Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of Holothuroid Ichtyotoxic Saponins on the Gills of Free-Living Fishes and Symbiotic Pearlfishes
Eeckhaut, Igor; Caulier, Guillaume; Brasseur, Lola et al

in The Biological Bulletin (2015), 228(3), 253-265

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to ... [more ▼]

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to predators. We compared the effects of exposure to saponins from the sea cucumber body wall and from the Cuvierian tubules on the behavior and gill ultrastructure of pearlfishes and free-living fishes. Saponins were extracted from the body wall of two holothuroids, the Mediterranean Holothuria forskali and the tropical Bohadschia atra, and from the water surrounding the Cuvierian tubules of B. atra. Five species of carapids that live in symbiosis with holothuroids and seven species of free-living fishes were exposed to these extracts. The free-living fishes exhibited a stress response and died about 45 times faster than pearlfishes when exposed to the same quantity of saponins. Cuvierian tubules and saponins extracted from the body wall were lethal to the free-living fishes, whereas the carapids were much less sensitive. The carapids did not exhibit a stress response. The high toxicity shown by Cuvierian tubules was not explained by the nature of the saponins that were identified by mass spectrometry, but it is likely due to the higher concentration of saponins in the tubules. Histology and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the gills of the free-living fishes and pearlfishes showed that saponins act at the level of the secondary lamellae where they induce the detachment of the epithelia, create edema at the level of the epithelia, and induce pores in the epithelial cells that lead to their destruction and the invasion of inner cells (pillar cells and red blood cells). This sequence of events happens 5 min after saponin exposure in free-living fishes and after 1 h in carapids. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 Proteins on Survival, Adhesion, Migration and Invasion of Trophoblastic Cells
Boulenouar, S.; Weyn, C.; Van Noppen, M. et al

in Carcinogenesis (2010), 31(3), 473-80

Amongst high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 infection is the most prevalent causative factor for cervical cancer. Beside other mucosal targets, HPV-16 was reported to infect the placenta and to ... [more ▼]

Amongst high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 infection is the most prevalent causative factor for cervical cancer. Beside other mucosal targets, HPV-16 was reported to infect the placenta and to replicate in trophoblastic cells. Since these cells share invasive properties of tumoral cells, they represent an ideal model to investigate several oncogenic processes. In the present work, we analyzed the impacts of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 oncoproteins on the trophoblastic model. Our results showed that E5 impaired the viability of trophoblastic and cervical cell lines but E6 and E7, favouring cell growth, neutralised the E5 cytotoxic effect. In addition, E5 decreased the adhesiveness of trophoblastic cells to the tissue culture plastic and to endometrial cells similarly as previously described for E6 and E7. E5 and E6 plus E7 increased also their migration and their invasive properties. Cells expressing HPV-16 early proteins under the control of the LCR endogenous promoter displayed growth advantage and were also more motile and invasive compared to control cells. Interestingly, the E-cadherin was down regulated in trophoblastic cells expressing E5, E6 and E7. NF-kB and AP-1 activities were also enhanced. In conclusion, HPV-16 early proteins enhanced trophoblastic growth and intensify the malignant phenotype by impairing cell adhesion leading to increased cellular motile and invasive properties. HPV-16 E5 participated, with E6 and E7, in these changes by impairing Ecadherin expression, a hallmark of malignant progression. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe effects of hull modification on design parameters of medium speed monohuhll passenger ferries
Hetharia, Wolter; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Hage, André ULg

in ICSOT : Developments in ship design & construction (2012, November 01)

Developments in ship design & construction

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of Human and Salmon Calcitonin on Human Articular Chondrocytes Cultivated in Clusters
Franchimont, P.; Bassleer, C.; Henrotin, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (The) (1989), 69(2), 259-66

The effects of different pharmacological concentrations (0, 5, 10, 100, and 1000 ng/mL) of synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) and salmon calcitonin (sCT) on the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and production ... [more ▼]

The effects of different pharmacological concentrations (0, 5, 10, 100, and 1000 ng/mL) of synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) and salmon calcitonin (sCT) on the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and production of proteoglycans (PG) and type II collagen (coll II) by human articular chondrocytes during a 20-day period were studied in a tridimensional chondrocyte culture model. [3H]Thymidine uptake was measured in chondrocyte clusters, and specific PG and coll II RIAs were performed every 4 days on the culture medium and cell aggregates; total PG and coll II production were also assessed at different culture durations by adding the amounts found in culture media and their corresponding clusters. Incubation with hCT or sCT did not affect [3H]thymidine uptake regardless of the dose. For each culture period, PG and coll II release into culture medium, cluster content, and total production increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Cumulative curves for these parameters showed a progressive significant increase with culture duration at hCT and sCT doses of 0, 5, and 10 ng/mL. Cumulative curves obtained with 10, 100, and 1000 ng/mL were seldom significantly different from one another. No differences emerged between the use of hCT or sCT. Thus, CT exerted no proliferative effect on human articular chondrocytes in tridimensional culture, but displayed a dose-dependent and prolonged stimulatory effect on PG and coll II production. CT may possess chondroprotective properties in addition to its other known effects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.
Schotsmans, E. M.; Denton, J.; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg et al

in Forensic Science International (2011)

Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition ... [more ▼]

Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of hydrogen partial pressure on fermentative biohydrogen production by a chemotropic Clostridium bacterium in a new horizontal rotating cylinder reactor
Beckers, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; MAsset, Julien et al

in Energy Procedia (2012)

In order to produce fermentative biohydrogen at high yields and production rates, efficient bioreactors have to be designed. A new reactor called anaerobic biodisc reactor allowed the production of ... [more ▼]

In order to produce fermentative biohydrogen at high yields and production rates, efficient bioreactors have to be designed. A new reactor called anaerobic biodisc reactor allowed the production of biohydrogen from glucose with the selected Clostridium sp. strain at high yields (2.49 molH2•molglucose-1) and production rates (598 mlH2•medium-1•h-1). The bacteria were fixed on a rotating support enabling efficient gas transfer from the liquid to the phase. It allowed the metabolism of the bacteria to produce more hydrogen. Moreover, an increase of the total pressure 0.18 bar lowered the yields of 19.5% while a decrease of 0.11 bar increased the yields of 7%. Our work concludes on the importance of providing good liquid to gas transfers in the biohydrogen-producing reactors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of hydrogen partial pressure on fermentative biohydrogen production by a chemotropic Clostridium bacterium in a new horizontal rotating cylinder reactor
Beckers, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Hamilton, Christopher ULg et al

Poster (2011, December)

The fermentative production of hydrogen using chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria offers a new way to produce “green” energy from a large variety of renewable resources and organic wastes. In order to produce ... [more ▼]

The fermentative production of hydrogen using chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria offers a new way to produce “green” energy from a large variety of renewable resources and organic wastes. In order to produce hydrogen at high yields and production rates, efficient bioreactors must be designed. A new reactor called “horizontal rotating cylinder bioreactor” allows the production of biohydrogen from glucose with the selected Clostridium sp. strain at high yields (1,9molH2·molglucose-1) and production rates (48,6mmolH2·lmilieu-1.molhexose-1·h-1). The rotative cylinder where the bacteria are fixed enables efficient gas transfer (mainly hydrogen) from the liquid phase where it is produced by the bacteria. This is an important way to allow the bacteria metabolism to shift in a fermentation pathway that produces more hydrogen. This was confirmed by varying the total pressure in the bioreactor. An increase of the total pressure 0,18bar lowered the yields of 19,5% while a decrease of 0,11bar increased the yields of 7%. Our work concludes the importance of providing good liquid to gas transfers in the biohydrogen-producing reactors in order to reach higher yields and production rates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of Hyperchloremia on Blood Oxygen Binding in Healthy Calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Detry, B.; Beerens, Dominique ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1998), 85(4), 1267-1272

Three different levels of hyperchloremia were induced in healthy Friesian calves to study the effects of chloride on blood oxygen transport. By infusion, the calves received either 5 ml/kg of 0.9% NaCl ... [more ▼]

Three different levels of hyperchloremia were induced in healthy Friesian calves to study the effects of chloride on blood oxygen transport. By infusion, the calves received either 5 ml/kg of 0.9% NaCl (low-level hyperchloremia; group A), 5 ml/kg of 7.5% NaCl (moderate hyperchloremia; group B), or 7.5 ml/kg of 7.5% NaCl (high-level hyperchloremia; group C). Blood was sampled from the jugular vein and the brachial artery. Chloride concentration, hemoglobin content, arterial and venous pH, PCO2, and PO2 were determined. At each time point (0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min), the whole blood oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured under standard conditions. In groups B and C, hyperchloremia was accompanied by a sustained rightward shift of the OEC, as indicated by the significant increase in the standard PO2 at 50% hemoglobin saturation. Infusion of hypertonic saline also induced relative acidosis. The arterial and venous OEC were calculated, with body temperature, pH, and PCO2 values in arterial and venous blood taken into account. The degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and the venous compartments [O2 exchange fraction (OEF%)] and the amount of oxygen released at tissue level by 100 ml of bovine blood (OEF vol%) were calculated from the arterial and venous OEC combined with the PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. The chloride-induced rightward shift of the OEC was reinforced by the relative acidosis, but the altered PO2 values combined with the lower hemoglobin concentration explained the absence of any significant difference in OEF (% and vol%). We conclude that infusion of hypertonic saline induces hyperchloremia and acidemia, which can explain the OEC rightward shift observed in arterial and peripheral venous blood. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Effects of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy and Diseased Animals
Cambier, Carole ULg; Ratz, V.; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(5), 303-316

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the ... [more ▼]

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the mechanisms behind the possible clinical efficacy of such treatment. The review focuses successively on haemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. How hypertonic saline solutions affect oxygen transport by haemoglobin is also considered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of hypoxia on stress proteins in the piglet brain at birth
Chiral, M.; Grongnet, J. F.; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Pediatric Research (2004), 56(5), 775-782

Newborn piglets were submitted to normobaric hypoxia (5% O-2, 95% N-2) for either 1 or 4 h. The effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain were characterized through a time-course analysis of levels of ... [more ▼]

Newborn piglets were submitted to normobaric hypoxia (5% O-2, 95% N-2) for either 1 or 4 h. The effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain were characterized through a time-course analysis of levels of various proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSP27, 70, and 90), hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2), and caspase-3. The expression of these proteins was determined at different stages of recovery up to 72 h in cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus by Western blot analysis in hypoxic maintained animals that were made hypoxic at either 20 or 37degreesC. In all regions of the brain, HIF-1alpha and HSP27 expression were strongly increased until 22 h of recovery. No significant changes were observed for HSP70, HSP90, and HO-2. A small elevation of expression of nNOS was observed at early stages in the cerebellum and the cortex with no change in the hippocampus. Expression of caspase 3 was strongly increased in the cortex 24 and 48 h after hypoxia but unchanged in the hippocampus. These results are presented in terms of the porcine model of nonischemic hypoxia and its delayed neuronal effects on the cerebral outcome. Because of their recently established biochemical and functional interactions, the expression of the main HSPs, HIF-1alpha, OS, and caspase-3 after hypoxia are delineated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of hypoxia on stress proteins of the piglet brain at birth
Chiral, Magali; Grongnet, Jean-François; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2003)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of immunization against somatostatin on growth performances and growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor I and insulin plasma levels in young bulls.
Renaville, Robert ULg; Sneyers, M.; Massart, Serge et al

in Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale (1994), 20(4),

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of immunization against somatostatin on growth performances and growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and insulin plasma levels in young animals
Renaville, Robert ULg; Fernadez, J. J.; Sneyers, Myriam et al

in Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale (1994), 20

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of impurities on the lattice dynamics of nanocrystalline silicon for thermoelectric application
Claudio, Tania; Schierning, Gabi; Theissmann, Ralf et al

in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE (2013), 48(7), 2836-2845

Doped silicon nanoparticles were exposed to air and sintered to form nanocrystalline silicon. The composition, microstructure, and structural defects were investigated with TEM, XRD, and PDF and the ... [more ▼]

Doped silicon nanoparticles were exposed to air and sintered to form nanocrystalline silicon. The composition, microstructure, and structural defects were investigated with TEM, XRD, and PDF and the lattice dynamics was evaluated with measurements of the heat capacity, of the elastic constants with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the density of phonon states (DPS) with inelastic neutron scattering. The results were combined and reveal that the samples contain a large amount of silicon dioxide and exhibit properties that deviate from bulk silicon. Both in the reduced DPS and in the heat capacity a Boson peak at low energies, characteristic of amorphous SiO2, is observed. The thermal conductivity is strongly reduced due to nanostructuration and the incorporation of impurities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of in ovo administration of L-carnitine on hatching events and juvenile performance of layer-type chick
Nouboukpo, K. E.; Tona, K.; Kamers, B. et al

in International Journal of Poultry Science (2010), 9(10), 980-983

The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and ... [more ▼]

The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and 1000 umol) dissolved in 0.9% of Saline (NaCI) at d 18 of incubation. Two control groups (non-injected and injected with 0.9% of Saline were also included. Hatched chicks was recorded after every 4 h, beginning at 490 h of incubation and ending at 514 h, for incubation length and hatching spread determination. At the end of incubation, hatched chicks were recorded according to treatment for determination of hatchability. At 3, 7 and 14 d post-hatch, chick body weight (BW) and morbidity were recorded. Also, at d 3 and 7 post-hatch, 14 birds from each of 2 replicate groups within each treatment were used for intestine and yolk sac weight determination. Results indicate that BW, hatchability, or relative intestine weights were not affected by treatment. However, incubation length was longer while hatching spread was shorter in L-carnitine groups compared to control groups. Yolk sac relative weight was decreased by treatment with L-carnitine (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of chicks showing morbidity sign was lower in L-carnitine treated groups from d 7 onwards. The results of the present study suggest that in ovo injection of L-carnitine at d 18 of incubation delayed hatching time but resulted in narrower hatching spread, faster utilization of yolk sac content and improved morbidity. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of in vivo and in vitro administration of ghrelin, leptin and neuropeptide mediators on pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion from male rat hypothalamus before and after puberty
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Aganina, Anastasia; Fournier, Michael et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2007), 19(3), 181-188

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of leptin and ghrelin on pulsatile pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro with emphasis on neuropeptide mediators and ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of leptin and ghrelin on pulsatile pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro with emphasis on neuropeptide mediators and changes between prepuberty (15 days) and sexual maturity (50 days) in the male rat. When hypothalamic explants were studied 90 min after an intraperitoneal injection of leptin, ghrelin or agouti-related protein (AgRP) at 15 days, the GnRH interpulse interval (IPI) was significantly increased by ghrelin and AgRP and decreased by leptin. At 50 days, an increase in GnRH IPI was also caused by ghrelin and AgRP. When the peptides were directly incubated with the explants, the effects of leptin and AgRP in vitro were consistent with those seen after in vivo administration. By contrast, ghrelin resulted in a reduction of GnRH IPI and this was observed at 15 days only. To delineate the neuropeptide mediators of leptin and the effects of ghrelin in the hypothalamus, various hypothalamic neuropeptides and antagonists were used in vitro. At 15 days, the GnRH IPI was significantly decreased after incubation with cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). The reduction of GnRH IPI caused by leptin was partially prevented by either an anti-CART antiserum or SHU 9119, a melanocortin MC3/MC4 receptor antagonist or a CRF receptor antagonist. The NPY-Y5 receptor antagonist did not influence the effects of leptin whereas that antagonist totally prevented the decrease in GnRH IPI caused by ghrelin. The ghrelin-induced reduction of GnRH IPI was partially prevented by SHU 9119. When used alone, SHU 9119 or a CRF-receptor antagonist resulted in increased GnRH IPI at 50 days while they had no effects at 15 days. The NPY-Y5 receptor antagonist resulted in increased GnRH IPI at 15 and 50 days. In conclusion, leptin and ghrelin show opposing effects on pulsatile GnRH secretion after administration in vivo whereas they both have stimulatory effects in vitro. Such effects involve consistently the anorectic peptides CART and CRF for leptin that are mainly active at 15 days. The melanocortigenic system appears to mediate the effects of both leptin and ghrelin. The effects of ghrelin also involve NPY receptors and operate effectively before and at sexual maturity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of in vivo corticosterone treatment on the in vitro metabolism of testosterone in the comb and brain of the young male chicken.
Deviche, P.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Malacarne, G. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (1982), 48(3), 398-402

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)