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See detailEffects of Hyperchloremia on Blood Oxygen Binding in Healthy Calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Detry, B.; Beerens, Dominique ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1998), 85(4), 1267-1272

Three different levels of hyperchloremia were induced in healthy Friesian calves to study the effects of chloride on blood oxygen transport. By infusion, the calves received either 5 ml/kg of 0.9% NaCl ... [more ▼]

Three different levels of hyperchloremia were induced in healthy Friesian calves to study the effects of chloride on blood oxygen transport. By infusion, the calves received either 5 ml/kg of 0.9% NaCl (low-level hyperchloremia; group A), 5 ml/kg of 7.5% NaCl (moderate hyperchloremia; group B), or 7.5 ml/kg of 7.5% NaCl (high-level hyperchloremia; group C). Blood was sampled from the jugular vein and the brachial artery. Chloride concentration, hemoglobin content, arterial and venous pH, PCO2, and PO2 were determined. At each time point (0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min), the whole blood oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured under standard conditions. In groups B and C, hyperchloremia was accompanied by a sustained rightward shift of the OEC, as indicated by the significant increase in the standard PO2 at 50% hemoglobin saturation. Infusion of hypertonic saline also induced relative acidosis. The arterial and venous OEC were calculated, with body temperature, pH, and PCO2 values in arterial and venous blood taken into account. The degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and the venous compartments [O2 exchange fraction (OEF%)] and the amount of oxygen released at tissue level by 100 ml of bovine blood (OEF vol%) were calculated from the arterial and venous OEC combined with the PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. The chloride-induced rightward shift of the OEC was reinforced by the relative acidosis, but the altered PO2 values combined with the lower hemoglobin concentration explained the absence of any significant difference in OEF (% and vol%). We conclude that infusion of hypertonic saline induces hyperchloremia and acidemia, which can explain the OEC rightward shift observed in arterial and peripheral venous blood. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy and Diseased Animals
Cambier, Carole ULg; Ratz, V.; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(5), 303-316

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the ... [more ▼]

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the mechanisms behind the possible clinical efficacy of such treatment. The review focuses successively on haemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. How hypertonic saline solutions affect oxygen transport by haemoglobin is also considered. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of hypoxia on stress proteins in the piglet brain at birth
Chiral, M.; Grongnet, J. F.; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Pediatric Research (2004), 56(5), 775-782

Newborn piglets were submitted to normobaric hypoxia (5% O-2, 95% N-2) for either 1 or 4 h. The effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain were characterized through a time-course analysis of levels of ... [more ▼]

Newborn piglets were submitted to normobaric hypoxia (5% O-2, 95% N-2) for either 1 or 4 h. The effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain were characterized through a time-course analysis of levels of various proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSP27, 70, and 90), hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2), and caspase-3. The expression of these proteins was determined at different stages of recovery up to 72 h in cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus by Western blot analysis in hypoxic maintained animals that were made hypoxic at either 20 or 37degreesC. In all regions of the brain, HIF-1alpha and HSP27 expression were strongly increased until 22 h of recovery. No significant changes were observed for HSP70, HSP90, and HO-2. A small elevation of expression of nNOS was observed at early stages in the cerebellum and the cortex with no change in the hippocampus. Expression of caspase 3 was strongly increased in the cortex 24 and 48 h after hypoxia but unchanged in the hippocampus. These results are presented in terms of the porcine model of nonischemic hypoxia and its delayed neuronal effects on the cerebral outcome. Because of their recently established biochemical and functional interactions, the expression of the main HSPs, HIF-1alpha, OS, and caspase-3 after hypoxia are delineated. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of hypoxia on stress proteins of the piglet brain at birth
Chiral, Magali; Grongnet, Jean-François; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2003)

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See detailEffects of immunization against somatostatin on growth performances and growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor I and insulin plasma levels in young bulls.
Renaville, Robert ULg; Sneyers, M.; Massart, Serge et al

in Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale (1994), 20(4),

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See detailEffects of immunization against somatostatin on growth performances and growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and insulin plasma levels in young animals
Renaville, Robert ULg; Fernadez, J. J.; Sneyers, Myriam et al

in Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale (1994), 20

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See detailEffects of impurities on the lattice dynamics of nanocrystalline silicon for thermoelectric application
Claudio, Tania; Schierning, Gabi; Theissmann, Ralf et al

in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE (2013), 48(7), 2836-2845

Doped silicon nanoparticles were exposed to air and sintered to form nanocrystalline silicon. The composition, microstructure, and structural defects were investigated with TEM, XRD, and PDF and the ... [more ▼]

Doped silicon nanoparticles were exposed to air and sintered to form nanocrystalline silicon. The composition, microstructure, and structural defects were investigated with TEM, XRD, and PDF and the lattice dynamics was evaluated with measurements of the heat capacity, of the elastic constants with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the density of phonon states (DPS) with inelastic neutron scattering. The results were combined and reveal that the samples contain a large amount of silicon dioxide and exhibit properties that deviate from bulk silicon. Both in the reduced DPS and in the heat capacity a Boson peak at low energies, characteristic of amorphous SiO2, is observed. The thermal conductivity is strongly reduced due to nanostructuration and the incorporation of impurities. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of in ovo administration of L-carnitine on hatching events and juvenile performance of layer-type chick
Nouboukpo, K. E.; Tona, K.; Kamers, B. et al

in International Journal of Poultry Science (2010), 9(10), 980-983

The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and ... [more ▼]

The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and 1000 umol) dissolved in 0.9% of Saline (NaCI) at d 18 of incubation. Two control groups (non-injected and injected with 0.9% of Saline were also included. Hatched chicks was recorded after every 4 h, beginning at 490 h of incubation and ending at 514 h, for incubation length and hatching spread determination. At the end of incubation, hatched chicks were recorded according to treatment for determination of hatchability. At 3, 7 and 14 d post-hatch, chick body weight (BW) and morbidity were recorded. Also, at d 3 and 7 post-hatch, 14 birds from each of 2 replicate groups within each treatment were used for intestine and yolk sac weight determination. Results indicate that BW, hatchability, or relative intestine weights were not affected by treatment. However, incubation length was longer while hatching spread was shorter in L-carnitine groups compared to control groups. Yolk sac relative weight was decreased by treatment with L-carnitine (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of chicks showing morbidity sign was lower in L-carnitine treated groups from d 7 onwards. The results of the present study suggest that in ovo injection of L-carnitine at d 18 of incubation delayed hatching time but resulted in narrower hatching spread, faster utilization of yolk sac content and improved morbidity. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of in vivo and in vitro administration of ghrelin, leptin and neuropeptide mediators on pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion from male rat hypothalamus before and after puberty
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Aganina, Anastasia; Fournier, Michael et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2007), 19(3), 181-188

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of leptin and ghrelin on pulsatile pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro with emphasis on neuropeptide mediators and ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of leptin and ghrelin on pulsatile pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro with emphasis on neuropeptide mediators and changes between prepuberty (15 days) and sexual maturity (50 days) in the male rat. When hypothalamic explants were studied 90 min after an intraperitoneal injection of leptin, ghrelin or agouti-related protein (AgRP) at 15 days, the GnRH interpulse interval (IPI) was significantly increased by ghrelin and AgRP and decreased by leptin. At 50 days, an increase in GnRH IPI was also caused by ghrelin and AgRP. When the peptides were directly incubated with the explants, the effects of leptin and AgRP in vitro were consistent with those seen after in vivo administration. By contrast, ghrelin resulted in a reduction of GnRH IPI and this was observed at 15 days only. To delineate the neuropeptide mediators of leptin and the effects of ghrelin in the hypothalamus, various hypothalamic neuropeptides and antagonists were used in vitro. At 15 days, the GnRH IPI was significantly decreased after incubation with cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). The reduction of GnRH IPI caused by leptin was partially prevented by either an anti-CART antiserum or SHU 9119, a melanocortin MC3/MC4 receptor antagonist or a CRF receptor antagonist. The NPY-Y5 receptor antagonist did not influence the effects of leptin whereas that antagonist totally prevented the decrease in GnRH IPI caused by ghrelin. The ghrelin-induced reduction of GnRH IPI was partially prevented by SHU 9119. When used alone, SHU 9119 or a CRF-receptor antagonist resulted in increased GnRH IPI at 50 days while they had no effects at 15 days. The NPY-Y5 receptor antagonist resulted in increased GnRH IPI at 15 and 50 days. In conclusion, leptin and ghrelin show opposing effects on pulsatile GnRH secretion after administration in vivo whereas they both have stimulatory effects in vitro. Such effects involve consistently the anorectic peptides CART and CRF for leptin that are mainly active at 15 days. The melanocortigenic system appears to mediate the effects of both leptin and ghrelin. The effects of ghrelin also involve NPY receptors and operate effectively before and at sexual maturity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of in vivo corticosterone treatment on the in vitro metabolism of testosterone in the comb and brain of the young male chicken.
Deviche, P.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Malacarne, G. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (1982), 48(3), 398-402

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See detailEffects of incidental and intentional feature binding on recognition: a behavioural and PET activation study
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Neuropsychologia (2002), 40(2), 131-144

Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we investigated cerebral regions associated with the episodic recognition of words alone and words bound to contextual colours. Two modes of colour encoding were ... [more ▼]

Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we investigated cerebral regions associated with the episodic recognition of words alone and words bound to contextual colours. Two modes of colour encoding were tested: incidental and intentional word-to-colour binding. Word-only recognition was associated with brain activation in a lexico-semantic left middle temporal region and in the cerebellum following an incidental colour encoding, and with brain activation in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate and right inferior frontal gyrus following an intentional encoding. Recognition of bound features was associated with activation in left prefrontal and superior parietal regions following an incidental colour encoding, and with preferential right prefrontal cortex activation following an intentional colour encoding. Our results are in line with the hypothesis of a parietal involvement in context processing, and prefrontal areas in monitoring retrieval processes. Our results also support the hypothesis of a 'cortical asymmetry for reflective activity' (CARA). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inclusion of a grazing period on performances of fattening bulls
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Gielen, Marc ULg; Limbourg, Pierre et al

in Proceedings of the general meeting of the European Grassland Federation (1993)

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See detailEffects of inclusion of grazing period on performance of fattening bulls
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Gielen, Marc ULg; Limbourg, Pierre et al

in Proceeding of the general meeting of the European grassland Federation Wagenings (1994)

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See detailEffects of incorporation of modified silica nanoparticles on the mechanical and thermal properties of PMMA
Etienne, Stéphanie; Becker, Claude; Ruch, David et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (2007), 87(1), 101-104

Silica nanoparticles of various sizes have been incorporated by melt compounding in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix to enhance its thermal and mechanical properties. In order to improve ... [more ▼]

Silica nanoparticles of various sizes have been incorporated by melt compounding in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix to enhance its thermal and mechanical properties. In order to improve nanoparticles dispersion, PMMA grafted particles have been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from well-defined silica nanoparticles. This strategy was expected to ensure compatibility between both components of the PMMA nanocomposites. TEM analysis have been performed to evaluate the nanosilica dispersion whereas modified and non-modified silica/PMMA nanocomposites thermal stability and mechanical properties have been investigated by both thermogravimetric and dynamical mechanical analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of increased afterload on left ventricular performance and mechanical efficiency are not baroreflex-mediated
Kolh, Philippe ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Tchana-Sato, Vincent ULg et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2003), 24(6), 912-919

Objective: To assess baroreflex intervention during increase in left ventricular afterload, we compared the effects of aortic banding on the intact cardiovascular system and under hexamethonium infusion ... [more ▼]

Objective: To assess baroreflex intervention during increase in left ventricular afterload, we compared the effects of aortic banding on the intact cardiovascular system and under hexamethonium infusion. Methods: Six open-chest pigs, instrumented for measurement of aortic pressure and flow, left ventricular pressure and volume, were studied under pentobarbital-sufentanil anesthesia. Vascular arterial properties were estimated with a four-element windkessel model. Left ventricular contractility was assessed by the slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. Results: The effects of aortic banding on mechanical aortic properties were unaffected by autonomic nervous system inhibition. However, increase in peripheral arterial vascular resistance and in heart rate were prevented by hexamethonium. Aortic banding increased left ventricular contractility and stroke work. Left ventricular-arterial coupling remained unchanged, but mechanical efficiency was impaired. These ventricular changes were independent of baroreflex integrity. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that an augmentation in afterload has a composite effect on left ventricular function. Left ventricular performance is increased, as demonstrated by increase in contractility and stroke work, but mechanical efficiency is decreased. These changes are observed independently of baroreflex integrity. Such mechanisms of autoregulation, independent of the autonomic nervous system, are of paramount importance in heart transplant patients. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All fights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of infliximab therapy on transmural lesions as assessed by magnetic resonance enteroclysis in patients with ileal Crohn's disease.
Van Assche, Gert; Herrmann, Karin A.; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Journal of Crohn's & colitis (2013), 7(12), 950-7

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti TNF therapy induces mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease, but the effects on transmural inflammation in the ileum are not well understood. Magnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti TNF therapy induces mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease, but the effects on transmural inflammation in the ileum are not well understood. Magnetic resonance-enteroclysis (MRE) offers excellent imaging of transmural and peri-enteric lesions in Crohn's ileitis and we aimed to study its responsiveness to anti TNF therapy. METHODS: In this multi-center prospective trial, anti TNF naive patients with ileal Crohn's disease and with increased CRP and contrast enhanced wall thickening received infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6, and q8 weeks maintenance MRE was performed at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months and assessed based on a predefined MRE score of severity in ileal Crohn's Disease. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included; of those, 18 patients underwent MRE at week 2 and 15 patients at weeks 2 and 26 as scheduled. Inflammatory components of the MRE index decreased by >/=2 points and by >/=50% at week 26 (primary endpoint) in 40% and 32% of patients (per protocol and intention to treat analysis, respectively). The MRE index improved in 44% at week 2 and in 80% at week 26. Complete absence of inflammatory lesions was observed in 0/18 at week 2 and 13% (2/15) at week 26. The obstructive elements did not change. Clinical and CRP improvement occurred as early as wk 2, but only CDAI correlated with the MRE index. CONCLUSION: Improvement of MRE occurs from 2 weeks after infliximab therapy onwards and correlates with clinical response but normalization of MRE is rare. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of information and 50 Hz magnetic fields on cognitive performance and reported symptoms
Nevelsteen, Sophie ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Crasson, Marion ULg

in Bioelectromagnetics (2007), 28(1), 53-63

The aim of this study was to explore the role of expectancies and beliefs about the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (what the subject thought the effect was going to be) and the effects ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the role of expectancies and beliefs about the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (what the subject thought the effect was going to be) and the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (400 microT(rms)) acute exposure on cognitive performance, the reporting of physical symptoms and some psychological and physiological parameters. Seventy-four healthy male volunteers aged between 40 and 60 years of age were randomly assigned to one of five groups, which differed in (1) the type of information they were given concerning the expected magnetic field effect on performance in cognitive tests (positive = enhancement of the performance; negative = impairment of the performance; neutral) and (2) the type of exposure (real or sham). Three groups were sham exposed with positive (group+), negative (group-) and neutral information (group+/-); one group was really exposed with neutral information (group expo) and one group was not exposed, though they wore the helmet, and did not receive any field-related information (control group). All the volunteers, except the control group, were led to believe that they would be exposed to a magnetic field of 400 microT(rms). The experimental design respected a double blind procedure and the experimental session involved three steps (pre-testing, exposure, and post-testing). Various measurements were taken, including cognitive performance, psychological parameters such as mood, vigilance, and reporting of symptoms. Physiological parameters such as blood pressure and pulse rate were also recorded. The information given did not significantly modify beliefs. No significant difference was found among the five groups depending on the type of information and the type of exposure in cognitive performance, psychological and physiological parameters. In the context of the study, with our population, the type of information given failed to induce expected changes in parameters measured. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an acute exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (50 Hz, 400 microT(rms)) affects the parameters measured. [less ▲]

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