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See detailDNA vaccination for the priming of neutralizing antibodies against non-immunogenic STa enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Ruth, Nadia ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Roupie, Virginie et al

in Vaccine (2005), 23(27), 3618-3627

In order to test the use of DNA vaccination for its capacity to induce antibodies against the non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin STa from Escherichia coli, BALB/c mice were immunized with plasmid DNA ... [more ▼]

In order to test the use of DNA vaccination for its capacity to induce antibodies against the non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin STa from Escherichia coli, BALB/c mice were immunized with plasmid DNA encoding hybrid proteins made by the insertion of wild type STa or insertion of the Cys6Ala, Cys17Ala and Cys6Ala-Cys17Ala STa mutants at positions 195 or 216 of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase. No STa specific antibodies could be detected after three plasmid injections, but a subsequent boost with native STa peptide was capable of inducing low levels of neutralizing antibodies, as tested in the suckling mouse assay. Highest STa specific responses were found in mice primed with the double mutated STa inserted in position 195. This plasmid induced highest T-cell responses to the TEM-1 protein, indicating that priming of helper T-cell responses to the carrier protein was essential. Mixed IgG1/IgG2a isotypes also reflected this T helper 1 type priming. Moreover, insertion into loop A of the TEM-1 carrier may be more suitable than insertion into loop B, because of reduced competition between carrier and hapten B cell responses. [less ▲]

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See detailDNA-binding mechanism of the Escherichia coli Ada O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.
Verdemato, P. E.; Brannigan, J. A.; Damblon, Christian ULg et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2000), 28(19), 3710-8

The C-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli Ada protein (Ada-C) aids in the maintenance of genomic integrity by efficiently repairing pre-mutagenic O:(6)-alkylguanine lesions in DNA. Structural and ... [more ▼]

The C-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli Ada protein (Ada-C) aids in the maintenance of genomic integrity by efficiently repairing pre-mutagenic O:(6)-alkylguanine lesions in DNA. Structural and thermodynamic studies were carried out to obtain a model of the DNA-binding process. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies map the DNA-binding site to helix 5, and a loop region (residues 151-160) which form the recognition helix and the 'wing' of a helix-turn-wing motif, respectively. The NMR data also suggest the absence of a large conformational change in the protein upon binding to DNA. Hence, an O:(6)-methylguanine (O:(6)meG) lesion would be inaccessible to active site nucleophile Cys146 if the modified base remained stacked within the DNA duplex. The experimentally determined DNA-binding face of Ada-C was used in combination with homology modelling, based on the catabolite activator protein, and the accepted base-flipping mechanism, to construct a model of how Ada-C binds to DNA in a productive manner. To complement the structural studies, thermodynamic data were obtained which demonstrate that binding to unmethylated DNA was entropically driven, whilst the demethylation reaction provoked an exothermic heat change. Methylation of Cys146 leads to a loss of structural integrity of the DNA-binding subdomain. [less ▲]

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See detailDNase I hypersensitive sites far upstream of the rat tryptophan oxygenase gene direct developmentally regulated transcription in livers of transgenic mice.
Kaltschmidt, Christian; Muller, Marc ULg; Brem, Gottfried et al

in Mechanisms of Development (1994), 45(3), 203-10

Expression of the gene coding for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is switched on in rat liver about two weeks after birth. We identified two clusters of DNaseI hypersensitive (HS) sites in the TO gene upstream ... [more ▼]

Expression of the gene coding for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is switched on in rat liver about two weeks after birth. We identified two clusters of DNaseI hypersensitive (HS) sites in the TO gene upstream region; one near the promoter, the other at a distant upstream location (-8.5 kb). Hypersensitivity of upstream sites was present in adult and in 7 day old rat liver, but absent in kidney. To investigate their role in transcriptional regulation, a reporter gene controlled by both HS site regions was used to generate transgenic mice. In these animals the transgene followed the cell specific and developmental regulation of the endogenous gene: inactive after birth and active in adult liver. Transgenes containing only the promoter proximal HS site were non-functional. [less ▲]

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See detailDNase I-sensitive sites within the nuclear architecture visualized by immunoelectron microscopy.
Thiry, Marc ULg

in DNA & Cell Biology (1991), 10(3), 169-80

Nick-translation using mild digestion with DNase I allows preferential labeling of actively transcribing or potentially active genes, as compared with inactive genes. We have adapted this method to the ... [more ▼]

Nick-translation using mild digestion with DNase I allows preferential labeling of actively transcribing or potentially active genes, as compared with inactive genes. We have adapted this method to the level of electron microscopy to see the DNase I-sensitive regions in situ in Ehrlich tumor cells. In interphase cells treated with very low concentrations of DNase I, labeled sequences are found at the borders and in the close vicinity of condensed chromatin blocks. Labeling of condensed areas of chromatin requires higher DNase I concentrations and longer incubation in the nick-translation medium. In the nucleolus, the first sites to be nick-translated are the fibrillar centers and the interstices surrounding them, whereas the dense fibrillar component never contains labeled sequences. When cells are pretreated with actinomycin D, only a few perinucleolar clumps of condensed chromatin are labeled under the same conditions. This method provides a new tool for studying the functional organization of chromatin within a cell. The precise location of nick-translated sites in nucleolar components observed could change classical views concerning the functional organization of the nucleolus. [less ▲]

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See detailDNAzyme-based 2:1 and 4:1 multiplexers and 1:2 demultiplexer
Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise ULg; Levine, R. D. et al

in Chemical Science (2014), 5

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See detailDo adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personnality profiles ?
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Born, Michel ULg

in European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2013), 22

The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers versus peer ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers versus peer sexual abusers), and to and compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. Method : The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years old who were adjudicated for sexual offences or non-sexual offences : 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Results: Compared to PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. PAs scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity and on delinquent predisposition. PAs also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Conclusions: Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. CAs did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders, and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Agrometeorological Data Improve Optical Satellite-based Estimations of Herbaceous Yield in Sahelian Semi-Arid Ecosystems?
Diouf, Abdoul Aziz ULg; Hiernaux, Pierre; Brandt, Martin et al

in Remote Sensing (2016), 8

Quantitative estimates of forage availability at the end of the growing season in rangelands are helpful for pastoral livestock managers and for local, national and regional stakeholders in natural ... [more ▼]

Quantitative estimates of forage availability at the end of the growing season in rangelands are helpful for pastoral livestock managers and for local, national and regional stakeholders in natural resource management. For this reason, remote sensing data such as the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) have been widely used to assess Sahelian plant productivity for about 40 years. This study combines traditional FAPAR-based assessments with agrometeorological variables computed by the geospatial water balance program, GeoWRSI, using rainfall and potential evapotranspiration satellite gridded data to estimate the annual herbaceous yield in the semi-arid areas of Senegal. It showed that a machine-learning model combining FAPAR seasonal metrics with various agrometeorological data provided better estimations of the in situ annual herbaceous yield (R² = 0.69; RMSE = 483kg•DM/ha) than models based exclusively on FAPAR metrics (R² = 0.63; RMSE = 550kg•DM/ha) or agrometeorological variables (R² = 0.55; RMSE = 585kg•DM/ha). All the models provided reasonable outputs and showed a decrease in the mean annual yield with increasing latitude, together with an increase in relative inter-annual variation. In particular, the additional use of agrometeorological information mitigated the saturation effects that characterize the plant indices of areas with high plant productivity. In addition, the date of the onset of the growing season derived from smoothed FAPAR seasonal dynamics showed no significant relationship (0.05 p-level) with the annual herbaceous yield across the whole studied area. The date of the onset of rainfall however, was significantly related to the herbaceous yield and its inclusion in fodder biomass models could constitute a significant improvement in forecasting risks of a mass herbaceous deficit at an early stage of the year. [less ▲]

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See detailDo all negative images similarly retain attention? Time course of attentional disengagement from disgust- and fear-evoking stimuli.
Devue, Christel ULg; Van Hooff, Johanna; Vieweg, Paula et al

in Perception (2012), 41(ECVP abstract suppl.), 133

While disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies, which might in turn lead to different attentional biases. However, the potential ... [more ▼]

While disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies, which might in turn lead to different attentional biases. However, the potential disgusting aspect of threatening stimuli has somehow been neglected which might contribute to discrepancies in the literature. The goal of this study was to examine whether fear- and disgust-evoking images produce different attentional disengagement patterns. We pre-selected IAPS images according to their disgusting, frightening, or neutral character and presented them as central cues while participants had to identify a target letter briefly appearing around them. To investigate the time course of disengagement from those central images, we used 4 different cue-target intervals (200, 500, 800 and 1100 ms). Reaction times were significantly longer with the disgust-evoking images than with neutral- and fear-evoking images at the 200 ms interval only. This suggests that only disgust- and not fear-related images hold participants'attention for longer. This might be related to the need to perform a more comprehensive risk-assessment of disgust-evoking pictures. These results have important implications for future emotion-attention research as they indicate that a more careful selection of stimulus materials that goes beyond the dimensions of valence and arousal is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Animals Work? Creating Pragmatic narrative
Despret, Vinciane ULg

in Senior, Matthew; Clark, David; Freccero, Carla (Eds.) Animots: Postanimality in French Thought (2015)

Do animals work? The way in which we answer this question could bear either the best or the worst consequences for animals. This indicates the pragmatism of such an inquiry. Acknowledging the cooperation ... [more ▼]

Do animals work? The way in which we answer this question could bear either the best or the worst consequences for animals. This indicates the pragmatism of such an inquiry. Acknowledging the cooperation and involvement of lab animals in the workload, as proposed by pharmacologist Michael Robin Chance in the 40s, could have changed the entire story. However, what does “work” mean? Donna Haraway defines “work” as a process that crafts identities and “response-abilities.” She writes: “animals as workers in labs, animals in all their worlds, are response-able in the same sense people are; that is, responsibility is a relationship crafted into intra-action through which entities, subjects and objects, come into being.” Sociologists and anthropologists have been reluctant to consider the idea that other beings could claim to work, apart from a few specific cases such as herding dogs, guide dogs, etc. My colleague, the French sociologist Jocelyne Porcher believes that breeding animals actively collaborate with their breeders. In her previous surveys, she heard anecdotes that suggested that cows and pigs deliberately ease the workload, taking initiative and subjectively getting involved in the work. However, when questioned on the issue, breeders adhere to common beliefs that only humans work, not animals. Looking deeper into the issue, we have discovered that the answer to this question fluctuates depending upon the way the question is posed and to whom the question is directed. [less ▲]

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See detailDo antenatal steroids affect postnatal head growth ?
Maton, pierre; François, A; Battisti, Oreste ULg et al

Conference (2002)

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See detailDo aphids actively search for ant partners?
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Insect Science (2015), 22(2), 283-288

The aphid–ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is ... [more ▼]

The aphid–ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e. aphids’ most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbour ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants’ services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially towards ant-frequented plants. However our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. [less ▲]

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See detailDo aphids and their predators use the same OBP to transport a same odour?
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Fan, Jia; Liu, Yong et al

Poster (2010, August)

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See detailDo babies resemble their fathers more than their mothers ? : a failure to replicate Christenfeld and Hill
Brédart, Serge ULg; French, R.

in Evolution and Human Behavior : Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (1999), 20(3), 129-135

Contrary to Christenfeld

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See detailDo Board Characteristics Affect Information Asymmetry?
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Laouti, Mhamed; Ajina, Aymen ULg

in International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences (2013), 3(12), 660-675

In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry involved 160 companies over the years 2008-2010. Mechanisms of corporate governance include the characteristics of the board of directors. Our results seem to indicate a significant relationship between certain mechanisms of corporate governance and the information asymmetry of the French market. These mechanisms can reduce adverse selection costs, and make exchanges more transparent. These results suggest that firms with efficient corporate governance mechanisms may reduce informative asymmetry and improve transparency between investors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 148 (15 ULg)