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See detailDigestibility and Metabolic Utilization and Nutritional Value of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Leaves Meal Incorporated in the Diets of Indigenous Senegal Chickens
Ayssiwede, Simplice Bosco; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Chrysostome, Christophe et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2010), 9(8), 767-776

In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and ... [more ▼]

In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and nutritional value when incorporated at various levels in the diets. Twenty adult indigenous chickens with an average body weight of 1.22 kg were conducted in metabolic cages and allocated in four groups of five birds each. The groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments (LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21) containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal. During the trial, birds were weighed at the beginning and at the end. Feed offered and refused, collected fresh excreta were weighed daily and the droppings were oven-dried at 60oC and ground per bird for six days. The ingredients and experimental diets used and collected excreta were subjected to chemical analyses. Results showed that the Leuceana leaves were relatively rich in protein (24.9% DM), ether extract (6.4% DM), crude fiber (14.2% DM) and Neutral detergent fiber (22.4% DM). It contained respectively 43.1% and 11.4% DM of nitrogen free extract and ash, particularly calcium (1.8%) and potassium (1.1% DM) and 2573.8 kcal/kg DM of metabolizable energy. The results of the trial showed that the inclusion of L. leucocephala leaves meal in the diet at 21% level, has no significant adverse effect on feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrients utilization (except ether extract) of adult indigenous Senegal chickens. It has significantly (p<0.05) improved the crude protein and metabolizable energy utilization in birds fed the 7% level inclusion diet (LL7). [less ▲]

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See detailDigestibility and nitrogen balance in steers offered forage supplemented with barley, sugar beet pulp and straw
Raskin, Pascale; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Baldwin, Paule ULg et al

in Grassland Science in Europe (1998)

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See detailDigestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal
Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2015)

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailDigestion de l'acide alginique chez les invertébrés
Franssen, J.; Jeuniaux, Charles ULg

in Cahiers de Biologie Marine (1965), 6

Alginolytic enzymes have been detected, by viscosimetric method and by analysis of hydrolytic products, in the digestive tract of Arenicola marina L. and of the Echinoderms Psammzchinus miliaris Gmelin ... [more ▼]

Alginolytic enzymes have been detected, by viscosimetric method and by analysis of hydrolytic products, in the digestive tract of Arenicola marina L. and of the Echinoderms Psammzchinus miliaris Gmelin and Hotothuria forkali della Chiaje, in the cristalline tube of Tapes decussatus L. (Lamellibranchia) and in all the 13 different species of Gastropoda so far studied. Alginase seems to be a permanent constituent of the enzymatic digestive equipement of Gastropoda, this enzyme indeed being secreted not only by phytophagous marine species, which feed on brown algae containing alginic acid, but also by carnivorous marine species and by phytophagous species terrestrial or living in fresh waters. However, a correlation appears to exist between the dietary habits and the amount of alginase in the digestive organs. In the cases so far studied, the optimum pH of alginases generally lies between 7,2 and 7,8. [less ▲]

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See detailDigestion de la chitine chez les Actinaires (Coelentérés anthozoaires)
Jeuniaux, Charles ULg

in Cahiers de Biologie Marine (1962), 3

Four species of Sea-anemones (Adamsia palliata Boh., Anemonia sulcata Penn., Anthopleura balli Cocks et Edwardsia callimorpha Gosse) have been studied. High amounts of chitinases and chitobiases have been ... [more ▼]

Four species of Sea-anemones (Adamsia palliata Boh., Anemonia sulcata Penn., Anthopleura balli Cocks et Edwardsia callimorpha Gosse) have been studied. High amounts of chitinases and chitobiases have been found in the gastroderm. The chitinolytic activities of the gastroderm are as high as those of the gastric mucosa of some insectivorous Vertebrates, in terms of wet weight of tissues. In the coetenteric fluid, little or no activity has been observed. Fragments of pure "native" chitin, prepared from leg tendons of Maia squinado, too big to be absorbed by phagocytosis, have been partially digested in the gastrocoel of Anemonia and Anthopleura. The digestion of the chitin proceeded irregularly along the free edges of the fragments, and many mesenteric filaments could be observed adhering closely to the chitin fragments. These observations suggest a process of "contact digestion", as described by early investigators, and recently confirmed by Nicol (1959) in the case of extracellular digestion of proteins. Extracellular digestion of chitin by Sea-anemones may be considered, in addition to extracellular digestion of proteins, as a biochemical adaptation in relation to predatory habits involving the capture of large sized preys, often covered with chitinous exosqueleton. [less ▲]

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See detailDigestion de la chitine chez les oiseaux et les mammifères
Jeuniaux, Charles ULg

in Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique (1961), 92(1), 27-45

The distribution and localisation of chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase and chitobiase) have been studied in five different species of Birds and nine species of Mammals. Chitobiase has been found in aqueous ... [more ▼]

The distribution and localisation of chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase and chitobiase) have been studied in five different species of Birds and nine species of Mammals. Chitobiase has been found in aqueous extracts of many glandular tissues, but its activity is low everywhere. No chitobiase has been found in kidneys and muscles. The gizzard's contents and intestinal chyme of the Sparrow, of the Blackbird, of Liothrix lutea and of the Cock are able to hydrolyse "native" chitin. The chitinase is secreted by the mucosa of the glandular stomach. Chitinase secretion seems to be lacking in the Pigeon. Among Mammals, a secretion of gastric chitinase has been observed in a Bat (Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum), in two Insectivors, the Mole and of the Pig seems also to be able to synthesize this enzyme. The other Mammals so far studied (Rabbit, Cat, Sheep, Choloepus and Man) do not appear to secrete chitinase. These results suggest the existence of a relation between the dietary habits of Vertebrates and the secretion of chitinase by some of their glandular tissues. The gastric chitinase of the Hedgehog has an optimal pH in the range of 4.7 to 5.0, which does not differ from that of other well-known chitinases extracted from Streptomycetes, Snails or Insects. The difference between these enzymes and the gastric chitinase lies in the fact that the latter is much less inhibited in acid conditions than in neutral or alkaline ones. The gastric chitinase seems in fact to be active at the pH conditions of the gastric chymes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa digestion des albuminoïdes chez quelques invertébrés
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale (1879), VII

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See detailLa digestion stomacale chez un paresseux : l'Unau Choloepus Hoffmanni Peters
Denis, C.; Jeuniaux, Charles ULg; Gerebtzoff, M.A. et al

in Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique (1966), 97(1), 8-29

1. The anatomical structure of the stomach in the didactyl sloth Choloepus hoffmanni Peters - Mammal of the sub-order of Xenarthra, family of Bradipodidae - conforms to the descripttion of that of ... [more ▼]

1. The anatomical structure of the stomach in the didactyl sloth Choloepus hoffmanni Peters - Mammal of the sub-order of Xenarthra, family of Bradipodidae - conforms to the descripttion of that of Choloepus didactylus. 2. The histological features of the various paunches of the stomach in Choloepus hoffmanni are similar to those already described in Bradypus cuculliger, a tridactyl sloth. 3. The cardial paunches and the "fundus" of the stomach in the sloth are homologous to the rumen of Ruminants although the "fundus" secretes mucus. The glandular prepyloric paunch in the sloth is homologous to the abomasum. The reticulum has no anatomical counterpart in the sloth. The reabsorption of the water content of the stomach, which in Ruminants occurs mainly in the psalterium is performed by the prepyloric muscular paunch in the sloth. 4. Microscopical observations on stomach contents of the sloth showed the presence of a rich microbial population. No ciliates have been observed. 5. The bacteria hydrolyse cellulose into sugars. 6. Reducing sugars are in turn transformed into short chain volatile fatty acids, 370-950 uM/10 ml, an amount similar to that found in the rumen of the Sheep and Setonix brachyurus, a macropod Marsupial. 7. These fatty acids are reabsorbed by the gastric mucosa and transferred to the gastric venous blood as found in Ruminants and in a herbivorous macropod Setonix brachyurus. 8. The evolutionary convergence of this ruminant-like digestion is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe digestive enzymes and acidity of the pellets regurgitated by raptors
Leprince, Pierre ULg; Dandrifosse, Guy ULg; Schoffrniels, Ernest

in Biochemical Systematics & Ecology (1979), 7(3), 223-227

The activity of six digestive enzymes (amylase, chitinase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, pepsin) was examined in the water-soluble contents of the pellets egested by ten species of raptors ... [more ▼]

The activity of six digestive enzymes (amylase, chitinase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, pepsin) was examined in the water-soluble contents of the pellets egested by ten species of raptors (kestrel, saker, lanner, goshawk, barn owl, tawny owl, little owl, long-eared owl, African great-owl and steppe eagle). All the enzymes studied were present in the pellets from these birds, except for chitinase which was not detected in the pellets of the goshawk and the steppe eagle, and amylase and carboxypeptidase absent in the material egested by the lanner. The origin of the enzymes studied was examined. Pancreatic enzymes, which are present in the pellets, arise from a reflux of intestinal fluid into the stomach. The importance of this phenomenon is discussed. The acidity of the pellets was measured. Relations existing between the type of food, characteristics of the pellet and the digestive process in raptors are analysed. The evolutionary advantage of pellet egestion is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe digestive system of adult carabid beetles : an ultrastructural and histoenzymological study
Jaspar-Versali, Marie-France ULg; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg; Jeuniaux, Charles ULg

in Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (1987), 22(1-4), 375-382

The morphological organization and the enzymatic equipment diversity of each digestive segment were studied by means of histology, electron microscopy and histoenzymology in seven carabid species ... [more ▼]

The morphological organization and the enzymatic equipment diversity of each digestive segment were studied by means of histology, electron microscopy and histoenzymology in seven carabid species : Carabus splendens, C. nemoralis, C. arvensis, C. problematicus, C. cancellatus, Abax parallelepipedus and Pterostichus melanarius. A particular function was attributed to each alimentary canal segment. The foregut is a mechanically functioning unit ensuring filtration and, in some cases, the site of temporary food storage. It is also the main site of food digestion, the digestive enzymes originating from regurgitated midgut fluid. The anterior region of the midgut plays a role in secretion and absorption processes, whereas the posterior one is the site of intracellular products storage, as well as of excretion and hydromineral regulation. The gastric caeca have a double function since they contain nests of regeneration cells and digestive glands. The hindgut disionic regulation. The fact that the digestive enzymatic equipment of carabids is well diversified (proteases, several polysaccharidases and oligosaccharidases) can be interpreted as a primitive character. [less ▲]

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See detailDigging deeper into lymphatic vessel formation in vitro and in vivo
Detry, Benoît ULg; Bruyère, F.; Erpicum, Charlotte ULg et al

in BMC Cell Biology (2011), 12

Background Abnormal lymphatic vessel formation (lymphangiogenesis) is associated with different pathologies such as cancer, lymphedema, psoriasis and graft rejection. Lymphatic vasculature displays ... [more ▼]

Background Abnormal lymphatic vessel formation (lymphangiogenesis) is associated with different pathologies such as cancer, lymphedema, psoriasis and graft rejection. Lymphatic vasculature displays distinctive features than blood vasculature, and mechanisms underlying the formation of new lymphatic vessels during physiological and pathological processes are still poorly documented. Most studies on lymphatic vessel formation are focused on organism development rather than lymphangiogenic events occurring in adults. We have here studied lymphatic vessel formation in two in vivo models of pathological lymphangiogenesis (corneal assay and lymphangioma). These data have been confronted to those generated in the recently set up in vitro model of lymphatic ring assay. Ultrastructural analyses through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were performed to investigate tube morphogenesis, an important differentiating process observed during endothelial cell organization into capillary structures. [less ▲]

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See detailDigimat Material eXpert – From the Material Lab to the Efficient and Optimal Design of Reinforced Plastic Parts
Depouhon, Alexandre ULg; Lepage, Séverine; Assaker, Roger

in Proceedings of EnginSoft International Conference 2009, CAE Technologies for Industry (2009)

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See detailDIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES: four HERSCHEL Open Time Key Programs to survey the dust cycle in circumstellar disks
Augereau, J.-C.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Bouvier, J. et al

in Charbonnel, C.; Combes, F.; Samadi, R. (Eds.) SF2A-2008 (2008, November 01)

Four accepted HERSCHEL open time key programs, DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES, will study the evolution of the dust grains in circumstellar disks around young and Main Sequence stars. There is a strong ... [more ▼]

Four accepted HERSCHEL open time key programs, DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES, will study the evolution of the dust grains in circumstellar disks around young and Main Sequence stars. There is a strong implication of the french community in these four projects which represent a total of 930 hours (>38 days) of her\ observing time. The DIGIT and GASPS projects will focus on the first stages of planet formation, while the DEBRIS and DUNES projects will search for extra-solar Kuiper Belt analogs around nearby Main Sequence stars. In this paper, we give an overview of the scientific goals of the four projects and of the numerical tools that we will be providing to the teams to model and interpret the her\ observations from these programs. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital 3D visualization of silver-stained NORs studied by medium-voltage TEM and STEM
Ploton, Dominique; Beorchia, A; Heliot, Laurent et al

Conference (1991)

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See detailDigital Collaborative Studio : 4 years of practice
Safin, Stéphane ULg; Kubicki, Sylvain; Bignon, Jean-Claude et al

Poster (2011, July)

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See detailDigital Cooperative Studio 07-08
Kubicki, Sylvain; Bignon, Jean-Claude; Elsen, Catherine ULg et al

in Pawar, Kulwant S.; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter (Eds.) Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising : ICE 2208, A New Wave of Innovation in Collaborative Networks (2008)

Teaching cooperation-related issues to AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) students is a major stake nowadays. There are many reasons for that: construction projects become more and more ... [more ▼]

Teaching cooperation-related issues to AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) students is a major stake nowadays. There are many reasons for that: construction projects become more and more complex and cooperation practices are evolving in both organizational and IT-based ways. It is notably for these reasons that the issue of IT is addressed in most of the AEC-oriented schools and universities. Traditionally IT is taught to support the tasks of each specific construction field (e.g. CAD for architects, simulation tools for static engineers etc.). The Digital Cooperative Studio, presented in this article, considers IT as a support to cooperation and especially its communication and coordination dimensions. Moreover, we describe here a living lab involving students, teachers and researchers. This strong link between research and teaching allows both the students to be “analysts” of their real project situations and the researchers to experiment their development in real project situations. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Holographic Interferometry and ESPI at Long Infrared Wavelengths with CO2 Laser (invited paper)
Georges, Marc ULg; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg et al

in Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH2012) (2012, April 28)

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See detailDigital holographic interferometry by using long infrared radiation (CO2 laser)
Alexeenko, Igor; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Georges, Marc ULg et al

in Advances in Experimental Mechanics VII (2010, September)

We show how digital holographic interferometry in the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) spectral range can be used for the investigation of mechanical structures. The 10.6 μm radiation is produced by a CO2 Laser ... [more ▼]

We show how digital holographic interferometry in the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) spectral range can be used for the investigation of mechanical structures. The 10.6 μm radiation is produced by a CO2 Laser. Experimental results showing that the method can be used to locate defect in a panel are presented and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (8 ULg)