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See detailEffect Of Various Levels Of Imbalance Between Energy And Nitrogen Release In The Rumen On Microbial Protein Synthesis And Nitrogen Metabolism In Growing Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Bulls Fed A Corn Silage-Based Diet
Valkeners, Damien; Thewis, André ULg; Amant, Stéphanie et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2006), 84(4), 877-885

Seven double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls (initial BW: 341 ± 21 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in an incomplete replicated Latin square. The study examined the effect of ... [more ▼]

Seven double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls (initial BW: 341 ± 21 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in an incomplete replicated Latin square. The study examined the effect of imbalance between energy and N in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and N metabolism by giving the same diet according to 3 different feeding patterns. The feed ingredients of the diet were separated into 2 groups supplying the same amount of fermentable OM(FOM) but characterized by different levels of ruminally degradable N (RDN). The first group primarily provided energy for the ruminal microbes (12.5 g of RDN/kg of FOM), whereas the second provided greater N (33.3 g of RDN/kg of FOM). These 2 groups were fed to the bulls in different combinations with the aim of creating 3 levels of imbalance (0, 20, and 40 g/ kg of DM) between energy andN supplies in the rumen. Imbalance was measured by the variation of the degradable protein balance (OEB value in the Dutch system) of the diet between the 2 meals each a day. Diurnal variations in ruminal NH3-N concentrations and plasma urea concentrations were greatly influenced by the feeding patterns of the diet. Introduction of imbalance affected neither microbial N flow at the duodenum (P = 0.97) nor efficiency of growth (P = 0.54). The feeding patterns of the diet had no negative impact on NDF degradation in the rumen (P = 0.33). Nitrogen retention was not affected by imbalance (P = 0.74) and reached 49.7, 52.0, and 51.3 g/d, respectively for 0, 20, and 40 g of OEB/kg of DM imbalance. It seems that introduction of an imbalance between energy and N supplies for the ruminal microbes by altering the feeding pattern of the same diet does not negatively influence the microbial activity in the rumen norNretention of the animal. Nitrogen recycling in the rumen plays a major role in regulating the amount of ruminally available N and allows a continuous synchronization of N and energyyielding substrates for the microorganisms in the rumen. Therefore, imbalance between dietary energy and N created over a 24-h interval was not detrimental to rumen microbial growth for the animal as long as the level of imbalance did not exceed 40 g of OEB/kg of DM. Thus, these feeding patterns of the diet can be used under practical feeding conditions with minimal impact on the performance of ruminant animals for meat production. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of various levels of imbalance between energy and nitrogen supplies in the rumen on nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls fed maize silage based diet.
Valkeners, Damien; Beckers, Yves ULg; Amant, Stéphanie et al

in Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science annual conference2005, York, UK. 4th-6th April, 2005 (2005, April)

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See detailEffect of various Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) gains on the relationship between diaphragmatic activity (Eadi max) and tidal volume
Chiew, YS; Piquilloud, L.; Desaive, Thomas ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2010), 37 (Suppl 1)

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See detailEffect of viscosity on the robustness of the element deletion method for crack propagation modelling
Canales Cardenas, Cristian ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

Conference (2014)

The numerical simulation of crack propagation in solids is of main importance in fracture mechanics and has been extensively studied over the years. Several approaches have been developed in order to ... [more ▼]

The numerical simulation of crack propagation in solids is of main importance in fracture mechanics and has been extensively studied over the years. Several approaches have been developed in order to describe the evolving geometry of a crack [1{6], but despite the research e orts some challenges are still present. A commonly used technique in Finite Element codes is the element deletion method due to the simplicity of its numerical implementation and possible extension to 3D. Furthermore, it is possible to couple this method with any failure criterion or damage model without additional considerations. This advantages are extremely desirable for numerical approaches involving high computational costs, e.g. the multi-scale computational homogenization [7, 8], where the element deletion method can be used at the micro-scale to simulate the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids [9]. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of volume reduction of cord blood units before storage on transplantation outcomes: a retrospective analysis of Eurocord-EBMT and Netcord
SACCARDI, R; Tucunduva, L; Ruggeri, A et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2013, April 01), 48

In this Registry study, manipulation of the CBUs aimed at volume reduction was not shown to infl uence the clinical outcome, indicating a satisfactory validation of the associated technologies across the ... [more ▼]

In this Registry study, manipulation of the CBUs aimed at volume reduction was not shown to infl uence the clinical outcome, indicating a satisfactory validation of the associated technologies across the banks. Cells viability assessment methodology varied among banks. Further eff orts to standardize the quality controls before CBU release are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of walls on colour rendering
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Lighting Research & Technology (1985), 17(3)

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See detailEffect of water availability on milking frequency and yield of dairy cows milked in pastures by an automatic milking system.
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Robaye, Vincent ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg et al

Poster (2012)

Nowadays farmers have to manage larger herds but at the same time, want to benefit from a normal social life. The automatic milking system (AMS) can be a solution. Its use can reduce physical labour and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays farmers have to manage larger herds but at the same time, want to benefit from a normal social life. The automatic milking system (AMS) can be a solution. Its use can reduce physical labour and allow flexibility. This technology can result in a reduction in grazing even though grazing is considered as a natural practice of the cows which is appreciated by the consumers. However, the milking frequency is decreased when outdoor grazing rather than an indoor feed systems is combined with automatic milking system (AMS) are combined compared to an indoor system. On pasture, cows tend to visit the AMS by group and enter in close succession. Improved cow traffic would allow increased milking frequency and avoid long waiting before milking. In this aim, effect of water availability in the grazing paddocks on the frequencies of cow visits to was tested. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds on the hydrolytic microbial species diversity of a UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater.
Kalogo, Y.; Rosillon, Françis ULg; Hammes, F. et al

in Letters in Applied Microbiology (2000), 31(3), 259-264

The effect of a continuous supply of a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) on the hydrolytic microbial population of biomass grown in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors ... [more ▼]

The effect of a continuous supply of a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) on the hydrolytic microbial population of biomass grown in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating domestic wastewater was investigated. The WEMOS-treated sludge had seemingly a wider diversity, with enterobacter and klebsiella as dominant hydrolytic bacteria, compared with the control sludge. Additional tests indicated that various hydrolytic bacteria could degrade WEMOS. It appeared that a continuous supply of WEMOS to an anaerobic digester, treating domestic wastewater, increased the diversity of hydrolytic bacteria and therefore enhanced the biological start-up of the reactor. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of water intake of dietary mannitol, sodium chloride and foot frequency in healthy cats
Kirschvinck, N.; Lhoest, E.; Leemans, Jérôme ULg et al

in Proceedings: 10th Congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (2006)

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See detailEffect of water intake on dietary mannitol, sodium chloride and food frequency in healthy cats
Kirschvink, N.; Lhoest, E.; Leemans, J. et al

in Proceedings of the 10th Congress ESVCN (2006)

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See detailEffect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semi-arid climate of Tadla (Morocco)
BOUAZZAMA, Bassou ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 468-477

The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during ... [more ▼]

The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods in 2009 and 2010 in order to study the effect of water stress on crop growth, water consumption and dry matter yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.) supplied with flood irrigation under the semi-arid climate of Tadla in Morocco. Four to five irrigation treatments were applied at the rates of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of maize. Soil water status, crop growth, leaf area index and above-ground biomass were measured. Results showed that irrigation deficit affected plant height growth, accelerated the senescence of the leaves and reduced the leaf area index. The maximum values of this parameter reached at flowering under the full irrigation treatment (100% ETc) were 5.1 and 4.8 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Dry matter yields varied from 5.3 t.ha-1 under T4 (40% ETc) to 16.4 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc) in 2009, whereas in 2010, it oscillated between 3.9 t.ha-1 under T5 (20% ETc) to 12.5 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc). The establishment of the water budget by growth phase showed that the water use efficiency was higher during the linear phase of growth. Water use efficiency calculated at harvest varied between 2.99 kg.m-3 under T1 to 1.84 kg.m-3 under T5. The actual evapotranspiration under T1 (100% ETc) was 478 mm and 463 mm in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Using the averaged values of the two years, linear relationships were evaluated between dry matter yield and water consumption ETa. The yield response factor (Ky) for the silage maize for both growth seasons was 1.12. Under the Tadla semi-arid climate, it is proposed that silage maize should be irrigated as a priority before other crops with a Ky lower than 1.12. It is also recommended that, under limited water supplies, irrigation be applied during the linear phase of growth of this crop. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of water temperature on the courtship behavior of the Alpine newt Triturus alpestris
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Mathieu, Maryève; Poncin, Pascal ULg

in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (2005), 58(2), 121-127

Temperature is expected to have an effect on the behavioral patterns of all organisms, especially ectotherms. However, although several studies focused on the effect of temperature on acoustic displays in ... [more ▼]

Temperature is expected to have an effect on the behavioral patterns of all organisms, especially ectotherms. However, although several studies focused on the effect of temperature on acoustic displays in both insects and anurans, almost nothing is known about how environmental temperature may affect ectotherm visual courtship displays and sexual performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of environmental temperature on the sexual behavior of Alpine newts (Triturus alpestris). We subjected T. alpestris to two different temperatures in controlled laboratory conditions. Temperature had a major effect on both male and female behaviors: at low temperature, the frequencies of several displays, including tail-raising during sperm deposition, are lowered. This variation is caused indirectly by temperature because it is due to female responsiveness, which is temperature-dependent. However, the fanning movement of the male's tail during its main courtship display is independent of female behavior: at lower temperatures, the tail beats at a lower rate, but for a longer time. The similar reproductive success (i.e. sperm transfer) at the two temperature ranges indicates that breeding in cold water is not costly but instead allows males and females to mate early in the season. This is particularly adaptive because, in many habitats, the reproductive period is shortened by drying or freezing conditions, which may impair survival of branchiate offspring. This study also demonstrates the necessity of considering environmental parameters when modeling optimality and characteristics of ectotherm behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of water uptake on amorphous inulin properties
Ronkart, Sebastien N; Paquot, Michel ULg; Fougnies, Christian et al

in Food Hydrocolloids (2009), 23(3), 922-927

Physical property changes of amorphous spray-dried inulin were investigated during water uptake at 20 degrees C. Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS ... [more ▼]

Physical property changes of amorphous spray-dried inulin were investigated during water uptake at 20 degrees C. Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) were used to investigate the evolution of the glass transition temperature (T-g) and the crystallinity index, respectively. The water content, crystallization and thermal properties relationship enabled the identification of three zones in the T-g-water content state diagram. Zone I delimited inulin in a glassy amorphous state, while zone II characterized inulin in a liquid amorphous state. Inulin crystallized and caked when T-g was below the storage temperature of 20 degrees C, but crystallization (zone III) was not spontaneous and was delayed by the defined zone II. The crystallization led to thermograms with an endotherm close to T-g. Temperature-Resolved WAXS allowed to correctly ascertain the MDSC endothermic peak as a melting peak because the crystallinity index was maximal at onset temperature of the transition, and dropped to zero at the endset temperature. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Welding on Ultimate Compressive Strength of Aluminium Stiffened Panels
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Richir, T.; Toderan, C. et al

in HIPER’2004, High Performances Marine Vehicules (2004, September)

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See detailThe effect of youth employment quotas on the job finding rates of young people in Belgian
Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

Conference (2004, May 17)

In april 2000, the Belgian federal government launched a special labor market program, whose prominent characteristic was the obligation for companies to occupy in their labor force a certain quota of ... [more ▼]

In april 2000, the Belgian federal government launched a special labor market program, whose prominent characteristic was the obligation for companies to occupy in their labor force a certain quota of young people. Based on a sample of more 100,000 young Walloon job seekers (Wallonia is the French-speaking region of Belgium), the aim of this paper is to evaluate whether or not this program has really improved the youth insertion in the labour market, compared to what would have prevailed in the absence of the program. The effect of the program is evaluated through discrete duration models, and estimated by ‘difference in differences’, looking at the individual trajectory on the labor market of young job seekers, before and after the setting up of the program, for the program target group and for a control group. The empirical results show that the program had a modest positive effect for mid-skilled job seekers, but very little effect for unskilled job seekers. On the other hand, as it could be expected, a strong deadweight effect is observed for the skilled young job seekers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of youth employment quotas on the job finding rates of young people in Wallonia
Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

Conference (2005, May 26)

In april 2000, the Belgian federal government launched a special labor market program, whose prominent characteristic was the obligation for companies to occupy in their labor force a certain quota of ... [more ▼]

In april 2000, the Belgian federal government launched a special labor market program, whose prominent characteristic was the obligation for companies to occupy in their labor force a certain quota of young people. Based on a sample of more 100,000 young Walloon job seekers (Wallonia is the French-speaking region of Belgium), the aim of this paper is to evaluate whether or not this program has really improved the youth insertion in the labour market, compared to what would have prevailed in the absence of the program. The effect of the program is evaluated through discrete duration models, and estimated by ‘difference in differences’, looking at the individual trajectory on the labor market of young job seekers, before and after the setting up of the program, for the program target group and for a control group. The empirical results show that the program had a modest positive effect for mid-skilled job seekers, but very little effect for unskilled job seekers. On the other hand, as it could be expected, a strong deadweight effect is observed for the skilled young job seekers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of zoledronic acid (single 5 mg infusion) on lumbar spine bone mineral density versus oral risedronate (5 mg/day) over one year in subgroups of patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy
Roux, C.; Reid, D.; Devogelaer, J. P. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2008), 19(S2), 248-249

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See detailEffect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study.
Thonnard, Marie ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg et al

in Functional Neurology (2014)

Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty ... [more ▼]

Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ß-Cyclodextrin Derivatives on Bronchial Epithelial Cell Layer Permeability
Bosquillon, C; Belhadj Salem, L; Hernandez, E et al

in Delivery to the lung (2006), 17

Cyclodextrins have been identified as promising adjuvants for pulmonary drug delivery. However, concerns regarding possible adverse effects on the respiratory epithelium may limit their development in ... [more ▼]

Cyclodextrins have been identified as promising adjuvants for pulmonary drug delivery. However, concerns regarding possible adverse effects on the respiratory epithelium may limit their development in inhaled products. Concentrations (10-50 mM) of three ß-cyclodextrin derivatives, randomly methylated ß-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD) and Kleptose® CRYSMEB, were applied to human respiratory epithelial (Calu-3) cell layers and effects on permeability were evaluated by 14C-mannitol permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. Each cyclodextrin produced a concentration-dependent increase in mannitol flux which was associated with a drop in TEER. Increases in mannitol flux were the highest after exposure to RAMEB and were not apparent until a 50-60% reduction in TEER was reached. Disrupted cell layers recovered to their initial TEER value in less than 24 h except after exposure to high concentrations of RAMEB. Perturbations of the Calu-3 cell layers were shown to be dependent on cyclodextrin concentration, as well as chemical derivatisation, and were reversible in all but the most severe cases. [less ▲]

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