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See detailEnvironmental Changes and Migration Flows. Normative Frameworks and Policy Responses.
Gemenne, François ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Depuis quelques années, d’importants déplacements de populations sont régulièrement annoncés comme l’une des conséquences les plus dramatiques du changement climatique. Plusieurs dizaines de ... [more ▼]

Depuis quelques années, d’importants déplacements de populations sont régulièrement annoncés comme l’une des conséquences les plus dramatiques du changement climatique. Plusieurs dizaines de millions de personnes pourraient ainsi être contraintes à l’exil en raison des impacts du réchauffement global, selon les estimations les plus alarmistes. Ces prédictions, pourtant, relèvent d’une logique largement déterministe, qui simplifie souvent la relation entre dégradation environnementale et migrations à une causalité directe, et néglige l’importance des cadres normatifs. Cette thèse prend le contre-pied de l’approche déterministe dominante, et soutient que l’ampleur et la nature de ces flux migratoires ne dépendent pas uniquement des impacts du changement climatique, mais également – et surtout – des politiques qui seront mises en place pour limiter ces impacts et encadrer ces migrations. Elle adopte une posture constructiviste, et s’interroge sur la manière dont les réponses politiques apportées jusqu’ici aux mouvements de population provoqués par des dégradations environnementales influencent la conceptualisation du phénomène de ‘migrations environnementales’. Afin d’analyser le processus politique de mise en place de cadres normatifs et de réponses politiques en place au niveau international, la thèse utilise le modèle théorique de l’Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), mis au point par Sabatier et Jenkins-Smith. Dans un premier temps, la thèse analyse l’émergence du concept de ‘migrations environnementales’ dans la littérature et à l’agenda politique. La littérature sur le sujet est traversée par une opposition entre deux courants de pensée, que j’ai qualifiés respectivement de ‘sceptique’ et d’ ‘alarmiste’. Le courant sceptique, composé essentiellement de spécialistes des migrations, soutient que toute migration est multi-causale, et que l’environnement n’est pas un facteur migratoire plus déterminant qu’un autre. Ainsi, les sceptiques estiment que le concept de ‘migration environnementale’, considéré comme un type spécifique de migration, n’a guère de sens. A l’inverse, les alarmistes, qui sont essentiellement des spécialistes de l’environnement, affirment que les dégradations de l’environnement constituent un facteur croissant de migrations forcées, qui ont déjà commencé. Ces deux courants de pensée, qui trouvent leur origine dans un fossé disciplinaire, peuvent être analysés comme de véritables coalitions, qui pénètrent le processus politique. Le rôle des chercheurs dans la définition des politiques publiques est dès lors mis en avant, et la thèse émet l’hypothèse que cette opposition entre ‘alarmistes’ et ‘sceptiques’ a dépassé le champ académique pour traverser également le champ politique. La thèse entreprend alors de décrire et d’analyser le développement de normes et de politiques s’appliquant aux déplacements de populations liés à des dégradations de l’environnement dans deux sphères politiques distinctes : les politiques environnementales d’une part, et migratoires d’autre part. Dans les politiques environnementales, la thèse examine en particulier la gestion des catastrophes naturelles au niveau international, et les questions d’adaptation dans les négociations sur un nouveau traité international sur le changement climatique. Le domaine de la gestion des catastrophes naturelles s’est considérablement transformé au cours des dernières, et les personnes déplacées par les catastrophes sont au centre de plusieurs débats, ateliers et recommandations. Pour autant, ce sont négociations sur le changement climatique qui sont devenues, au fil des ans, le réceptacle premier des discussions et revendications sur les ‘migrations climatiques’. Les politiques migratoires, par contre, ont évolué dans un sens très différent. Le régime international de l’asile n’a guère évolué depuis la Convention de Genève de 1951 et son Protocole additionnel de 1967, et n’a guère pris en charge les nouvelles configurations des migrations forcées dans le monde, comme l’importance croissante aux dégradations de l’environnement. Les politiques d’asile et de mobilité n’ont pas non plus véritablement intégré la question, se cantonnant à des formes de protection complémentaires et/ou non contraignantes, dont pourraient se prévaloir ceux qui sont déplacés par une catastrophe naturelle. La thèse cherche à expliquer cette évolution différente par les différentes coalitions qui dominent ces sphères politique : les politiques migratoires sont dominées par les sceptiques, tandis que les politiques environnementales sont dominées par les alarmistes. Depuis le milieu des années 2000, les alarmistes dominent les débats sur les migrations environnementales, et ces débats se sont dès lors déplacés dans la sphère des politiques environnementales, et plus particulièrement dans celles des négociations sur le futur régime climatique. L’apparente réconciliation récente entre les deux coalitions marquent en réalité un glissement vers le terrain des politiques environnementales. Ce glissement révèle que le phénomène de ‘migrations environnementales’ reste largement conceptualisé de manière déterministe, et comme une migration forcée, inéluctable conséquence de l’échec de l’adaptation. Or, des illustrations empiriques, provenant de terrains effectués à La Nouvelle-Orléans après l’ouragan Katrina et à l’archipel de Tuvalu menacé par la montée des eaux, démontrent que cette conceptualisation ne correspond pas à la réalité des flux migratoires liés à des changements de l’environnement. La thèse souligne donc le caractère socialement construit des migrations environnementales, et l’importance du rôle joué par les politiques publiques. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental changes in two lakes of Northern Patagonia (Chile): A 1000 yr reconstruction based on pollen and charcoal.
Vargas, N.; Torres, L.; Araneda, A. et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailEnvironmental control of respiratory disease
Art, Tatiana ULg; McGorum, B. C.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Lekeux, Pierre (Ed.) Equine Respiratory Diseases (2002)

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See detailEnvironmental control to maintain stabled COPD horses in clinical remission: effects on pulmonary function
Vandenput, Sandrina ULg; Duvivier, D. H.; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1998), 30(2), 93-96

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that stabled COPD horses can be maintained in clinical remission by replacing hay by grass silage and bedding made of wood shavings (Period B) and of ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that stabled COPD horses can be maintained in clinical remission by replacing hay by grass silage and bedding made of wood shavings (Period B) and of wheat straw (Period C) during 6 weeks, respectively. At the end of these different periods, the pulmonary function of the horses was assessed by mechanics of breathing and arterial blood analyses. These results were compared to those measured in clinical remission obtained after 2 months in pasture (Period A). No significant difference was observed between these 3 periods neither to values obtained for healthy horses placed during 6 weeks in a hay environment. For all that, COPD horses placed in contact with hay in the same barn developed within mean +/- s.d. 8+/-3 days clinical signs of heaves and significant alterations of pulmonary function parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Controls on the Distribution of Aquatic Macrophytes in Ugandan Crater-lakes
Lebrun, Julie ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Poster (2009, March 27)

This research is part of an integrated paleoecological project which aims at coupling reconstructions of past vegetation and water-quality changes with climate variability. Crater-lakes from East Africa ... [more ▼]

This research is part of an integrated paleoecological project which aims at coupling reconstructions of past vegetation and water-quality changes with climate variability. Crater-lakes from East Africa are favourable to the conservation of proxy indicators such as plant macrofossils used to reconstruct the lake ecosystem. The study of modern macrophytic communities related to present environmental parameters was the first step of this research. Phytosociologic and environmental data were collected in 36 crater-lakes in South-western Uganda. Species abundance and habitat conditions were described in 216 relevés arranged along transects from the lakeshore to the depth limit of aquatic plant development. A cluster analysis identified 8 macrophytes communities and their indicator species were highlighted. Combining two levels of analysis (lake or relevé) with different kind of ordinations (CA and CCA), main parameters explaining community variability were conductivity, pH, Human Impact index, vegetation zonation and productivity (Chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen). Multiple species response curves to environmental parameters were performed to assess the ecological amplitude at the individual level and select species with a good proxy-indicator value. These results give some trends about the ecology of macrophytes communities and the ecological significations of macrofossils. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental correlates of paedomorphosis and metamorphosis in palmate newts
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Ficetola, G. Francesco

Conference (2013, August 23)

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See detailEnvironmental dew point and skin and lip weathering.
Devillers, C.; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2010), 24(5), 513-7

Xerosis represents a physiological response of the stratum corneum (SC) to environmental threats. The influence of the environmental dew point (DP) is not fully understood. This parameter is the air ... [more ▼]

Xerosis represents a physiological response of the stratum corneum (SC) to environmental threats. The influence of the environmental dew point (DP) is not fully understood. This parameter is the air temperature at which the relative humidity is maximum. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the environmental DP and the water-holding capacity of the skin and lower lip vermilion. For comparison, SC property was evaluated after occlusive application of cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. Electrometric measurements using a dermal phase meter (DPM) device were performed on the back of the hands, the cheeks and the lower lip of 40 healthy menopausal women. Assessments were performed in the outdoor conditions during winter and spring. The same measurements were recorded after hydrogel pads, at room temperature or cooled to 4 degrees C, were placed for 15 min on the test sites. The environmental DP was recorded at each evaluation time. The SC water-holding capacity was discretely influenced by the DP. In the open-air environmental conditions, a positive linear relationship was found on the cheeks between the DP and DPM values. The relationship was weaker on the lips. Conversely, a consistent increase in DPM values was recorded immediately after removal of the cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. The observations made in the open-air testing conditions are consistent with the predicted events following the Arrhenius law. By contrast, the combination of cooling and occlusion by the hydrogel pads is responsible for the reverse effect on the SC. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane or hexachlorobenzene exposure and breast cancer: is there a risk?
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pitance, François ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2004), 42(2), 222-227

The carcinogenic potential of environmental xenoestrogens (i.e., organochlorines) is a matter of controversy. Their pathogenic role as promoters in breast cancer has been previously suggested. In Europe ... [more ▼]

The carcinogenic potential of environmental xenoestrogens (i.e., organochlorines) is a matter of controversy. Their pathogenic role as promoters in breast cancer has been previously suggested. In Europe, despite their prohibition since the '70s, residues persist in soil and rivers resulting in a widespread contamination of the general population. In this study, we have compared the serum levels of p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in 231 women at the time of breast cancer discovery and in 290 agematched healthy controls. p,p'-DDE was found in 76.2% of cases and in 71.1% of controls but HCB was present only in 12.6% of cases (29 from 231) and in 8.9% of controls (26 from 290). Even if taking all undetectable results (recorded as "0") into consideration, mean values were significantly different in cases when compared to controls. The serum level of p,p'-DDE was 3.46+/-3.48 ppb (0.58+/-0.58 mug/g lipid) in patients and 1.85+/-2.09 ppb (0.31+/-0.35 mug/g lipid) in controls (p<0.0001). The HCB serum level was 0.66+/-1.25 ppb (0.11+/-0.21 mug/g lipid) in patients and 0.20+/-1.02 ppb (0.03+/-0.17 mug/g lipid) in controls (p<0.0001). When considering p,p'-DDE and HCB as binary variables (1 if higher than the limit of quantification, 0 if lower), the presence of both residues was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer development (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.41-3.48 for p,p'-DDE and OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.95-8.43 for HCB). No excess was observed among parous women or when familial history of breast cancer was considered. In the cancer group, no differences in serum levels of p,p'-DDE or HCB were found in relation with estrogenreceptor (ER) status, Bloom stage or lymph node metastasis, but the HCB level was moderately correlated with tumor size (p=0.026). [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental economics : studies and research
Burny, Philippe ULg; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina

Book published by Les Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux (2008)

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See detailEnvironmental effects on lactation curves included in a test-day model genetic evaluation
Leclerc, Hélène; Duclos, Delphine; Barbat, Anne et al

in Animal (2008), 2:3

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See detailEnvironmental effects on the chemistry of the echinoderm skeleton
Ranner, Herwig; de Jonghe, Caroline; Ladrière, Ophélie ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailEnvironmental enrichment can accentuate condtioned reward induced by representative cocaine doses in mice
Geuzaine, Annabelle ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Journal of Psychopharmacology (2012, August), 26(8), 70

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See detailEnvironmental evaluation of materials and buildings processes : application of the life cycle analysis to the construction of an industrial hall
Courard, Luc ULg; Rademaker, C.; Teller, P.

in Materials and Structures (2001), 34

Methodologies based on Life Cycle Assesment (L.C.A) give the opportunity to realise a global and complete evaluation of the environmental effects of products from their production to their use and ... [more ▼]

Methodologies based on Life Cycle Assesment (L.C.A) give the opportunity to realise a global and complete evaluation of the environmental effects of products from their production to their use and elimination (from craddle to grave); methods used for analysis are internationally wellknown and standardised. These methods are rarely used in construction materials area, although materials flows and energy consumption are important and constructions have a long way of life. A calculation methodology, based on ecofactors/ecopoints, has been used for the analysis of industrial hall made of concrete, steel, or concrete/wood structure; materials but also construction process are compared at the point of view of their environmental impact. This analysis completes the technical and economical approaches for the construction owner and designer and gives a global view of the interaction between construction and civil engineering, and environment. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental factors affecting thyroid function of wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from European coasts
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Klaren, Peter; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Chemosphere (2012)

Thyroid functional status of wild fish in relation with the contamination of their environment deserves further investigation. We here applied a multi-level approach of thyroid function assessment in 87 ... [more ▼]

Thyroid functional status of wild fish in relation with the contamination of their environment deserves further investigation. We here applied a multi-level approach of thyroid function assessment in 87 wild sea bass collected near several estuaries: namely the Scheldt, the Seine, the Loire, the Charente and the Gironde. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in muscle were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. The activity of hepatic enzymes involved in extrathyroidal pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism, viz. deiodination, glucuronidation and sulfatation were analyzed. Last, follicle diameter and epithelial cell heights were measured. We observed changes that are predicted to lead to an increased conversion of T4–T3 and lowered thyroid hormone excretion. The changes in the metabolic pathways of thyroid hormones can be interpreted as a pathway to maintain thyroid hormone homeostasis. From all compounds tested, the higher chlorinated PCBs seemed to be the most implicated in this perturbation. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental factors and puberty timing : expert panel research needs
Buck Louis, Germaine; Gray, L. Earl; Marcus, Michele et al

in Pediatrics (2008), 121(Suppl3), 192-207

Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future ... [more ▼]

Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future research priorities. An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine-disrupting chemicals, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development, and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture the continuum of exposures at critical windows while assessing a spectrum of pubertal markers as outcomes. Coupled with comparative species studies, such research may provide insight regarding the causal ordering of events that underlie pubertal onset and progression and their role in the pathway of adult-onset disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental factors controlling NO3- leaching, N2O emissions and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers in a coniferous forest soil
Carnol, Monique ULg; Ineson, Phil

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (1999), 31

Main and interactive effects of temperature, throughfall volume and NH4+ deposition on soil solution NO3- concentrations, N2O emissions and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers were investigated in a controlled ... [more ▼]

Main and interactive effects of temperature, throughfall volume and NH4+ deposition on soil solution NO3- concentrations, N2O emissions and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers were investigated in a controlled laboratory experiment. Large intact soil cores from a Picea abies (L.) Karat. stand were incubated according to an 'incomplete factorial design' at 4, 12 or 20 degrees C and watered every 2 weeks with 300, 500 or 700 ml (442, 737 and 1032 mm yr(-1)) of a natural throughfall solution enriched with 0, 37.5 or 75 kg NH4+-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Watering and sampling were performed every 2 weeks, during a 112 d period. At d 112, a temperature optimum for NO3--N concentrations in the leachate, NO3--N fluxes and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers in the mineral soil layer was determined at ca. 11 degrees C. NO3--N concentrations also decreased with throughfall volume, towards a minimum at 590 ml, with temperature however contributing most to modelling NO3--N concentrations and the two factors acting independently. The model explained 59% of the variability in the data, and the regression between observed and predicted concentrations was highly significant (P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.93). NO3--N fluxes increased quadratically with throughfall volume, and throughfall volume and NH4+ deposition interacted significantly in determining the numbers of NH4+ oxidisers in the mineral soil layer. Numbers of NH4+ oxidisers were higher in the humus layer and decreased with increasing temperatures. N2O fluxes increased quadratically with temperature, and the linear and quadratic effects of throughfall volume (maximum at 500 ml). Results suggest that optimum temperatures for net nitrification may have been overestimated in previous studies by the use of disturbed soils. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental hazards and the skin
PIERARD-FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg; QUATRESOOZ, Pascale ULg; Berardesca, E. et al

in European Dermatology Forum White Book (2005)

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See detailEnvironmental hazards and the skin.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Berardesca, E. et al

in European Journal of Dermatology (2006), 16(3), 322-4

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)