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See detailETEROGENEITÀ GENETICA DI NOROVIRUS BOVINI IDENTIFICATI IN ITALIA
Di Felice, Eliabetta; Di Profio, Federica; Melegari, Irene et al

Poster (2014, June)

I norovirus (NoV) sono piccoli virus a RNA monocatenario appartenenti alla famiglia Caliciviridae. Sulla base dell’analisi di sequenza del gene ORF2 codificante per la proteina capsidica VP1, i NoV sono ... [more ▼]

I norovirus (NoV) sono piccoli virus a RNA monocatenario appartenenti alla famiglia Caliciviridae. Sulla base dell’analisi di sequenza del gene ORF2 codificante per la proteina capsidica VP1, i NoV sono attualmente classificati in sei genogruppi (G), con GI, GII e GIV responsabili di gastroenterite nell’uomo. Calicivirus enterici morfologicamente simili a NoV umani sono stati identificati per la prima volta in vitelli diarroici nel Regno Unito nel 1978 e in Germania nel 1980. Il sequenziamento nucleotidico dell’intero genoma ha permesso di classificare i NoV bovini (BoNoV) all’interno del genogruppo III in due genotipi, GIII.1 (prototipo Bo/Jena/80/DE) e GIII.2 (prototipo Bo/Newbury/76/UK). I BoNoV hanno una diffusione mondiale con una maggiore prevalenza di virus GIII.2-like. Tuttavia, studi recenti basati sull’analisi nucleotidica a livello della giunzione fra la polimerasi (RdRp) ed il capside, hanno dimostrato la circolazione di ceppi ricombinanti. Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati di un’indagine per la ricerca e tipizzazione di BoNoV condotta su quattro allevamenti bovini ubicati nelle province di Teramo e Pescara. A tal fine, 104 tamponi rettali collezionati da vitelli asintomatici sono stati sottoposti a nested RT-PCR impiegando due set di primer specifici per BoNoV in grado di amplificare un frammento di 326 bp della RdRp. L’RNA di BoNoV è stato identificato nel 10,5% (11/104) degli animali testati. L'analisi di sequenza ha evidenziato per nove sequenze un’elevata identità nucleotidica (nt) (88-96%) con i ceppi GIII.2-like, mentre per due è stata rilevata la maggiore identità (87-90% nt) con i BoNoV GIII.1-like. Per sette ceppi è stata ottenuta anche una sequenza di circa 750 bp che includeva oltre che la regione parziale della RdRp, la regione 5’ capsidica. Sulla base dell’analisi molecolare, cinque ceppi sono risultati strettamente correlati con BoNoV GIII.2-like, mentre solo uno dei due ceppi con polimerasi GIII.1-like, ha mostrato la maggiore identità nucleotidica nei confronti di BoNoV appartenenti al genotipo 1. Il ceppo 80/TE/IT che possedeva una polimerasi GIII.1-like, a livello capsidico ha mostrato la più alta identità con ceppi GIII.2-like, suggerendo un fenomeno di ricombinazione a livello della giunzione ORF1/ORF2. [less ▲]

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See detailEthanol increases taurine but not glutamate nor GABA in the nucleus accumbens using microdialysis
Dahchour, Abdelkhader; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Durbin, Philippe et al

in Society for Neuroscience Abstracts (1994)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEthanol induces taurine release in the amygdala: an in vivo microdialysis study
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Dahchour, Abdelkhader; Ward, Roberta J. et al

in Addiction Biology (1999), 4

The effect of acute IP ethanol injections on the extracellular aspartate, glutamate, taurine and GABA content of the basolateral amygdala microdialysate was investigated in relationship with the total ... [more ▼]

The effect of acute IP ethanol injections on the extracellular aspartate, glutamate, taurine and GABA content of the basolateral amygdala microdialysate was investigated in relationship with the total brain ethanol content. Each acute intraperitoneal injection of ethanol, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g/kg body weight, induced an immediate increase in the microdialysate taurine content; both 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg ethanol evoked an increase during the first 20 minutes following injection which returned to baseline value by 40 minutes despite the fact that ethanol was detectable in the brain until 60 or 120 minutes respectively; after either 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg ethanol there was an increase in taurine content of gradual intensity which gradually declined to reach baseline values by 100 minutes. In contrast, the ethanol concentration for 2.0 g/kg remained elevated at the end of the 120 minutes approximately 25 mg ethanol / mg protein. The stimulated release of taurine within the amygdala could participate in the regulation of the ethanol-induced changes in osmolarity, since taurine is postulated to act as an osmoregulator in the brain. Taurine could also mediate or interact with the ethanol-induced CNS effects, as it exerts a modulatory action on cell excitability and neurotransmitter processes. [less ▲]

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See detailEthanol neurotoxicity: from basic science to clinical reality
De Witte, Philippe; Ward, Roberta; Dahchour, Abdelkhader et al

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (1999), 34

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See detailEthanol-conditioned withdrawal syndrome
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Proceedings of the 22nd European Winterconference on Brain Research (2002)

The withdrawal syndrome is closely related to the concepts of tolerance and physical dependence. The chronic consumption of a drug is believed to induce adaptive changes that are designed to oppose the ... [more ▼]

The withdrawal syndrome is closely related to the concepts of tolerance and physical dependence. The chronic consumption of a drug is believed to induce adaptive changes that are designed to oppose the acute effects of the drug. Such adaptive changes increase the tolerance to acute drug effects but lead to physical dependence, which is revealed by withdrawal symptoms when the drug is cleared from the body. However, another form of adaptive response to repeated drug consumption has been identified. This adaptive response appears after the intermittent repeated administration of a drug in association with the same set of environmental stimuli. After several associations, these environmental stimuli become able to induce a conditioned adaptive response. Such response leads to the phenomenon of “environment-dependent tolerance” that was observed with many drugs of abuse. However, if the drug is not administered, the conditioned stimuli alone may induce a “conditioned withdrawal syndrome”. Although less studied than the classical withdrawal syndrome, this conditioned withdrawal syndrome may be of importance for the development of drug dependence. In our experiments, we have studied the development of a conditioned withdrawal syndrome after repeated associations of a specific set of environmental stimuli with ethanol injections in Wistar rats. After repeated administrations of ethanol, the rats showed a clear environmental-dependent tolerance to ethanol. Furthermore, these conditioned stimuli induced behavioral (hyperexcitation) and neurochemical (increase glutamate release) responses similar to those observed after chronic alcohol withdrawal. [less ▲]

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See detailEthanol-induced behaviors in mice genetically deficient in MCH1 receptors
Didone, Vincent ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 93-93

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See detailEthanol-induced brain extracellular taurine release: an osmoregulatory mechanism?
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Devitgh, Audrey; De witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2001), 36

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See detailEthanol-induced taurine release in rats genetically selected for ethanol preference and sensitivity
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Colombo, Giancarlo; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2001), 36

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
See detailEthanolic fermentation as a tool for high added value products purification from biomass
Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2008)

The biorefinery concept implies the development of processes in order to valorise the whole part of a crop. In this concept, white biotechnologies are usually considered for the production of new ... [more ▼]

The biorefinery concept implies the development of processes in order to valorise the whole part of a crop. In this concept, white biotechnologies are usually considered for the production of new compounds or compounds actually derived from the oil industry. For example, interest in ethanolic fermentation is growing nowadays, mainly for its energetic applications, starting from starch or saccharose. Biorefinery integrating lignocellulosic materials are under development. Whatever the initial substrate may be, wet technologies would produce sugars and other soluble materials from the biomass. Different results could be expected:most of the hydrolysates molecules are used by the microorganisms;some molecules could be inhibitors for the fermentation;some molecules are "indifferent ones" and could be concentrated by the fermentation proccess followed by distillation. In the latest case, these molecules are concentrated in the residual medium and could be more easily recuperated. An example of this exists in the production of ethanol from beet. The different juices (diffusion, clarified, ...) contain molecules such as raffinose, glutamine, betaine, saponins or pectic materials. Some products are used by the yeasts and other are concentrated. Our purpose is to summary the results obtained, allowing the development of the concept in other biorefinery applications. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAn Ethclass in Belgium
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Towards an emerging ethclass in Europe (1999)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEther suicide poisoning by intravenous injection
LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg

in Intensive Care Medicine (1999), 25(3), 338

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See detailEthical implications : pain, coma and related disorders
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Faymonville, Marie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Banks, William P. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Consciousness (2009)

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See detailEthics at the University
Robert, Jocelyne ULg

Scientific conference (2013, November 21)

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See detailEthics at the University: the sky is the limit
Robert, Jocelyne ULg

Scientific conference (2013, November 21)

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See detailThe ethics in disorders of consciousness
Demertzi, Athina ULg; LAUREYS, Steven ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg

in Vincent, J. L. (Ed.) Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (2011)

The introduction of the mechanical ventilator in the 1950s and the development of intensive care in the 1960s permitted many patients to sustain their vegetative functions and survive severe injuries ... [more ▼]

The introduction of the mechanical ventilator in the 1950s and the development of intensive care in the 1960s permitted many patients to sustain their vegetative functions and survive severe injuries. Despite such advances, in many cases patients were found to suffer from altered states of consciousness which had never been encountered before as these patients would normally have died from apnea [1]. The imminent ethical impact of these profound states of unconsciousness was reflected in the composition of the first bioethical committees discussing the redefinition of life and the concept of therapeutic obstinacy. In 1968, the Ad Hoc Committee of Harvard Medical School published a milestone paper for the redefinition of death as irreversible coma and brain failure [2]. The committee was comprised of ten physicians, a theologian, a lawyer and a historian of science, betokening the medical, legal and societal debates that were to follow. We will here give a brief overview of some ethical issues related to the concept of consciousness and the medical management of patients with disorders of consciousness, such as comatose, vegetative and minimally conscious states that may be encountered in the intensive care setting. We will emphasize the problem of pain management and end-of life decision-making. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ethics of managing disorders of consciousness
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven (Eds.) Coma and disorders of consciousness (2012)

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See detailEthique
Seba, Jean-Renaud ULg

in Durand, Pascal (Ed.) Les nouveaux mots du pouvoir. Abécédaire critique (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg)