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See detailEffects of vagal nerve stimulation in the rat orofacial formalin model of pain
Multon, S.; Scholsem, M.; Legrain, C. et al

Conference (2006, November 10)

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See detailEffects of vagal nerve stimulation in the rat orofacial formalin model of pain
Multon, Sylvie ULg; Scholsem, Martin; LEGRAIN, Caroline ULg et al

Poster (2006, November)

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See detailEffects of vagal nerve stimulation in the rat orofacial formalin model of pain
Multon, Sylvie ULg; Scholsem, Martin; LEGRAIN, Caroline ULg et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 36th Annual Meeting Society for Neuroscience (Oct 2006) (2006, October)

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See detailEffects of valve replacement for aortic stenosis on mitral regurgitation.
Unger, Philippe; Plein, Daniele; Van Camp, Guy et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2008), 102(10), 1378-82

We aimed to prospectively and quantitatively assess the effects of aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) on mitral regurgitation (MR) and to examine the determinants of the changes in MR ... [more ▼]

We aimed to prospectively and quantitatively assess the effects of aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) on mitral regurgitation (MR) and to examine the determinants of the changes in MR. Fifty-two patients with AS scheduled for AVR were included if holosystolic MR not being considered for replacement or repair was detected. MR was quantified using the proximal isovelocity surface area method before and 8 +/- 4 days after surgery. Mitral valvular deformation parameters did not change significantly, but the mitral effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) and regurgitant volume decreased from 11 +/- 6 mm(2) to 8 +/- 6 mm(2) and from 20 +/- 10 ml to 11 +/- 9 ml, respectively (both p <0.0001). Using multiple linear regression analysis, preoperative severity of MR, mitral leaflet coaptation height, and end-diastolic volume decrease were independently associated with postoperative reduction in MR, whereas changes in mitral valve morphology after surgery were not. MR etiology did not predict the reduction in MR. In conclusion, the decrease in MR observed in most patients after AVR is associated with the magnitude of acute left ventricular reverse remodeling. As the reduction in left ventricular systolic pressure contributes to the decrease in regurgitant volume, the preoperative quantitative assessment of MR should best be performed by measurement of the ERO. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of various concentrations of glycolic acid at the corneoxenometry and collaxenometry bioassays.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7(3), 194-8

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid used as a chemical peeling for more than a quarter century. The primary tissue target is the stratum corneum. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid used as a chemical peeling for more than a quarter century. The primary tissue target is the stratum corneum. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effects of various concentrations of glycolic acid on the stratum corneum and collagen fibers using two selected bioassays. METHODS: Corneoxenometry was performed to test the effects on human stratum corneum. Collaxenometry was similarly designed to quantify the effect on sheets of collagen fibers. Different glycolic acid concentrations ranging from 5% to 70% in alcohol were tested, respectively, for 3- and 10-min exposure times. RESULTS: Both bioassays showed consistent reactivities with a dose-effect relationship when using a 3-min exposure time. By contrast, the tests appeared unreliable or uninformative for the 10-min exposure time. CONCLUSION: Corneoxenometry and collaxenometry appear useful for in vitro testing peeling agents during short exposure times. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of varying antigens and adjuvant systems on the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent human oncogenic papillomavirus vaccines: Results from two randomized trials.
Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Simon, Philippe et al

in Vaccine (2014)

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. METHODS: In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). RESULTS: One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10mug VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20mug VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4+ T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Immune interference is a complex phenomenon that cannot always be overcome by changing the antigen dose or adjuvant system. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of visual cortex activation on the nociceptive blink reflex in healthy subjects.
Sava, Simona L.; de Pasqua, Victor; MAGIS, Delphine ULg et al

in PloS one (2014), 9(6), 100198

Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not ... [more ▼]

Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR). Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine supplementation on muscle function and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
Passerieux, Emilie; Hayot, Maurice; Jaussent, Audrey et al

in Free radical biology & medicine (2015), 81

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative ... [more ▼]

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to FSHD pathology, antioxidants that might modulate or delay oxidative insults could help in maintaining FSHD muscle function. Our primary objective was to test whether oral administration of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine could improve the physical performance of patients with FSHD. Adult patients with FSHD (n=53) were enrolled at Montpellier University Hospital (France) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg vitamin C, 400mg vitamin E, 25mg zinc gluconate and 200 mug selenomethionine (n=26), or matching placebo (n=27) once a day for 17 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in the two-minute walking test (2-MWT), maximal voluntary contraction, and endurance limit time of the dominant and nondominant quadriceps (MVCQD, MVCQND, TlimQD, and TlimQND, respectively) after 17 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in the antioxidant status and oxidative stress markers. Although 2-MWT, MVCQ, and TlimQ were all significantly improved in the supplemented group at the end of the treatment compared to baseline, only MVCQ and TlimQ variations were significantly different between groups (MVCQD: P=0.011; MVCQND: P=0.004; TlimQD: P=0.028; TlimQND: P=0.011). Similarly, the vitamin C (P<0.001), vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (P<0.001), vitamin C/vitamin E ratio (P=0.017), vitamin E gamma/alpha ratio (P=0.022) and lipid peroxides (P<0.001) variations were significantly different between groups. In conclusion, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and selenium supplementation has no significant effect on the 2-MWT, but improves MVCQ and TlimQ of both quadriceps by enhancing the antioxidant defenses and reducing oxidative stress. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (number: NCT01596803). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of vitamin D in the elderly population : current status and perspectives
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Souberbielle, JC et al

in Archives of Public Health (2014), 72

Besides its well-known effect on bone metabolism, recent researches suggest that vitamin D may also play a role in the muscular, immune, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Double-blind RCTs support ... [more ▼]

Besides its well-known effect on bone metabolism, recent researches suggest that vitamin D may also play a role in the muscular, immune, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Double-blind RCTs support vitamin D supplementation at a dose of 800 IU per day for the prevention of falls and fractures in the senior population. Ecological, case–control and cohort studies have suggested that high vitamin D levels were associated with a reduced risk of autoimmune diseases, type 2 diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases and cancer but large clinical trials are lacking today to provide solid evidence of a vitamin D benefit beyond bone health. At last, the optimal dose, route of administration, dosing interval and duration of vitamin D supplementation at a specific target dose beyond the prevention of vitamin D deficiency need to be further investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle strength, muscle mass and muscle power: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Rabenda, Véronique ULg et al

in The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (2014), 99(11), 4336-4345

Context There is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role on several tissues including skeletal muscle. Objective To summarize with a meta-analyse the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle ... [more ▼]

Context There is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role on several tissues including skeletal muscle. Objective To summarize with a meta-analyse the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function. Data sources A systematic research of randomized controlled trials, performed between 1966 and January 2014 has been conducted on Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematics Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled and completed by a manual review of the literature and congressional abstracts. Study selection All forms and doses of vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium supplementation, compared with placebo or control were included. Out of the 225 potentially relevant articles, 30 randomized controlled trials involving 5615 individuals (mean age: 61.1 years) met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Data synthesis Results revealed a small but significant positive effect of vitamin D supplementation on global muscle strength with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.17 (p=0.02). No significant effect was found on muscle mass (SMD 0.058; p=0.52) or muscle power (SMD 0.057; p=0.657). Results on muscle strength were significantly more important with people who presented a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <30 nmol/L. Supplementation seems also more effective on people aged 65 years or older compared to younger subjects (SMD 0.25; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.48 versus SMD 0.03; 95% CI -0.08 to 0.14). Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation has a small positive impact on muscle strength but additional studies are needed to define optimal treatment modalities, including dose, mode of administration and duration. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of wheat-pea intercropping on the population dynamics of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its main natural enemies
Zhou, Haibo ULg

in Kun Chong Xue Bao = Acta Entomologica Sinica (2009), 52(7), 775-782

To study the ecological regulation effects of species diversity in wheat fields on Sitobion avenae, field experiments were carried out in Langfang Experimental Station of Institute of Plant Protection ... [more ▼]

To study the ecological regulation effects of species diversity in wheat fields on Sitobion avenae, field experiments were carried out in Langfang Experimental Station of Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences from October of 2007 to July of 2008. The intercropping patterns of wheat and pea, by the proportion of planting row of pea and wheat in 2:2, 2:4, 2:6 and 2:8, were plotted, and the field cultivar monoculture of wheat was planted as the control. Population dynamics of apterae and alatae S. avenae, population dynamics, species richness, diversity index and evenness of main natural enemies were investigated systematically and analyzed. The results showed that, compared with monoculture of wheat, the amount of S. avenae apterae per 100 plants (square-root transformed) in aphid peak period were very significantly lower in the intercropping treatments (P<0.01), and the cascade was that wheat monoculture (77.38) > 2-2 intercropping (68.62) > 2-4 intercropping (68.51) > 2-8 intercropping (65.19) > 2-6 intercropping (64.94). Although population dynamics of main natural enemies showed a similar trend with time, wheat-pea intercropping could preserve and augment natural enemies more than monoculture of wheat, and there were higher population densities of ladybeetles and aphid parasitoids, and higher species richness and diversity index of natural enemies, but lower evenness index in each intercropping field. It is so concluded that wheat-pea intercropping system can not only reduce the population of S. avenae, but also improve the stability and sustainability of controlling wheat pests. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations on the diversity of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

Poster (2014, May 20)

This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations on the populations of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials. At ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations on the populations of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials. At specific times of the season, the observations on wheat tillers confirm the resource concentration and the enemy hypotheses. In fact, aphids were more abundant in the pure stand of wheat, while more ladybirds were observed in the associations. As for the trapping of aphidophagous beneficials, the parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. Few lacewings and hoverflies were trapped. This study shows a beneficial effect of crop associations on the control of aphid populations. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Whole body Vibration in the elderly
Bruyère, Olivier ULg

Conference (2004, May 15)

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See detailEffects of widespread fish introductions on paedomorphic newts in Europe
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Džukić, Georg; Kalezic, Milos L.

in Conservation Biology (2005), 19(1), 162-170

As a result of factors such as global warming, habitat destruction, and species introduction, amphibians are declining worldwide. No one, however, has analyzed the status of polymorphic amphibian species ... [more ▼]

As a result of factors such as global warming, habitat destruction, and species introduction, amphibians are declining worldwide. No one, however, has analyzed the status of polymorphic amphibian species at a national or continental scale, although some local reports exist. Our aim was to report on the loss of intraspecific heterochrony as a loss to diversity in determining the consequences of fish stocking on European populations of paedomorphic newts. Paedomorphosis is a polymorphism in which larval traits are retained in the adult stage. We surveyed 39 paedomorphic populations of the alpine ( Triturus alpestris) and palmate ( T. helveticus) newts, all but one of which initially occupied fishless ponds and lakes in France, Italy, Slovenia, Bosnia, Montenegro, and Greece. Exotic fishes were found in 44% of the studied aquatic habitats, with a 100% presence in Montenegro. At all sites paedomorphs disappeared and metamorphs declined. Only fish explained these population changes because alternative factors such as drying were not significant. More catastrophically, fish introductions occurred in habitats known to support the largest populations of newts and even some endemic subspecies. If management and legislative measures are not taken to stop fish stocking, protect paedomorphs as conservation units at national and international levels, and restore natural habitats, all the largest paedomorphic populations may disappear in the near future. Their disappearance would represent a loss of one of the rare, fascinating examples of intraspecific heterochrony. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Workers’ Participation on Enterprise Performance: Empirical Evidence from French Producer Co-operatives
Defourny, Jacques ULg; Estrin, Saul; Jones, Derek C.

in International Journal of Industrial Organization (1985), 3(2), 197-218

The results of estimating production functions augmented by various measures of workers' participation on a large enterprise level data set of French cooperatives are reported. Value added is found to be ... [more ▼]

The results of estimating production functions augmented by various measures of workers' participation on a large enterprise level data set of French cooperatives are reported. Value added is found to be an increasing function of participation in profits, in collective membership and in ownership, even when a wide assortment of enterprise specific and environmental factors are taken into account. This finding is very robust, surviving tests between alternative specifications of technology, for reverse causality, for simultaneous equation bias and for multicollinearity. The typical productivity effect from participation, however, is small, around 5% of output. The results suggest that Western policymakers should investigate ways to increase workers' participation in capital stakes and profit shares. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of xylo-oligosaccharides on performance and microbiota in broiler chickens.
De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L. et al

in Applied and environmental microbiology (2015)

In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of ... [more ▼]

In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study it was aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, on top of a wheat/rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the caeca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, was significantly increased in the caeca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and caecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. [less ▲]

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