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See detailEpidemiology of the transition from early to late Crohn's disease.
LOUIS, Edouard ULg

in Digestive Diseases (2012), 30(4), 376-9

Phenotypically, the transition from early to late Crohn's disease is characterized by the occurrence of complications including strictures, intra-abdominal fistulas and perianal fistulas, all of them ... [more ▼]

Phenotypically, the transition from early to late Crohn's disease is characterized by the occurrence of complications including strictures, intra-abdominal fistulas and perianal fistulas, all of them leading to various types of surgeries and currently non-reversible tissue damage. It must, however, be kept in mind that this transition is not at all a uniform and linear process. According to these simple phenotypic criteria, Crohn's disease can already be a late disease at diagnosis while in other patients, it can still be an early disease after 20 years of evolution. This simply highlights the relativity of time in this field, actually reflecting the nature, location and severity of the inflammatory process. The risk over time of the development of these complications has been described, first in cohort studies and then in population-based studies. Globally, at diagnosis, between 19 and 38% only of Crohn's disease patients have complicated Crohn's disease. After 10 years, between 56 and 65% of patients have developed either stricturing or penetrating complications. After 20 years, these numbers are between 61 and 88%. In parallel to these structural changes, changes in the immunobiology of the disease also seem to occur; the latter seem to happen quicker with major modification already within 2 years of the diagnosis. Beside these general figures, important questions remain pending. First, the real timing of these changes is still unclear. Second, the precise role of genetics and environment in the development of these changes remains to be clarified. Third, the correlation between changes in immunobiology and intestinal structural damages has not been specifically studied. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiology of trace elements deficiencies in Belgian beef and dairy cattle herds.
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Lebreton, Pascal et al

in Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology (2009), 23(2), 116-23

Selenium (Se), iodine (I), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) deficiencies in cattle have been reported in Europe. These deficiencies are often associated with diseases. The aim of the study was to assess trace ... [more ▼]

Selenium (Se), iodine (I), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) deficiencies in cattle have been reported in Europe. These deficiencies are often associated with diseases. The aim of the study was to assess trace element status in Belgian cattle herds showing pathologies and to compare them to healthy cattle herds. Eighty-two beef herds with pathologies, 11 healthy beef herds, 65 dairy herds with pathologies and 20 healthy dairy herds were studied during barn period. Blood and/or milk samples were taken in healthy animals. Plasma Zn, Cu, inorganic I (PII) and activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes (GPX) were assayed. In milk, I concentration was measured. Data about pathologies and nutrition in the herds were collected. According to defined thresholds, it appeared that a large proportion of deficient herds belonged to "sick" group of herds. This conclusion was supported by the mean value of trace elements and by the fact that a majority of individual values of trace elements was below the threshold. Dairy herds had mean values of trace elements higher than beef herds. More concentrates and minerals were used in healthy herds versus "sick" herds. These feed supplements were also used more often in dairy herds, compared to beef herds. Trace elements deficiencies are present in cattle herds in Belgium and are linked to diseases. Nutrition plays a major role in the trace elements status. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update
Adel, A; Boughoufalah, A; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(6), 99207

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See detailEpidemiology, assessment, and management of excess abdominal fat in persons with HIV infection.
Moyle, Graeme; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Martinez, Esteban et al

in AIDS Reviews (2010), 12(1), 3-14

Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late ... [more ▼]

Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnostic strategy of gastro-esophageal reflux
Louis, Edouard ULg

in Acta Endoscopica (2003), 33

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique : bilan de l'année 1998
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance de la rage animale en Belgique : un seul cas détecté en 1998
Brochier, B.; Dechamps, P.; Costy, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(Sp. Iss. SI), 4-9

Epidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 29 septembre 2004.

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

Doctoral thesis (2004)

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See detailEpidermal Calprotectin Expression in Lymphocyte-Depleted Cutaneous Graft-versus-Host Reaction
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Nikkels, Nazli ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg et al

in Archivos Argentinos de Dermatologia (1998), 48

One of the most important complications associated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) altering different organs. The immunosuppressive regimen frequently abates ... [more ▼]

One of the most important complications associated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) altering different organs. The immunosuppressive regimen frequently abates the severity of cutaneous lesions to a peculiar lymphocyto-depleted GVHR (LD-GVHR) with scant recognizable inflammatory cells and almost absence of epidermal injury. The recently revisited histological criteria for cutaneous GVHR are of little help in diagnosing such LD-GVHR. As calprotectin (L1-protein) has been reported to be expressed in several types of stressed epithelia, we assessed the epidermal calprotectin expression during LD-GVHR. Calprotectin expression was studied by immuno-histochemistry using the Mac 287 moAb in 50 cases of LD-GVHR and 40 cases of toxic reactions due to the conditioning regimens or to post-transplant drugs. Calprotectin was evidenced in normal looking keratinocytes of all cutaneous LD-GVHR cases and in the vast majority of cytotoxic drug-induced dermatitis. It is concluded that calprotectin immunoreactivity appears to be a diagnostic clue in LD-GVHR. The epidermal calprotectin expression occurs early in GVHD, irrespective of the histological grading. However, it cannot be used alone to distinguish early LD-GVHR from drug-induced dermatitis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe epidermal cell which selectively adheres to a collagen substrate is the basal cell.
Stanley, J. R.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Murray, J. C. et al

in Journal of Investigative Dermatology (1980), 74(1), 54-8

In order to determine whether a specific subpopulation of epidermal cells selectively attaches to collagen substrates in vitro, epidermal cell suspensions, obtained by trypsinization of guinea pig skin ... [more ▼]

In order to determine whether a specific subpopulation of epidermal cells selectively attaches to collagen substrates in vitro, epidermal cell suspensions, obtained by trypsinization of guinea pig skin, were incubated on type I or type IV collagen-coated glass cover slips. It was noted, morphologically and by electronic volume measurements, that small round cells, as opposed to the larger angulated flat cells, adhered to the collagen substrates. To further characterize the attached cells, the percentage of basal cells was determined in the attached cell population and in the initial epidermal cell suspension. Basal cells were identified by indirect immunofluorescence in 2 ways: (1) by the presence of pemphigoid antigen and (2) by the absence of upper cytoplasmic antigen, which is present in all keratinocytes except the basal cells. Whereas in the initial guinea pig epidermal cell suspensions about 50% of the cells were basal cells using either of these 2 criteria, 86-97% of the cells which adhered to the collagen substrates were basal cells. Human basal cells, as defined by pemphigoid antigen, also selectively adhered to the collagen substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidermal field carcinogenesis in bald-headed. An attempt at finetuning early noninvasive detection.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Oncology Reports (2009), 21

Skin weathering and photoaging of the balding scalp have not attracted much investigative attention so far. However, the concept of field cancerization, in particular actinic field carcinogenesis, is ... [more ▼]

Skin weathering and photoaging of the balding scalp have not attracted much investigative attention so far. However, the concept of field cancerization, in particular actinic field carcinogenesis, is likely applicable to this body region. The aim of the study was to finetune the epidermal actinic changes present on hairlessness scalp. The ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method was used to assess a series of 50 healthy men older than 50 years with documented baldness for over 15 years. They were scrutenized looking for altered epidermal structures corresponding to photoaging-associated changes. Attention was focused on the faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM) and atypical scaliness. Observations were made on the scalp and forehead. FMM was recognized in each case. It presented either as a single manifestation of photoaging or it was associated with an unusual pattern of discrete rimmed scaliness. In this latter case histology and morphometry disclosed keratinocyte dysplasia. A similar scaly pattern was not seen on the forehead. Subtle skin surface changes were disclosed on long-standing sun-exposed balding scalps. The scaly aspect was distinct from dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis or any other common inflammatory scalp dermatosis. The presently described changes had not previously been described during early balding. It is suggested that the presently described condition may be associated with or indicative for actinic field carcinogenesis and incipient keratinocyte dysplasia. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidermal Growth Factor Upregulates Production of Supernumerary Hair Cells in Neonatal Rat Organ of Corti Explants
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2000), 120(2), 142-5

The organ of Corti is highly ordered, with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The number of hair cells produced was thought to be limited by the time of their terminal ... [more ▼]

The organ of Corti is highly ordered, with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The number of hair cells produced was thought to be limited by the time of their terminal mitosis (i.e. E14 in the mouse). However, exogenous application of retinoic acid has been shown to stimulate the formation of supernumerary hair cells in organ of Corti explants from E13 to E16 mouse embryos. Using late embryonic and neonatal rat organ of Corti explants, we investigated the potential for production of supernumerary hair cells in more mature auditory sensory epithelia. When newborn rat organ of Corti explants were cultured under control conditions, an area of supernumerary hair cells was observed in a segment of organ of Corti that was at the junction between the basal and middle turns. In these areas of supernumerary hair cells the number of hair cells increased per unit of length, but remained constant per surface unit, further demonstrating the supernumerary character of this phenomenon. Organ of Corti explants treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) showed a 50% increase in the length of the organ of Corti segment containing supernumerary hair cells. Upregulation of supernumerary hair cell formation by EGF was found to start and be maximal at birth (P0) and to disappear by 2 days after birth (P2). Treatment of EGF stimulated P0 explants with an antimitotic drug, cytosine arabinoside (ARAc), demonstrated that the production of supernumerary hair cells occurred independently of cell division. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidermal interleukin-8 and its receptor CXCR2 in drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Ribbens, Clio ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Clinical & Experimental Dermatology (2007), 32(6), 728-32

BACKGROUND: In drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), the epidermal destruction is associated with a slight to moderate lymphomonocytic cell infiltrate. Interleukin (IL)-8, which is a keratinocyte ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), the epidermal destruction is associated with a slight to moderate lymphomonocytic cell infiltrate. Interleukin (IL)-8, which is a keratinocyte-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, might be involved in this process. The IL-8 receptor CXCR2 has also been shown to be overexpressed in some epidermal disorders. METHODS: IL-8 concentration was measured by ELISA in both serum and blister fluid from 10 patients with TEN. Data were compared with similar dosages performed in 15 cases of second-degree burn and 7 cases of bullous pemphigoid (BP). CXCR2 expression on keratinocytes was studied using immunohistochemistry on skin biopsies performed in TEN bullous lesions and clinically uninvolved skin of the same patients. RESULTS: IL-8 was significantly overexpressed in TEN blister fluid compared with TEN serum (P = 0.0015). However, no difference was found in IL-8 concentrations present in blister fluid of TEN, second-degree burn and BP. CXCR2 was moderately expressed in the epidermis of some TEN blisters, but was never expressed in clinically uninvolved skin. CXCR2 expression was not found in the follicular epidermal root sheaths of patients with TEN. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that abundant IL-8 appears to be locally produced in TEN epidermis, but this overexpression is not disease-specific. Because of the paucity of the inflammatory infiltrate in TEN, it is unlikely that IL-8 induces epidermal destruction through its chemotactic activity. Moreover, the complete absence of neutrophils in TEN lesions indicates that the major chemotactic effect of IL-8 on neutrophils is not operative in TEN skin. This implies that IL-8 activates different functions according to the local environment. CXCR2 expression on TEN keratinocytes is expressed on some necrotic keratinocytes, consistent with a discrete IL-8 proapoptotic activity. The lack of CXCR2 expression in the follicular root sheaths argues against a role for IL-8 in TEN epidermal repair. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural administration of low-dose morphine combined with clonidine for postoperative analgesia after lumbar disc surgery
Bonhomme, Vincent ULg; Doll, Anne; Dewandre, Pierre-Yves et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (2002), 14(1), 1-6

This study evaluates the efficacy and side effects of a low dose of epidural morphine combined with clonidine for postoperative pain relief after lumbar disc surgery. In 36 of 51 patients who accepted the ... [more ▼]

This study evaluates the efficacy and side effects of a low dose of epidural morphine combined with clonidine for postoperative pain relief after lumbar disc surgery. In 36 of 51 patients who accepted the procedure, an epidural catheter was inserted (L1-L2 level). General anesthesia was induced with propofol and sufentanil, and maintained with sevoflurane in O2/N2O. After emergence from anesthesia, epidural analgesia was initiated according to two randomly assigned protocols: 1 mg of morphine with 75 microg of clonidine (Group M) or 12.5 mg of bupivacaine with 75 microg of clonidine (Group B), in 10 mL saline. Piritramide was administered during the first postoperative 24 hours using a patient-controlled analgesia device (PCA). The following parameters were recorded: piritramide consumption during the first 24 hours; pain at rest during the first postoperative hours (D0), during the first night (D1), and during the first mobilization; [visual analogue scale (VAS)]; and the occurrence of drowsiness, motor blockade, respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, itching, micturition problems, and bladder catheterization during D0 and D1. Epidural administration of morphine-clonidine significantly improved postoperative pain relief and reduced piritramide consumption as compared to epidural bupivacaine-clonidine. Side effects did not differ between groups except for a higher incidence of micturition problems in Group M during D1. The occurrence of bladder catheterization was not significantly higher in that group. We conclude that a low dose of epidural morphine combined with clonidine offers a better postoperative analgesia than does bupivacaine-clonidine. The excellent analgesic conditions were obtained at the expense of a higher incidence of difficulties in initiating micturition. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural anesthesia and intrathoracic blood volume.
Warner, David O; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Ritman, Erik L et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (1993), 77(1), 135-40

To investigate how epidural anesthesia changes intrathoracic gas volume, high epidural anesthesia was administered to five pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs lying supine, and the total intrathoracic volume ... [more ▼]

To investigate how epidural anesthesia changes intrathoracic gas volume, high epidural anesthesia was administered to five pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs lying supine, and the total intrathoracic volume at end-expiration was measured with a high-speed three-dimensional x-ray scanner. The amount of gas in the lungs at end-expiration [the functional residual capacity (FRC)] was measured with a nitrogen washout technique, and the intrathoracic tissue volume, including the intrathoracic blood volume, was calculated as the difference between intrathoracic volume at end-expiration and FRC. High epidural anesthesia with the local anesthetic etidocaine to a T-1 myotomal level significantly (P < 0.05) increased intrathoracic volume at end-expiration [76 +/- 35 mL (M +/- SD)] by significantly increasing both intrathoracic tissue volume (33 +/- 15 mL) and FRC (43 +/- 26 mL). Increases in intrathoracic tissue volume were probably caused by increases in intrathoracic blood volume. We conclude that increases in FRC caused by epidural anesthesia in anesthetized dogs lying supine may be minimized by a concurrent increase in intrathoracic blood volume. These results suggest that measurements of thoracic gas volume alone may be insufficient to describe chest wall responses to epidural anesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural anesthesia impairs both central and peripheral thermoregulatory control during general anesthesia.
Joris, Jean ULg; Ozaki, Makoto; Sessler, Daniel I et al

in Anesthesiology (1994), 80(2), 268-77

BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypotheses that: (1) the vasoconstriction threshold during combined epidural/general anesthesia is less than that during general anesthesia alone; and (2) after ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypotheses that: (1) the vasoconstriction threshold during combined epidural/general anesthesia is less than that during general anesthesia alone; and (2) after vasoconstriction, core cooling rates during combined epidural/general anesthesia are greater than those during general anesthesia alone. Vasoconstriction thresholds and heat balance were evaluated under controlled circumstances in volunteers, whereas the clinical importance of intraoperative thermoregulatory vasoconstriction was evaluated in patients. METHODS: Five volunteers were each evaluated twice. On one of the randomly ordered days, epidural anesthesia (approximately T9 dermatomal level) was induced and maintained with 2-chloroprocaine. On both study days, general anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane (0.7% end-tidal concentration), and core hypothermia was induced by surface cooling and continued for at least 1 h after fingertip vasoconstriction was observed. Patients undergoing colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to combined epidural/enflurane anesthesia (n = 13) or enflurane alone (n = 13). In appropriate patients, epidural anesthesia was maintained by an infusion of bupivacaine. The core temperature that triggered fingertip vasoconstriction identified the threshold. RESULTS: In the volunteers, the vasoconstriction threshold was 36.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C during isoflurane anesthesia alone, but significantly less, 35.1 +/- 0.7 degrees C, during combined epidural/isoflurane anesthesia. Cutaneous heat loss and the rates of core cooling were similar 30 min before vasoconstriction with and without epidural anesthesia. In the 30 min after vasoconstriction, heat loss decreased 33 +/- 13 W when the volunteers were given isoflurane alone, but only 8 +/- 16 W during combined epidural/isoflurane anesthesia. Similarly, the core cooling rates in the 30 min after vasoconstriction were significantly greater during combined epidural/isoflurane anesthesia (0.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C/h) than during isoflurane alone (0.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C/h). In the patients, end-tidal enflurane concentrations were slightly, but significantly, less in the patients given combined epidural/enflurane anesthesia (0.6 +/- 0.2% vs. 0.8 +/- 0.2%). Nonetheless, the vasoconstriction threshold was 34.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C in the epidural/enflurane group, which was significantly less than that in the other patients, 35.6 +/- 0.8 degrees C. When the study ended after 3 h of anesthesia, patients given combined epidural/enflurane anesthesia were 1.2 degrees C more hypothermic than those given general anesthesia alone. The rate of core cooling during the last hour of the study was 0.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C/h during combined epidural/enflurane anesthesia, but only 0.1 +/- 0.3 degrees C/h during enflurane alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that epidural anesthesia reduces the vasoconstriction threshold during general anesthesia. Furthermore, the markedly reduced rate of core cooling during general anesthesia alone illustrates the importance of leg vasoconstriction in maintaining core temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural hematoma after cervical spine surgery.
Hans, Pol ULg; Delleuze, Pierre Philippe; Born, Jacques Daniel et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (2003), 15(3), 282-5

The authors report an acute epidural hematoma after the surgical removal of a cervical C6-C7 disc herniation through an anterolateral approach of the cervical spine. Clinical history consisted of ... [more ▼]

The authors report an acute epidural hematoma after the surgical removal of a cervical C6-C7 disc herniation through an anterolateral approach of the cervical spine. Clinical history consisted of respiratory distress and flaccid tetraplegia that appeared 2.5 hours after surgery. Without any complementary radiologic investigation, the patient was immediately transferred to the operating room for a second look, which was unsuccessful. Magnetic resonance imaging performed after this second surgical procedure showed an anterior cervical hematoma extending from C3 to T3 without significant spinal cord compression. A cervical laminectomy was performed to evacuate the hematoma. The patient was extubated the next morning and discharged from the hospital after 5 days with no residual neurologic deficit. An extensive postoperative investigation revealed no coagulation disorder. [less ▲]

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