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See detailEffects of infused sodium lactate on glucose and energy metabolism in healthy humans.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Cayeux, M. C. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (1995), 21(5), 345-52

To assess the effects of lactate on glucose metabolism, sodium lactate (20 mumol.kg-1.min-1) was infused into healthy subjects in basal conditions and during application of a hyperinsulinaemic (6 pmol.kg ... [more ▼]

To assess the effects of lactate on glucose metabolism, sodium lactate (20 mumol.kg-1.min-1) was infused into healthy subjects in basal conditions and during application of a hyperinsulinaemic (6 pmol.kg-1.min-1) euglycaemic clamp. Glucose rate of appearance (GRa) and disappearance (GRd) were measured from plasma dilution of infused U- 13C glucose, and glucose oxidation (G(ox)) from breath 13CO2 and plasma 13C glucose. In basal conditions, lactate infusion did not alter G(ox) (8.8 +/- 0.9 vs 9.2 +/- 1.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1), while GRa slightly decreased from 15.2 +/- 0.8 basal to 13.9 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg-1.min-1 after lactate (p < 0.05). During a hyperinsulinaemic clamp, hepatic glucose production was completely suppressed with or without lactate. Lactate decreased G(ox) from 17.1 +/- 0.4 to 13.4 +/- 1.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (p < 0.05), whereas GRd was unchanged (39.7 +/- 3.6 vs 45.6 +/- 2.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1. It is concluded that infusion of lactate in basal conditions does not increase GRa or interfere with peripheral glucose oxidation, and that during hyperinsulinaemia lactate decreases glucose oxidation but does not alter hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of infused sodium lactate on glucose metabolism in healthy human.
PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg; Tappy, L.; Schneiter, Ph et al

in Diabetologia (1993), 36(suppl 1), 143

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See detailEffects of Ingested Fructose and Infused Glucagon on Endogenous Glucose Production in Obese Niddm Patients, Obese Non-Diabetic Subjects, and Healthy Subjects
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Jequier, E. et al

in Diabetologia (1996), 39(5), 580-6

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In healthy subjects, however, EGP ... [more ▼]

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In healthy subjects, however, EGP remains constant during administration of gluconeogenic precursors. This study was performed in order to determine whether administration of fructose increases EGP in obese NIDDM patients and obese non-diabetic subjects. Eight young healthy lean subjects, eight middle-aged obese NIDDM patients and seven middle-aged obese non-diabetic subjects were studied during hourly ingestion of 13C fructose (0.3 g.kg fat free mass-1.h-1) for 3 h. Fructose failed to increase EGP (measured with 6,6 2H glucose) in NIDDM (17.7 +/- 1.9 mumol.kg fat free mass-1.min-1 basal vs 15.9 +/- 0.9 after fructose), in obese non-diabetic subjects (12.1 +/- 0.5 basal vs 13.1 +/- 0.5 after fructose) and in lean healthy subjects (13.3 +/- 0.5 basal vs 13.8 +/- 0.6 after fructose) although 13C glucose synthesis contributed 73.2% of EGP in lean subjects, 62.6% in obese non-diabetic subjects, and 52.8% in obese NIDDM patients. Since glucagon may play an important role in the development of hyperglycaemia in NIDDM, healthy subjects were also studied during 13C fructose ingestion + hyperglucagonaemia (232 +/- 9 ng/l) and during hyperglucagonaemia alone. EGP increased by 19.8% with ingestion of fructose + glucagon (p < 0.05) but remained unchanged during administration of fructose or glucagon alone. The plasma 13C glucose enrichment was identical after fructose ingestion both with and without glucagon, indicating that the contribution of fructose gluconeogenesis to the glucose 6-phosphate pool was identical in these two conditions. We concluded that during fructose administration: 1) gluconeogenesis is increased, but EGP remains constant in NIDDM, obese non-diabetic, and lean individuals; 2) in lean individuals, both an increased glucagonaemia and an enhanced supply of gluconeogenic precursors are required to increase EGP; this increase in EGP occurs without changes in the relative proportion of glucose 6-phosphate production from fructose and from other sources (i.e. glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis from non-fructose precursors). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Inhalation of Dust and Endotoxin on Respiratory Tracts of Pigs
Urbain, B.; Mast, J.; Beerens, Dominique ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1999), 60(9), 1055-1060

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of inhalation of feed flour dust and dustborne endotoxin on respiratory tracts of pigs. ANIMALS: 29 healthy Belgian Landrace pigs. PROCEDURE: Pigs housed in an ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of inhalation of feed flour dust and dustborne endotoxin on respiratory tracts of pigs. ANIMALS: 29 healthy Belgian Landrace pigs. PROCEDURE: Pigs housed in an environmental chamber were exposed for 6 days to feed flour dust (1 to 15 mg/m3) and dustborne endotoxins (50 to 2,500 ng/m3). Effects were evaluated by measuring albumin concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell composition of nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and blood, and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in blood and lavage fluids. Dustborne endotoxin was obtained by mixing endotoxins from Escherichia coli (serotype O127:B8) with feed flour before spraying the flour in the environmental chamber. RESULTS: Exposure did not affect cell composition of NL fluid or blood. Total cell counts of BAL fluids were increased in all groups exposed to dust. Macrophage counts were increased in pigs exposed to inhalable dust concentrations as low as 4.4 mg/m3, and lymphocyte counts were increased in groups exposed to high dust concentrations. Percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in blood and lavage fluids were unchanged. In all dust-exposed groups, albumin content of BAL fluid was increased, whereas LDH activity was unaffected. Macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration and edema in the bronchi were identified by light microscopy. Effects attributable to E. coli endotoxin exposure were not identified. CONCLUSIONS: Inhalation of feed flour dust did not affect nasal mucosa but did induce bronchial airway inflammation. Dustborne endotoxins did not have effects attributable to endotoxin alone. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inhaled dry powderipratropium broide on reconvery from exercise of horses with COPD
Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Bayly, Warwick M; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1999), 31(1), 20-24

The present study evaluated ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters during recovery from strenuous exercise in horses suffering from a crisis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... [more ▼]

The present study evaluated ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters during recovery from strenuous exercise in horses suffering from a crisis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine whether ipratropium dry powder inhalation (DPI) before exercise has an effect on these parameters. When 6 saddle horses, affected with COPD, developed airway obstruction, they inhaled placebo and ipratropium (2400 pghorse), the order being randomly chosen. Pulmonary function tests were then recorded 15 min after inhalation. Following these tests, the horses underwent a strenuous treadmill exercise, followed by a ecovery period that consisted of a 10 min walk. Measurements were made at the first and tenth min of recovery. Respiratory flow, 0 2 and C02 fractions in the respired gas, pleural pressure changes and heart rate were recorded. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were analysed or gas tensions, haemoglobin and plasma lactate concentrations. Oxygen consumption (Wz), C02 production, tidal volume, alveolar oxygen tension (PAOz), alveolar ventilation, the alveolar-pulmonary capillary oxygen difference ((A-a)dOz) and total pulmonary resistance (RL) were measured. The PA02 was the only parameter significantly improved during recovery following ipratropium DPI. This improvement was not accompanied by evidence of improvement of other ventilatory or cardiorespiratory parameters. The results showed that in horses suffering from a crisis of COPD, recovery is characterised by an exercise-induced bronchodilation. Secondly, ipratropium DPI at a dose of 2400 pghorse is an effective bronchoddator in these horses at rest but it has little effect on the airway calibre during the recovery period. It is suggested that the short term recovery period is still Muenced by exercise-induced adjustments that may exceed the bronchodilatory effect of inhaled ipratropium that are observed before exercise [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inhaled ipratropium bromide on breathing mechanics and gas exchange in exercising horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Bayly, W. M.; Duvivier, D. H.; Votion, D. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(1), 36-43

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their ... [more ▼]

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their exercise capacity. A cross-over protocol with an inert powder placebo (P) was used. Mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gases were determined before treatment, after treatment but pre-exercise, and during an incremental exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was also measured before and during exercise, and the time to fatigue recorded. Inhalation of IB reduced total pulmonary resistance (RL) and maximum intrapleural pressure changes (deltaPpl(max)) and increased dynamic compliance before exercise. The onset of exercise was associated with a marked decrease in RL in P-treated horses but not those receiving IB, so that RL during exercise was not affected by treatment. Although deltaPpl(max) was lower at 8,9 and 10 m/s with IB, there were no treatment-related changes in VO2, blood gases, time to fatigue or any other measurement of breathing mechanics. Therefore, although inhalation of IB prior to exercise may have improved deltaPpl(max), it had no apparent impact on the horses' capacity for exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide on Pulmonary Hemodynamics in a Porcine Model of Endotoxin Shock
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1999), 27(9), 1953-7

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary circulation in a porcine endotoxin shock model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary circulation in a porcine endotoxin shock model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large university medical center. SUBJECTS: Twelve pathogen-free pigs weighing 15 to 31 kg. INTERVENTIONS: After surgical preparation, all pigs received a 0.5 mg/kg endotoxin infusion over 30 mins. One hour after the start of endotoxin, NO inhalation (40 ppm) was initiated in six pigs, whereas the six remaining pigs served to control the progression of shock in this model. Consecutive changes in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, including characteristic resistance, vascular compliance, peripheral vascular resistance, and inductance, were continuously assessed during the experimental protocol using a four-element Windkessel model of the pulmonary circulation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Endotoxin insult resulted in a biphasic pulmonary artery pressure increase from 14 +/- 2 to 32 +/- 4 mm Hg. Inhaled NO reversed the resistance to blood flow in small pulmonary arteries from 596 +/- 69 to 424 +/- 36 dyne-sec/ cm5. In contrast, the vascular capacitance of the entire pulmonary circuit, which decreased from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 mL/mm Hg throughout endotoxin challenge, remained insensitive to NO administration. CONCLUSION: In endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension, inhaled NO may function as a modulator of distal pulmonary arterial tone but fails to act as a regulator of larger capacitance pulmonary vessels. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insecticide treatments on insect density and diversity in vegetable open fields.
Colignon, P.; Hastir, Pierre; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 403-411

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and allowed to reduce the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Among cultivated species in Wallonia, leguminous crops represent more than 85% of the vegetable production. To assess the impact of insecticide treatment on both pests (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) fields were investigated during all the production duration. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weakly from May to July. In each field, control untreated and treated plots were investigated. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined until the family level. Approximately 90.000 insects belonging to 59 major families (99% of captures) and 64 minor families were identified. These results showed that biodiversity in terms of family numbers was significantly higher in unsprayed plots. In addition, biodiversity and biomass (insect density) increased gradually during the season. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density was discussed in relation to aphicid (lambda-cyhalothrin, pirimicarb) treatments and the development of I.P.M. program in vegetable crops. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insulin therapy in insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients.
DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1993), 48

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See detailEffects of interaction of incubator CO2 levels and mixing hatching eggs of different embryo growth trajectory on embryo physiological and hatching parameters.
Tona, K.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Willemsen, H. et al

in British poultry science (2013), 54(4), 545-51

1. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of mixing eggs of different genotype and incubating with different CO2 concentrations on embryonic parameters. Half of the eggs were incubated ... [more ▼]

1. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of mixing eggs of different genotype and incubating with different CO2 concentrations on embryonic parameters. Half of the eggs were incubated in a CO2 controlled incubator (VCO2) during the first 10 d of incubation and the other half was incubated at standard incubation ventilation rate (SV). 2. From 10 to 18 d of incubation, thick albumen and embryos were weighed. Blood samples were collected at d 18 of incubation, at internal pipping and at hatch for determination of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and corticosterone concentration. During the last 2 d of incubation, hatching events of individual eggs were monitored every 2 h. 3. From 4 to 5 d of incubation in the SV group of Experiment 1, pH values of Ross strain chickens were lower than those of Isa Brown. From d 12 of incubation onwards, Ross embryos grew faster than those of Isa Brown. At 14 and 16 d of incubation, Ross eggs in the CO2 controlled incubator had lower albumen weights compared to all other treatments. 4. T3 concentrations in Ross embryos were higher than those of Isa Brown embryos. Chicken weight at hatch was in the following order: Isa Brown SV < Isa Brown VCO2 = Ross SV < Ross VCO2. 5. In Experiment 2, incubation time of VCO2 eggs until internal pipping, external pipping and hatch was significantly shorter than that of SV eggs. 6. It was concluded that mixing of hatching eggs of differential embryo developmental trajectory affects their hatching process. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of interleukin-1 beta and dexamethasone on the expression by chondrocytes of antioxidant enzymes
Mathy, Marianne ULg; Devel, Philippe; Sanchez, Christelle ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2004), 12(Suppl. B), 51-52

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See detailEffects of intraovarian application of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the superovulatory response of diary cattle.
Velazquez, M. A.; Hadeler, K. G.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2009), 44(S1), 38

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See detailEffects of intrapleural pressure changes on pulmonary haemodynamics measurements in unsedated cattle
Amory, Hélène ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1989)

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See detailEffects of intravascular volume expansion on lung fluid balance in a canine model of septic shock
D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; WAHLEN, C; HALLEUX, J et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1987), 15

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See detailEffects of intravenous infusions of sodium bicarbonate on blood oxygen binding in calves with diarrhoea
Cambier, Carole ULg; Clerbaux, Thierry; Detry, Bruno et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2005), 156(22), 706-710

Twelve diarrhoeic calves were treated intravenously with an isotonic solution containing sodium bicarbonate, and their oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) were calculated under standard conditions and ... [more ▼]

Twelve diarrhoeic calves were treated intravenously with an isotonic solution containing sodium bicarbonate, and their oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) were calculated under standard conditions and compared with those of a group of healthy calves. The relationships between the OECs for arterial and venous blood and the oxygen extraction ratio were investigated. in the diarrhoeic calves, the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen, measured under standard conditions, was increased compared with the healthy animals. During the infusion, the standard partial oxygen pressure at 50 per cent saturation of haemoglobin (P50) values stayed below the values recorded in the healthy animals. At the end of the infusion the mean standard P50 of the diarrhoeic calves was lower than before the infusion. The combined effects of all the regulating factors on blood oxygen binding resulted in the OECS of the arterial and jugular venous blood of the diarrhoeic calves remaining unchanged compared with the healthy calves. However, the administration of the infusion decreased the P50 of both the arterial and venous blood to below the value recorded in the healthy calves. oxygen extraction by the tissues was impaired in the diarrhoeic calves throughout the infusion, and they remained dehydrated and depressed until 120 minutes after the infusion began [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of intravenous lidocaïne in healthy adult horses.
Amory, Hélène ULg; Lopez Arevaldo, Diégo; Maes, An et al

Poster (2008, January)

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See detailEffects of ionospheric small-scale structures on GNSS
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Lejeune, Sandrine; Warnant, René ULg

in The Institution of Engineering and Technology 11th International Conference on Ionospheric Radio Systems and Techniques (IRST 2009) (2009, April)

Nowadays, Global Navigation Satellite Systems or GNSS allow to measure positions in real-time with an accuracy ranging from a few meters to a few centimeters mainly depending on the type of observable ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, Global Navigation Satellite Systems or GNSS allow to measure positions in real-time with an accuracy ranging from a few meters to a few centimeters mainly depending on the type of observable (code or phase measurements) and on the positioning mode used (absolute or differential). The best precisions can be reached in differential mode using phase measurements. In differential mode, mobile users improve their positioning precision thanks to so-called “differential corrections” provided by a fixed reference station. For example, the Real-Time Kinematic technique (RTK) allows to measure positions in real-time with a precision usually better than a decimeter. In practice, the ionospheric effects on GNSS radio signals remain the main factor which limits the precision and the reliability of real-time differential positioning. As differential applications are based on the assumption that the measurements made by the reference station and by the mobile user are affected in the same way by ionospheric effects, these applications are influenced by gradients in TEC between the reference station and the user. For this reason, local variability in the ionospheric plasma can be the origin of strong degradations in positioning precision. In this paper, we characterize local variability in the ionosphere which can pose a threat to high precision real-time differential positioning. GNSS carrier phase measurements can be used to monitor local TEC variability: small-scale ionospheric structures can be detected by monitoring TEC high frequency changes at a single station; as ionospheric disturbances are moving, we can expect that such structures will induce TEC temporal variability which can be detected at a single station. We applied this method (called the “one-station” method) to the GPS data collected at the permanent (mid-latitude) station of Brussels from 1994 to 2007 and performed a climatological study of the ionospheric structures on this period which covers more than one solar cycle. Two main types of structures have been observed: Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID’s) and “noise-like” structures. TID’s have strong seasonal and solar cycle dependence when noise-like structures are “ionospheric variability” which is usually observed during geomagnetic storms. The largest Rate of TEC (RoTEC) detected at Brussels during the period considered in our study were observed during severe geomagnetic storms. Moreover, we found that strong irregularities occur even during solar minimum. This means that, even during periods where the probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities is very low, large RoTEC can occur. The one-station method allows to measure variability in time but GNSS differential applications are affected by variability in space between the user and the reference station. Therefore, in a second step, we measured TEC differential variability (using double differences of phase measurements) during few typical ionospheric conditions: quiet ionospheric activity, medium and large amplitude TID’s and noise-like variability due to a severe geomagnetic storm. We also analyzed the effects of the baseline length and orientation on the residual ionospheric term. As a last step, we developed a software which reproduces positioning conditions experienced by RTK users on the field. We used this software to assess positioning errors due to the different ionospheric conditions considered in the previous step. Again, the largest effects were observed during the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of ipratropium bromide on repeated cadmium inhalation-induced lune inflammation and airspace enlargement in rats
Zhang, W. H.; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Cheu, Esteban ULg et al

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (2010), 10

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See detailEffects of ipriflavone and its metabolites on human articular chondrocytes cultivated in clusters
Franchimont, P; Bassleer, C; Henrotin, Yves ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (1994), 2(S1), 51

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)