus Faecalis was ... [more ▼]

The case of a 60-year-old male presenting fever of recent onset is reported. He had undergone a Bentall operation seven yeasr previously. An infective endocarditis caused by Entercoccus Faecalis was detected on his prosthetic valve. After a favorable evolution under antibiotic treatment, the patient developed a perivalvular abscess requiring surgical treatment. The patient's evolution was satisfactory. Diagnosis, with the specific role of echocardiography; treatment, with a recall of surgical indications; particularities of the specific complication and prevention of this pathology are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocardite infectieuse tricuspidienne comme cause d'une fievre d'origine indeterminee.
Schrouff, I.; Valdes-Socin, H.; Frippiat, Frédéric ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(11), 654-8

Isolated tricuspid valve endocarditis is the least common endocarditis with an incidence of 5 to 10% in the literature. It is usually described in drug abusers and as a complication of nosocomial ... [more ▼]

Isolated tricuspid valve endocarditis is the least common endocarditis with an incidence of 5 to 10% in the literature. It is usually described in drug abusers and as a complication of nosocomial infections (catheter, post-surgery...). We present the case of a 70 year-old patient admitted for a fever of unknown origin lasting for 2 months. He had an isolated tricuspid endocarditis with Enterococcus faecalis. We review the diagnostic criterias predisposing factors and treatment of right-sided valvular endocarditis, particularly the endocarditis produced by Enterococcus faecalis, a rare etiopathogenic agent of tricuspid endocarditis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'endocardite infectieuse. Concepts actuels
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1995), 50(7), 281-5

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See detailEndocardite végétante dans l’espèce équine : revue de littérature à partir de 2 cas cliniques
Amory, Hélène ULg; Christmann; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 144

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See detailEndocardite végétante dans l’espèce équine : revue de littérature à partir de 2 cas cliniques
Amory, Hélène ULg; Christmann, U.; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 144

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See detailEndocarditis del anciano
Valdes Quintana; VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg

in Romero Villanueva, Horacio (Ed.) Cardiologia Geriatrica (1998)

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See detailEndocarditis in horses: a retrospective study of five cases
Amory, Hélène ULg; Bertrand, P; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association (BEVA) (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)