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See detailEffects of systemic versus local gentamicin on the inner ear in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.), relevance for fish hearing investigations.
Faucher, Karine ULg; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Damsgard, B. et al

in Hearing Research (2008), 240(1-2), 12-21

Fish models are increasingly being used for hearing research investigations. Aminoglycoside antibiotics that are used for damaging the inner ear hair cells can have systemic side effects leading to death ... [more ▼]

Fish models are increasingly being used for hearing research investigations. Aminoglycoside antibiotics that are used for damaging the inner ear hair cells can have systemic side effects leading to death of study animals. This study aimed to compare two methods: (i) systemic (intravenous) and (ii) local (intrasaccular) gentamicin administration for induction of inner ear hair cell damage in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.). Hair cell damage was assessed using scanning electron microscopy; hair cell density, prevalence of immature hair cells and kinocilia length were measured. Gentamicin-treated fish were compared with control and sham fish. Intravenous gentamicin led to dose-dependent mortality caused by nephrotoxicity. The only visible effect after treatment was more immature hair cells and shorter kinocilia, the effect on hair cell density was equivocal. Following intrasaccular gentamicin treatment, fish mortality was negligible, and hair cells were damaged regardless of dose. Here, we observed decreased hair cell density, high prevalence of immature hair cells, and significantly shortened kinocilia. Conclusion: intrasaccular injection is preferable to intravenous injection of gentamicin for the study of ototoxicity in the Atlantic cod. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Target-Controlled Anesthesia with Propofol and Sufentanil on the Hemodynamic Response to Mayfield Head Holder Application
Hans, Pol ULg; Coussaert, E.; Cantraine, F. et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1998), 49(1), 7-11

The effects of target-controlled anesthesia with propofol and sufentanil on the hemodynamic response to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were evaluated in 18 ASA I and II patients undergoing ... [more ▼]

The effects of target-controlled anesthesia with propofol and sufentanil on the hemodynamic response to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were evaluated in 18 ASA I and II patients undergoing scheduled intracranial surgery. Premedication consisted of hydroxyzine, alprazolam and atropine given orally 1 h before surgery. Anesthesia was provided with propofol and sufentanil using a target-controlled infusion device; constant calculated plasma concentrations of 4 micrograms ml-1 propofol and 0.5 ng ml-1 sufentanil were maintained throughout the study. Muscle relaxation was obtained with atracurium and ventilation was controlled with air/oxygen. The MH was fixed 45 +/- 12 min (mean +/- SD) after induction of anesthesia. Heart rate and systolic, diastolic, and mean non invasive arterial pressure were monitored and recorded 5 min before induction of anesthesia (control), 1 min before MH application (MH-1), at MH application, and 1 and 2 min after MH application. Systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate increased significantly during and after MH application when compared with MH-1 values, but remained constantly lower than control. Hemodynamic parameters measured 1 min before MH application were significantly lower than control. The results of the study indicate that target-controlled anesthesia maintained with constant calculated plasma concentrations of 4 micrograms ml-1 propofol and 0.5 ng ml-1 sufentanil prevents the increase in arterial pressure and heart rate beyond control values following MH application but may induce some degree of arterial hypotension in the absence of nociceptive stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the In Vitro and In Vivo Radial Growth of Penicillium italicum and on the Biocontrol Activity of Pichia guilliermondii, Strain Z1
El Guilli, M.; Ibriz, M.; Lahlali, Rachid et al

in Acta Horticulturae (2011), 905

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature (5-25°C) on the ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ growth rates of Penicillium italicum and to determine the combined effect of temperature and ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature (5-25°C) on the ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ growth rates of Penicillium italicum and to determine the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity (45 to 100%) on lesion size of this pathogenic fungus on Valencia late oranges, either alone or in combination with the antagonistic yeast strain Z1 of Pichia guilliermondii Wickerham. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of temperature on the ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ radial growth of P. italicum with the maximum growth observed at temperature of 25°C. In both cases, no growth was observed at a temperature of 35°C. These factors had a significant effect on P. italicum lesion size when it was applied alone on Valencia late oranges and insignificant when yeast strain Z1 was applied 24 h before P. italicum inoculation. Our results confirm previous ‘in vitro’ findings that aw has a greater influence than temperature on P. italicum growth and highlight that the strain Z1 showed high antagonistic potential against this pathogen over a range of temperature-relative humidity regimes favouring P. italicum development. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of temperature on pacemaker activity induced by mechano-electric feedback in a one-dimensional model of a ring-shaped cardiac fiber
Collet, Arnaud ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg

in NCBME (Ed.) 10th Belgian Day on Biomedical Engineering (2011, December 02)

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See detailEffects of temperature on the chemistry of the echinoderm skeleton
Ranner, Herwig; Ladrière, Ophélie ULg; Navez, Jacques et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailEffects of temperature on the protocooperation between plants and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499
Puopolo, G.; Hosni, T.; Pedrotti, L. et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2013), 89

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See detailThe effects of teriparatide on the risk of back pain in men and women with osteoporosis: A meta-analysis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Chen, P.; Dore, R. K. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005, March), 16(Suppl.3), 10-11

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See detailEffects of Testosterone and Its Metabolites on Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Brain: Relationship with the Activation of Male Reproductive Behavior
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1996), 56(1-6 Spec No), 185-200

The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA ... [more ▼]

The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA) of male Japanese quail is a limiting step in the activation by T of copulatory behavior. Aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells of the POA are specifically localized within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the medial preoptic nucleus(POM), a sexually dimorphic and steroid-sensitive structure that is a necessary and sufficient site of steroid action in the activation of behavior. Stereotaxic implantation of aromatase inhibitors in but not around the POM strongly decreases the behavioral effects of a systemic treatment with T of castrated males. AA is decreased by castration and increased by aromatizable androgens and by estrogens. These changes have been independently documented at three levels of analysis: the enzymatic activity measured by radioenzymatic assays in vitro, the enzyme concentration evaluated semi-quantitatively by immunocytochemistry and the concentration of its messenger RNA quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies demonstrate that T acting mostly through its estrogenic metabolites regulates brain aromatase by acting essentially at the transcriptional level. Estrogens produced by central aromatization of T therefore have two independent roles: they activate male copulatory behavior and they regulate the synthesis of aromatase. Double label immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that estrogen receptors(ER) are found in all brain areas containing ARO-ir cells but the extent to which these markers are colocalized varies from one brain region to the other. More than 70% of ARO-ir cells contain detectable ER in the tuberal hypothalamus but less than 20% of the cells display this colocalization in the POA. This absence of ER in ARO-ir cells is also observed in the POA of the rat brain. This suggests that locally formed estrogens cannot control the behavior and the aromatase synthesis in an autocrine fashion in the cells where they were formed. Multi-neuronal networks need therefore to be considered. The behavioral activation could result from the action of estrogens in ER-positive cells located in the vicinity of the ARO-ir cells where they were produced (paracrine action). Alternatively, actions that do not involve the nuclear ER could be important. Immunocytochemical studies at the electron microscope level and biochemical assays of AA in purified synaptosomes indicate the presence of aromatase in presynaptic boutons. Estrogens formed at this level could directly affect the pre-and post-synaptic membrane or could directly modulate neurotransmission namely through their metabolization into catecholestrogens (CE) which are known to be powerful inhibitors of the catechol- omicron - methyl transferase (COMT). The inhibition of COMT should increase the catecholaminergic transmission. It is significant to note, in this respect, that high levels of 2-hydroxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of estrogens in CE, are found in all brain areas that contain aromatase. On the other hand, the synthesis of aromatase should also be controlled by estrogens in an indirect, transynaptic manner very reminiscent of the way in which steroids indirectly control the production of LHRH. Fibers that are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (synthesis of dopamine), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (synthesis of norepinephrine) or vasotocine have been identified in the close vicinity of ARO-ir cells in the POM and retrograde tracing has identified the origin of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervation of these areas. A few preliminary physiological experiments suggest that these catecholaminergic inputs regulate AA and presumably synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of testosterone and its metabolites on sexual behavior and morphology in male and female Japanese quail.
Schumacher, M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Physiology & Behavior (1983), 30(3), 335-9

Adult Japanese quail are sexually dimorphic. Even when implanted with testosterone (T), ovariectomized females fail to copulate and their cloacal glands are smaller than those of males. This may be due to ... [more ▼]

Adult Japanese quail are sexually dimorphic. Even when implanted with testosterone (T), ovariectomized females fail to copulate and their cloacal glands are smaller than those of males. This may be due to a reduced capacity of the females to transform testosterone into active metabolites (estradiol-17 beta and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone). Indeed, in the male quail, estradiol-17 beta (E2) activates copulation whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) activates crowing, strutting and the development of the cloacal gland. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of in vivo treatments of male and female quail with the different T-metabolites. Forty-one castrated male and female quail were implanted with subcutaneous silastic implants of T, 5 alpha-DHT, E2 and E2 in combination with 5 alpha-DHT. When implanted with these metabolites, females failed to copulate and their cloacal glands remained less developed than those of males. Sexual differences in behavior and morphology thus cannot be entirely explained by sexual dimorphism of the metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of testosterone on Reelin expression in the brain of male European starlings
Absil, Philippe ULg; Pinxten, R.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2003), 312(1), 81-93

Reelin, a large glycoprotein defective in reeler mice, is assumed to determine the final location of migrating neurons in the developing brain. We studied the expression of Reelin in the brain of adult ... [more ▼]

Reelin, a large glycoprotein defective in reeler mice, is assumed to determine the final location of migrating neurons in the developing brain. We studied the expression of Reelin in the brain of adult male European starlings that had been treated or not with exogenous testosterone. Reelin-immunoreactive cells and fibers were widely distributed in the forebrain including areas in and around the song control nucleus, HVC. No labeling was detected in other song control nuclei with the exception of nucleus uvaeformis, which was delineated by a dense cluster of Reelin-immunoreactive perikarya. Reelin is thus expressed in areas incorporating new neurons in adulthood, such as HVC. Reelin expression was sharply decreased by testosterone in HVC, nucleus uvaeformis and dorsal thalamus but not in other brain regions. These results are consistent with the idea that seasonal changes in Reelin expression modulate the incorporation of neurons within HVC. The presence of Reelin in other brain areas that do not incorporate new neurons in adulthood indicates, however, that this protein must play other unrelated roles in the adult brain. Additional studies should now be carried out to determine the specific role played by this protein in the seasonal plasticity of the songbird brain. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of testosterone propionate on the social behaviour of groups of male comestic ducklings Anas platyrhynchos L.
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Stevens, M.

in Animal behaviour (1975), 23(4), 926-31

One-month old testosterone-injected ducklings were observed in groups of three males and their social behaviour compared to that of oil-injected control birds. Most elements of adult sexual behaviour and ... [more ▼]

One-month old testosterone-injected ducklings were observed in groups of three males and their social behaviour compared to that of oil-injected control birds. Most elements of adult sexual behaviour and one pattern of aggressive behaviour (chest fight) occurred more frequently in the experimental animals. It was shown that the same hormonal treatment induces different behavioural responses in different animals. Unlike previous studies, no social displays were observed in the testosterone-injected ducklings. Possible explanations of this fact are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the calving number on animal performance, carcass and meat composition in finishing Belgian Blue double-muscled culled females
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Dotreppe, Olivier ULg et al

in Livestock Production Science (2004), 87(2-3), 161-169

In a 2-year experiment, 66 Belgian Blue (BB) double-muscled culled females have been divided in three groups according to the calving number (heifers-H, cows culled after two calvings-C2 or four calvings ... [more ▼]

In a 2-year experiment, 66 Belgian Blue (BB) double-muscled culled females have been divided in three groups according to the calving number (heifers-H, cows culled after two calvings-C2 or four calvings-C4) and finished on a maize silage-based diet in order to compare animal performance and evolution of carcass and meat characteristics with age. Four females per group were slaughtered on day 0 to assess carcass and meat characteristics of lean animals. The initial and final live weights, the carcass weight and the daily food intake increased with advancing age, while the live weight gain and feed efficiency decreased. The H presented the higher killing-out and muscle proportions and the lower adipose tissue proportion. Their meat was less dark and less red than that of older cows. The lowest protein content and the highest fat content in meat dry matter were found in the C2. In the three groups, the carcass and meat became fatter with finishing process. The amplitude of fat deposition was the highest in C2. It can be concluded that the performance of BB culled females vary with age. The carcass and meat characteristics differ mainly between H and cows, few differences appearing between cows. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study.
Van Gaal, Luc F; Rissanen, Aila M; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Lancet (2005), 365(9468), 1389-97

BACKGROUND: In animal models, cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) blockade produces a lean phenotype, with resistance to diet-induced obesity and associated dyslipidaemia. We assessed the effect of rimonabant, a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In animal models, cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) blockade produces a lean phenotype, with resistance to diet-induced obesity and associated dyslipidaemia. We assessed the effect of rimonabant, a selective CB1 blocker, on bodyweight and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese patients. METHODS: patients with body-mass index 30 kg/m2 or greater, or body-mass index greater than 27 kg/m2 with treated or untreated dyslipidaemia, hypertension, or both, were randomised to receive double-blind treatment with placebo, 5 mg rimonabant, or 20 mg rimonabant once daily in addition to a mild hypocaloric diet (600 kcal/day deficit). The primary efficacy endpoint was weight change from baseline after 1 year of treatment in the intention-to-treat population. FINDINGS: Weight loss at 1 year was significantly greater in patients treated with rimonabant 5 mg (mean -3.4 kg [SD 5.7]; p=0.002 vs placebo) and 20 mg (-6.6 kg [7.2]; p<0.001 vs placebo) compared with placebo (-1.8 kg [6.4]). Significantly more patients treated with rimonabant 20 mg than placebo achieved weight loss of 5% or greater (p<0.001) and 10% or greater (p<0.001). Rimonabant 20 mg produced significantly greater improvements than placebo in waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin resistance, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The effects of rimonabant 5 mg were of less clinical significance. Rimonabant was generally well tolerated with mild and transient side effects. INTERPRETATION: CB1 blockade with rimonabant 20 mg, combined with a hypocaloric diet over 1 year, promoted significant decrease of bodyweight and waist circumference, and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of the construction of Europe on national immigration and refugee policies: the case of Belgium
Martiniello, Marco ULg; Rea, Andrea

in Geddes, A.; Favell, A. (Eds.) The Politics of Belonging: Migrants and Minorities in Contemporary Europe (1999)

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See detailEffects of the Convention on trade negotiations (with Lilian Richieri Hanania)
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in RICHIERI HANANIA, LILIAN (Ed.) Cultural diversity in international law: Effectiveness and normativity of the 2005 Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2014)

The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDCE) was adopted in 2005 and designed to allow States to protect and promote cultural policies. This book ... [more ▼]

The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDCE) was adopted in 2005 and designed to allow States to protect and promote cultural policies. This book examines the effectiveness of the CDCE and offers ways by which its implementation may be improved to better attain its objectives. The book provides insight in how the normative character of the CDCE may be strengthened through implementation and increasingly recurrent practice based on its provisions. Hailing from various fields of international law, political and social sciences, the book’s contributors work to promote discussions on the practical and legal influence of the CDCE, and to identify opportunities and recommendations for a more effective application. Part One of the book assesses the effectiveness of the CDCE in influencing other areas of international law and the work conducted by other intergovernmental organizations through the recognition of the double nature (cultural and economic) of cultural goods and services. Part Two focuses on the practice of the CDCE beyond the recognition of the specificity of cultural goods and services in international law by addressing the CDCE’s call for greater international cooperation and stronger integration of cultural concerns in development strategies at the national and regional levels. The book will be of great use and interest to academics and practitioners in law, social and political sciences, agents of governmental and international organizations, and cultural sector stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the Coriolis force on high-order g modes in γ Doradus stars
Bouabid, M.-P.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Salmon, Sébastien ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013), 429(3), 2500

γ Doradus stars pulsate with high-order gravity modes having typical frequencies which can be comparable to or higher than their rotation frequencies. Therefore, rotation has a non-negligible effect on ... [more ▼]

γ Doradus stars pulsate with high-order gravity modes having typical frequencies which can be comparable to or higher than their rotation frequencies. Therefore, rotation has a non-negligible effect on their oscillation properties. To explore the rotation-pulsation coupling in γ Dor stars, we perform a non-adiabatic study including the traditional approximation of rotation on a grid of spherical stellar models covering the mass range 1.4 < M[SUB]*[/SUB] < 2.1 M[SUB]&sun;[/SUB]. This approximation allows us to treat the effect of the Coriolis force on the frequencies and the stability of high-order g modes. The effect of the Coriolis force depends on the kind of mode considered (prograde sectoral or not) and increases with their periods. As a consequence, we first find that the period spacing between modes is no longer periodically oscillating around a constant value. Secondly, we show that the frequency gap (5-15 cycles day[SUP]-1[/SUP]) arising from stable modes between γ Dor-type high-order g modes and δ Scuti-type modes can be easily filled by g-mode frequencies shifted to higher values by the rotation. Thirdly, we analyse the combined effect of diffusive mixing and the Coriolis force on the period spacings. And finally, we predict a slight broadening of the γ Dor instability strip. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the electrode positions on the dynamical behaviour of electrostatically actuated MEMS resonators
Pustan, Marius ULg; Paquay, Stéphane; Rochus, Véronique et al

(2011, April 18)

The influence of the lower electrode positions on the dynamic response of polysilicon MEMS resonators is studied and presented in this paper. The change in the frequency response of investigated MEMS ... [more ▼]

The influence of the lower electrode positions on the dynamic response of polysilicon MEMS resonators is studied and presented in this paper. The change in the frequency response of investigated MEMS resonators as function of the lower electrode positions is measured using a vibrometer analyzer. The decrease in the amplitude and velocity of oscillations if the lower electrode is moved from the beam free-end toward to the beam anchor is experimental monitored. The measurements are performed in ambient conditions in order to characterize the forced-response Q-factor of samples. A decrease of the Q- factor if the lower electrode is moved toward to the beam anchor is experimental determined. Different responses of MEMS resonators may be obtained if the position of the lower electrode is modified. Indeed the resonator stiffness, velocity and amplitude of oscillations are changed. [less ▲]

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