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See detailThe dual role of roads in the visual landscape: a case study in the area around Mechelen (Belgium)
Garré, Sarah ULg; Meeus, Steven; Gulinck, Hubert

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2009), 92(2), 125-135

Roads dominate our daily surroundings and are essential conditions of the access to the visual landscape. This paper focuses on the dual landscape role of secondary and tertiary roads in a semi-rural ... [more ▼]

Roads dominate our daily surroundings and are essential conditions of the access to the visual landscape. This paper focuses on the dual landscape role of secondary and tertiary roads in a semi-rural setting, to be understood as the access to scenery and as their direct influence to the landscape characteristics. A combination of techniques was used including a radiocentric morphological landscape analysis, a perception study on landscape photographs and a cumulative logit model to assess the factors of landscape appreciation in this kind of environment. The results show that roads do not entirely open up the information content of the visual landscape. Furthermore, roads and built fabric seem to have a negative impact on landscape appreciation. This result does not rely on the structures themselves, but on the artificial materials they are constructed of. The methodology applied proves to be useful and is probably applicable in other geographical contexts. It can be a supporting tool to plan and manage road networks for improvement of landscape quality, especially in parts of the countryside strongly affected by urban sprawl. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dual Role of Thymic Neurohypophysial-Related Self Peptides in T Cell Selection. Physiological and Pharmacological Implications
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Martens, Henri ULg; Robert, Françoise et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1993), 689

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See detailThe dual role of weather forecasts on changes in activity-travel behavior
Cools, Mario ULg; Creemers, Lieve

in Journal of Transport Geography (2013), 28

A deeper understanding of how human activity-travel behavior is affected by various weather conditions is essential for both policy makers and traffic managers. To unravel the ambiguity in findings ... [more ▼]

A deeper understanding of how human activity-travel behavior is affected by various weather conditions is essential for both policy makers and traffic managers. To unravel the ambiguity in findings reported in the literature, the main objective of this paper is to obtain an accurate assessment of how weather forecasts trigger changes in Flemish activity-travel behavior. To this end, data were collected by means of a stated adaptation experiment, which was administered both on the Internet and via traditional paper-and-pencil questionnaires. To address the main research question of this paper, two statistical techniques were adopted. The first technique is the computation of Pearson chi-square independence tests. The second approach is the estimation of a GEE-MNL-model. The results from both techniques underscore the dual role of weather forecasts on changes in activity-travel behavior. On the one hand, the results clearly illustrate the significant effect of forecasted weather; the likelihood of changes in activity-travel behavior significantly depends on the weather forecasted. On the other hand, different methods of acquiring weather information (exposure, media source, or perceived reliability) do not impact the probability of behavioral adaptations. This duality may be partially attributable to the discrepancy that exists between weather forecasts and true traffic and roadway conditions. Therefore, the implementation of a road weather information system that is directly linked to the weather forecasts is recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailThe dual role of weather forecasts on changes in activity-travel behavior
Cools, Mario ULg; Creemers, Lieve; Janssens, Davy et al

Conference (2011)

In previous studies, conflicting results could be found regarding the impact of weather forecasts on travel decisions, e.g. Khattak and De Palma (1997) found no significant effect of acquiring forecasted ... [more ▼]

In previous studies, conflicting results could be found regarding the impact of weather forecasts on travel decisions, e.g. Khattak and De Palma (1997) found no significant effect of acquiring forecasted weather information on the probability of adapting mode and departure time, whereas the results reported by Hagens (2005), Niina (2009) and Kilpelainen and Summala (2007) indicated that weather forecast do play an important role. Therefore this paper investigates the changes in activity-travel behavior in response to weather forecasts. The data for this study is collected by means of a stated adaptation survey, which is both administered on the internet and via a traditional paper and pencil questionnaire. In total, 595 respondents completed the survey. To obtain an optimal correspondence between the true population and the sample weights are assigned to the observation. Results indicate that weather information plays a dual role. On the one hand people do alter their activity-travel behavior in response to weather information, albeit these changes are not as pronounced when compared to actual weather. On the other hand the extent (frequency and media type) to which people are exposed to these weather forecasts appears to play only a marginal role. This dual role weather information plays in this study appears to be supported by the conflicting international literature and therefore revealing the underlying psychological motivations to change one's activity-travel behavior is a key challenge for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailDual stimuli-responsive coating designed through layer-by-layer assembly of PAA-b-PNIPAM block copolymers for the control of protein adsorption
Osypova, Alina; Magnin, Delphine; Sibret, Pierre ULg et al

in Soft Matter (2015), 11(41), 8154-8164

In this paper, we describe the successful construction, characteristics and interaction with proteins of stimuli-responsive thin nanostructured films prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential assembly ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we describe the successful construction, characteristics and interaction with proteins of stimuli-responsive thin nanostructured films prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential assembly of PNIPAM-containing polyelectrolytes and PAH. PAA-b-PNIPAM block copolymers were synthesized in order to benefit from (i) the ionizable properties of PAA, to be involved in the LbL assembly, and (ii) the sensitivity of PNIPAM to temperature stimulus. The impact of parameters related to the structure and size of the macromolecules (their molecular weight and the relative degree of polymerization of PAA and PNIPAM), and the interaction with proteins under physico-chemical stimuli, such as pH and temperature, are carefully investigated. The incorporation of PAA-b-PNIPAM into multilayered films is shown to be successful whatever the block copolymer used, resulting in slightly thicker films than the corresponding (PAA/PAH)n film. Importantly, the protein adsorption studies demonstrate that it is possible to alter the adsorption behavior of proteins on (PAA-b-PNIPAM/PAH)n surfaces by varying the temperature and/or the pH of the medium, which seems to be intimately related to two key factors: (i) the ability of PNIPAM units to undergo conformational changes and (ii) the structural changes of the film made of weak polyelectrolytes. The simplicity of construction of these PNIPAM block copolymer-based LbL coatings on a large range of substrates, combined with their highly tunable features, make them ideal candidates to be employed for various biomedical applications requiring the control of protein adsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailA dual strategy to cope with high light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Allorent, G; Tokutsu, R; Roach, T et al

in Plant Cell (2013), 25(2), 545-557

Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred ... [more ▼]

Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred to as nonphotochemical quenching. This term comprises at least two major processes. State transitions (qT) represent changes in the relative antenna sizes of photosystems II and I. High energy quenching (qE) is the increased thermal dissipation of light energy triggered by lumen acidification. To investigate the respective roles of qE and qT in photoprotection, a mutant (npq4 stt7-9) was generated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by crossing the state transition–deficient mutant (stt7-9) with a strain having a largely reduced qE capacity (npq4). The comparative phenotypic analysis of the wild type, single mutants, and double mutants reveals that both state transitions and qE are induced by high light. Moreover, the double mutant exhibits an increased photosensitivity with respect to the single mutants and the wild type. Therefore, we suggest that besides qE, state transitions also play a photoprotective role during high light acclimation of the cells, most likely by decreasing hydrogen peroxide production. These results are discussed in terms of the relative photoprotective benefit related to thermal dissipation of excess light and/or to the physical displacement of antennas from photosystem II. [less ▲]

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See detailDual substrate specificity of Bacillus subtilis PBP4a
Nemmara, Venkatesh V.; Adediran, S. A.; Dave, Kinjal et al

in Biochemistry (2013), 52

Bacterial DD-peptidases are the targets of the β-lactam antibiotics. The sharp increase in bacterial resistance toward these antibiotics in recent years has stimulated the search for non- β-lactam ... [more ▼]

Bacterial DD-peptidases are the targets of the β-lactam antibiotics. The sharp increase in bacterial resistance toward these antibiotics in recent years has stimulated the search for non- β-lactam alternatives. The substrates of DD-peptidases are elements of peptidoglycan from bacterial cell walls. Attempts to base DD-peptidase inhibitor design on peptidoglycan structure, however, have not been particularly successful to date because the specific substrates for most of these enzymes are unknown. It is known, however, that the preferred substrates of low-molecular mass (LMM) class B and C DD-peptidases contain the free N-terminus of the relevant peptidoglycan. Two very similar LMMC enzymes, for example, the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase and Bacillus subtilis PBP4a, recognize a D-α-aminopimelyl terminus. The peptidoglycan of B. subtilis in the vegetative stage, however, has the N-terminal D-α-aminopimelyl carboxylic acid amidated. The question is, therefore, whether the DD-peptidases of B. subtilis are separately specific to carboxylate or carboxamide or have dual specificity. This paper describes an investigation of this issue with B. subtilis PBP4a. This enzyme was indeed found to have a dual specificity for peptide substrates, both in the acyl donor and in the acyl acceptor sites. In contrast, the R39 DD-peptidase, from an organism in which the peptidoglycan is not amidated, has a strong preference for a terminal carboxylate. It was also found that acyl acceptors, reacting with acyl−enzyme intermediates, were preferentially D-amino acid amides for PBP4a and the corresponding amino acids for the R39 DD-peptidase. Examination of the relevant crystal structures, aided by molecular modeling, suggested that the expansion of specificity in PBP4a accompanies a change of Arg351 in the R39 enzyme and most LMMC DD-peptidases to histidine in PBP4a and its orthologs in other Bacillus sp. This histidine, in neutral form at pH 7, appeared to be able to favorably interact with both carboxylate and carboxamide termini of substrates, in agreement with the kinetic data. It may still be possible, in specific cases, to combat bacteria with new antibiotics based on particular elements of their peptidoglycan structure. [less ▲]

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See detailDual tachykinin NK1/NK2 antagonist DNK333 inhibits neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma patients
Joos, G. F.; Vincken, W.; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2004), 23(1), 76-81

Inhalation of neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. In vitro both tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction. In this study the authors examined the ... [more ▼]

Inhalation of neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. In vitro both tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction. In this study the authors examined the effects of a single dose of the dual tachykinin NK1/NK2 receptor antagonist, DNK333, on NKA-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. A total of 19 male adults with mild asthma completed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Increasing concentrations of NKA (3.3 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-6) mol(.)mL(-1)) were inhaled at 1 and 10 h intervals after a single oral dosing with either DNK333 (100 mg) or a placebo. It was observed that DNK333 did not affect baseline lung function but did protect against NKA-induced bronchoconstriction in those patients. The mean log(10) provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second for NKA was -5.6 log(10) mol(.)mL(-1) at 1 h after DNK333 treatment and -6.8 log(10) mol(.)mL(-1) after placebo. This was equivalent to a difference of 4.08 doubling doses, which decreased to a difference of 0.90 doubling doses 10 h after treatment. The results shown in this report indicate that DNK333 blocks neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailA dual thromboxane inhibitor and thromboxane receptor antagonist prevents pig myocardial infarction induced by coronary thrombosis
Rolin, S.; Petein, M.; Tchana-Sato, Vincent ULg et al

in European Heart Journal (2003), 24(Suppl. S), 325

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See detailDual time point fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: a potential method to differentiate malignancy from inflammation and normal tissue in the head and neck.
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Smith, R. J.; Benard, F. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 26(10), 1345-8

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies imaging FDG PET imaging is used to detect and stage head and neck cancers. However, the variable physiologic uptake of FDG ... [more ▼]

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies imaging FDG PET imaging is used to detect and stage head and neck cancers. However, the variable physiologic uptake of FDG in different normal structures as well as at inflammatory sites may either obscure a tumor focus or be falsely interpreted to represent tumor activity. Twenty-one patients (9 men, 12 women, median age 59) were scanned serially at two time points, one at 70 min (range 47-112) and the second at 98 min (77-142) after the intravenous injection of 4.3 MBq/kg of FDG. The mean interval between emission scans was 28 min (13-49). Transmission scans were performed and regions of interest (ROIs) were overlayed on the fully corrected images. Standardiued uptake values (SUVs) were generated for the cerebellum, tongue, larynx, every lesion, and a matched contralateral site. Follow-up and pathologic studies revealed 18 squamous cell carcinomas and nine inflammatory or infectious lesions. Tumor SUVs were 4.0+/-1.6 (mean +/- SD) for the first scan and 4. 5+/-2.2 for the second scan. Contralateral SUVs were 1.2+/-0.5 and 1. 1+/-0.5 for the two scans. Tumor SUVs increased by 12%+/-12% as compared with a 5%+/-17% decrease for contralateral sites (P<0.05). SUVs for inflammatory sites (2.0+/-0.7 and 2.0+/-0.9), cerebellum (4. 2+/-1.3 and 4.3+/-1.4), tongue (1.8+/-0.4 and 1.9+/-0.5) and larynx (1.5+/-0.6 and 1.5+/-0.6) remained constant over time (+0.6%, +2.8%, +1.4%, and -2.4%; P<0.05 when compared with tumor SUV changes). The ratio tumor/contralateral SUV increased by 23%+/-29% over time while this ratio for inflamed sites increased by only 5%+/-15% (P=0.07). The time interval between scans correlated with increase in SUV for tumors (r=0.55, P<0.05) but not for any of the other ROIs. Separation was superior when studies were performed more than 30 min apart (P<0.05). These preliminary data suggest that dual time point imaging compatible with a clinical study protocol is helpful in differentiating malignant lesions from inflammation and normal tissues, especially when separated by a sufficient time interval. [less ▲]

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See detailDual time-point FDG-PET imaging to distinguish tumor from normal and inflammatory sites in the head and neck.
HUSTINX, Roland ULg; SMITH, RJ.; ROSENTHAL, DI. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (1999), 40

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See detailThe dual-gain 10 µm back-thinned 3k x 3k CMOS-APS detector of the Solar Orbiter Extreme UV Imager
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Debaize, Arnaud ULg; Gillis, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, (2014), SPIE 9144-126

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission will provide image sequences of the solar atmosphere at selected spectral emission lines in the extreme and vacuum ultraviolet. For ... [more ▼]

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission will provide image sequences of the solar atmosphere at selected spectral emission lines in the extreme and vacuum ultraviolet. For the two Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the EUI instrument, low noise and radiation tolerant detectors with low power consumption and high sensitivity in the 10-40 nm wavelength range are required to achieve the science objectives. In that frame, a dual-gain 10 µm pixel pitch back-thinned 1k x 1k Active Pixel Sensor (APS) CMOS prototype has been tested during the preliminary development phase of the instrument, to validate the pixel design, the expected EUV sensitivity and noise level, and the capability to withstand the mission radiation environment. Taking heritage of this prototype, the detector architecture has been improved and scaled up to the required 3k x 3k array. The dynamic range is increased, the readout architecture enhanced, the power consumption reduced, and the pixel design adapted to the required stitching. The detector packaging has also been customized to fit within the constraints imposed by the camera mechanical, thermal and electrical boundaries. The manufacturing process has also been adapted and back-thinning process improved. Once manufactured and packaged, a batch of sensors will undergo a characterization and calibration campaign to select the best candidates for integration into the instrument qualification and flight cameras. The flight devices, within their cameras, will then be embarked on the EUI instrument, and be the first scientific APS-CMOS detectors for EUV observation of the Sun. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-specificity phosphatase 3 knockout female mice are resistant to LPS and to polymicrobial induced septic shock in TNF dependent manner.
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Singh; Dejager, Lien et al

in Journal of Immunology (2013, May)

We report the generation of dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) deficient mice. These mice develop normally and do not exhibit any spontaneous phenotype. However, VHR-/- females, but not males, are ... [more ▼]

We report the generation of dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) deficient mice. These mice develop normally and do not exhibit any spontaneous phenotype. However, VHR-/- females, but not males, are resistant to LPS- and to polymicrobial infection-induced septic shock. After LPS injection, while VHR-/- males and VHR+/+ mice of both genders, displayed an increased serum levels of TNF-α and IFN, the levels of these cytokines remained significantly low in the VHR-/- females. In vitro experiments using peritoneal macrophages showed the same results suggesting that the systemic cytokines profiles observed are macrophages-dependent. Adoptive transfer of VHR-/- females bone marrow to irradiated VHR+/+ female mice, but not to VHR-/- or VHR+/+ males, protected them from death after administration of LPS. Interestingly, VHR-/- females were sensitive to TNF-α- induced lethality. We also report that the decrease of TNF-α production observed in VHR-/- female’s macrophages after LPS activation was associated with a decreased ERK1/2, but not MEK1/2, activation. Interestingly, pervanadate (PTP pan inhibitor) treatment prior to LPS activation restored ERK1/2 activation in the VHR-deficient macrophages, suggesting that VHR is targeting one of the ERK1/2 PTPs or DUSPs. These results, together with our observation that DUSP3 is the most highly expressed phosphatase in macrophages, suggest a key non-redundant role of VHR as positive regulator of TNF-α in innate immune response in females. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-use controls outreach: a new method
Michel, Quentin ULg; Paile, Sylvain ULg

in WorldECR (2015), (38), 27-28

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See detailDualism persists in the science of mind.
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Liew, Charlene; Ledoux, Didier ULg et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2009), 1157

The relationship between mind and brain has philosophical, scientific, and practical implications. Two separate but related surveys from the University of Edinburgh (University students, n= 250) and the ... [more ▼]

The relationship between mind and brain has philosophical, scientific, and practical implications. Two separate but related surveys from the University of Edinburgh (University students, n= 250) and the University of Liege (health-care workers, lay public, n= 1858) were performed to probe attitudes toward the mind-brain relationship and the variables that account for differences in views. Four statements were included, each relating to an aspect of the mind-brain relationship. The Edinburgh survey revealed a predominance of dualistic attitudes emphasizing the separateness of mind and brain. In the Liege survey, younger participants, women, and those with religious beliefs were more likely to agree that the mind and brain are separate, that some spiritual part of us survives death, that each of us has a soul that is separate from the body, and to deny the physicality of mind. Religious belief was found to be the best predictor for dualistic attitudes. Although the majority of health-care workers denied the distinction between consciousness and the soma, more than one-third of medical and paramedical professionals regarded mind and brain as separate entities. The findings of the study are in line with previous studies in developmental psychology and with surveys of scientists' attitudes toward the relationship between mind and brain. We suggest that the results are relevant to clinical practice, to the formulation of scientific questions about the nature of consciousness, and to the reception of scientific theories of consciousness by the general public. [less ▲]

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See detailDualisme, mobilité et déterminants familiaux : une analyse des transitions sur le marché du travail
Broze, Laurence; Gavray, Claire ULg; Ruyters, Christine ULg

in De la Croix, David; Docquier, Frédéric; Mainguet, Christine (Eds.) et al Capital humain et dualisme sur le marché du travail (2002)

The paper tackles the question of labour market dualisation. Using longitudinal data, the authors analyse the socio-professional positions and transitions in both gender groups. They discuss the results ... [more ▼]

The paper tackles the question of labour market dualisation. Using longitudinal data, the authors analyse the socio-professional positions and transitions in both gender groups. They discuss the results of 'probit' analyses ' , inviting to reflect upon evolutions from two points of view : work offer and demand [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (8 ULg)