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See detailDirac-Fock calculations of forbidden transitions within 3pk and 3dk ground confogurations of highly charged tungsten ions (W47+ - W61+)
Quinet, Pascal ULg

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2011), 44

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See detailDire dove le cose sono. Alcune considerazioni su linguaggio, cognizione spaziale e ontologia
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

in Contessi, Roberto; Mazzeo, Marco; Russo, Tommaso (Eds.) Linguaggio e percezione. Le basi sensoriali della comunicazione (2002)

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See detailDire et décrire le présent dans les lettres de Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540)
Miesse, Hélène ULg

in Année Mosaïque (L’): Revue Interdisciplinaire de Jeunes Chercheurs en Sciences Humaines (2014), 3

Depuis les travaux de Jean-Louis FOURNEL et Jean-Claude ZANCARINI, notamment, il est établi que les auteurs florentins qui vécurent à l’époque des guerres d’Italie identifièrent immédiatement la nouveauté ... [more ▼]

Depuis les travaux de Jean-Louis FOURNEL et Jean-Claude ZANCARINI, notamment, il est établi que les auteurs florentins qui vécurent à l’époque des guerres d’Italie identifièrent immédiatement la nouveauté et le caractère extraordinaire des faits qui bouleversèrent leur époque. Parmi ceux-ci, le célèbre Nicolas Machiavel mais aussi son ami et contemporain, Francesco Guicciardini, qui, si l’histoire littéraire ne lui a pas toujours fait la part belle, retrouve ces dernières années la place qui lui revient dans celle des idées. Auteur, historiographe mais aussi lieutenant des troupes pontificales lors de la Ligue de Cognac et, donc, acteur de l’histoire en train de se jouer, Francesco Guicciardini est en prise directe avec les événements ; dans sa volumineuse correspondance se mêlent petite et grande Histoire. Or, si le substantif et l’adjectif « contemporaneo » existent en italien depuis Dante au moins, Guicciardini n’en fait l’usage ni dans ses œuvres, ni dans ses lettres qui ne comptent aucune occurrence du terme. Partant de ce constat, je me propose, dans mon article, de relever et d’analyser le langage utilisé par Guicciardini pour nommer le moment auquel il vit, en cerner les contours et la façon dont celui-ci se distingue de ce qui précède pour former un moment à part : les expressions qui disent le présent (tempo presente/tempi presenti, questi tempi, medesimi tempi) et celles qui le caractérisent (conditione de' tempi, extraordinario, tempi strani) ou qui expriment le moyen de l’affronter (remedii conformi a’ tempi) seront, dès lors, au centre de mon attention. [less ▲]

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See detailDire et écrire pour aller lire en géographie
Partoune, Christine ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (1993), 28

Texts, maps and the various documents that we use at school are almost all basically rational and cut off from reality. Before tackling them, it is proposed that we first delve into this "reality" by ... [more ▼]

Texts, maps and the various documents that we use at school are almost all basically rational and cut off from reality. Before tackling them, it is proposed that we first delve into this "reality" by means of fiction. Verbal expression gaines and written games enable us to explore beforehand the mental representation of pupils and provide us with interesting questions for subsequent research. Two approaches of this type are detailed here in order to propose a discussion of their interest and of their relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailDire l'indicible. Une anthropologie économique des pratiques mafieuses de certains migrants italiens en Belgique: notes préliminaires
De Biase, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 16)

L’objectif de cette recherche consiste à étudier les processus économiques, politiques et sociaux ayant favorisé la diffusion de pratiques criminelles et mafieuses chez certains migrants d’origine ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette recherche consiste à étudier les processus économiques, politiques et sociaux ayant favorisé la diffusion de pratiques criminelles et mafieuses chez certains migrants d’origine italienne en Belgique. Nous émettons l’hypothèse que l’apparition de pratiques mafieuses ne se fait pas via l’exportation des activités criminelles sur une « base ethnique » d’un lieu à un autre, mais que ces pratiques se développent à la suite d'une adaptation aux contextes d’immigration où se vérifient toutes les conditions de transformation du parcours d’intégration de certains migrants en un parcours criminel ou mafieux. C’est pour cela que nous proposons un nouveau cadre théorique qui dépasse les interprétations habituelles sur les phénomènes mafieux dans les parcours d’immigration et qui se propose d’étudier le vaste et complexe système de relations dans lequel les forces criminelles s’enracinent. Pour ce faire, nous proposons de nous concentrer sur l’étude du secteur agroalimentaire et de la restauration dans lesquels la criminalité d’origine italienne a beaucoup investi durant les dernières décennies. Par ailleurs, nous proposons une analyse comparée à la société d’origine des migrants, le Sud de l’Italie, afin de comprendre les continuités et les ruptures dans les pratiques mafieuses entre les contextes d’origine des migrants et ceux présents dans les espaces d'immigration. Pour tester les hypothèses, cette recherche se base sur l’étude de la littérature scientifique, les données statistiques de la criminalité, les sources médiatiques, sur quelques dossiers figurant dans les archives judiciaires des tribunaux belges. Mais, la recherche est surtout basée sur une approche ethnographique qui repose sur des recueils biographiques, de récits familiaux et de l'observation participant en travaillant comme agent pour une entreprise d'import/export de produits italiens. [less ▲]

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See detailDire une rencontre avec l'oeuvre d'art : quelles connaissances pour une compétence ?
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Cramer, E.; Ricker, M.-E.; Somville, Pierre (Eds.) et al Enseigner l'histoire de l'art. Un art et une histoire tournés vers le futur. (2004)

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See detailDirect advection measurements do not help to solve the night-time CO2 closure problem: Evidence from three different forests
Aubinet, Marc ULg; Feigenwinter, Christian; Heinesch, Bernard ULg et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2010), 150(5), 655-664

The ADVEX project involved conducting extensive advection measurements at three sites, each with a different topography. One goal of the project was to measure the [CO2] balance under night-time ... [more ▼]

The ADVEX project involved conducting extensive advection measurements at three sites, each with a different topography. One goal of the project was to measure the [CO2] balance under night-time conditions, in an attempt to improve NEE estimates. Four towers were arranged in a square around a main tower, with the sides of the square about 100 m long. Equipped with 16 sonic anemometers and [CO2] sampling points, the towers were installed to measure vertical and horizontal advection of [CO2]. Vertical turbulent fluxes were measured by an eddy covariance system at the top of the main tower. The results showed that horizontal advection varied greatly from site to site and from one wind sector to another, the highest values being reached when there were large friction velocities and fairly unstable conditions. There was less variation in vertical advection, the highest values being reached when there were low friction velocities and stable conditions. The night-time NEE estimates deduced from the mass balance were found to be incompatible with biologically driven fluxes because (i) they varied strongly from one wind sector to another and this variation could not be explained in terms of a response of the biologic flux to climate, (ii) their order of magnitude was not realistic and (iii) they still showed a trend vs. friction velocity. From a critical analysis of the measurement and data treatment we concluded that the causes of the problem are related to the representativeness of the measurement (control volume size, sampling resolution) or the hypotheses underlying the derivation of the [CO2] mass balance (ignoring the horizontal turbulent flux divergence). This suggests that the improvement of eddy flux measurements by developing an advection completed [CO2] mass balance at night would be practically difficult. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect analysis of the central panel of the so-called Wyts triptych after Jan van Eyck
Deneckere, A.; Hocquet, François-Philippe ULg; Born, A. et al

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2010), 41(11), 1210-1219

The applicability of mobile, non-destructive techniques such as energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, which reveals the elemental composition, and fibre-coupled Raman spectroscopy, offering ... [more ▼]

The applicability of mobile, non-destructive techniques such as energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, which reveals the elemental composition, and fibre-coupled Raman spectroscopy, offering molecular information, is applied to the central panel of the Wyts triptych, after Jan van Eyck. Using a combination of these direct techniques, vermilion (HgS), lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), anatase (TiO2), massicot (PbO), zinc white (ZnO) and lead-tin yellow type I (Pb2SnO4) could be identified. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements also confirmed the presence of cobalt. Also, copper was detected in different blue and green areas. For the brown and red colour, iron oxides were used. Apart from identifying pigments, the combination of these analytical techniques also gave information about restored parts and the layered structure of the panel. XRF maps of three different areas of the panel painting were recorded to get an idea of the changes the painting underwent during its past history. This research confirms the results of the visual analysis that the painting is a heavily restored copy of a lost original by Jan van Eyck. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and indirect costs attributable to osteoarthritis in active subjects
Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Manette, C.; Lemmens, R. et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2006), 33(6), 1152-1158

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in an active population, and to identify factors significantly influencing these expenditures. METHODS: A cohort of 3,440 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in an active population, and to identify factors significantly influencing these expenditures. METHODS: A cohort of 3,440 subjects employed by the Liege City Council was followed prospectively for 6 months. Subjects were asked to report monthly OA related health resource utilization (contacts with health professionals, medical examinations, drug consumption, etc.) and absence from work. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated at baseline using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 36 (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with the probability that the individual incurred costs, and multiple regression identified factors influencing the magnitude of these costs. RESULTS: A total of 1,811 subjects filled in at least one questionnaire (response rate 52%). The mean duration of followup was 3.46 months. Self-reported prevalence of OA was 34.1%. The mean total direct costs were 44.5 euros per OA patient-month. Contacts with health professionals, medical examinations, drugs, and hospital stays accounted for 23.7 euros, 8.7 euros, 6.7 euros, and 4.9 euros, respectively, per OA patient-month. The average number of sick-leave days was 0.8 per OA patient-month. From a payer's perspective, this loss of productivity represented a mean cost of 64.5 euros per OA patient-month. We also recorded 0.02 mean days off work per active subject-month due to informal care by relatives, yielding a mean cost of 1.8 euro per active subject-month for the employer. Poorer scores for most of the dimensions of the SF-36 at baseline were significantly associated with greater likelihood of incurring direct and indirect costs and with higher costs among subjects who reported costs. If we consider the overall cohort of active subjects, the burden of OA related to the direct and indirect costs was 15.2 euros and 23.8 euros, respectively, per active subject-month. CONCLUSION: Direct and indirect costs attributable to OA are substantial, with productivity related costs being predominant. Poorer HRQOL was a major determinant of these expenditures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe direct and indirect costs of the chronic management of osteoporosis: a prospective follow-up of 3440 active subjects
Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Manette, C.; Lemmens, R. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2006), 17(9), 1346-1352

Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs attributable to osteoporosis (OP) from a societal and a payer's perspective among active subjects living in Belgium ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs attributable to osteoporosis (OP) from a societal and a payer's perspective among active subjects living in Belgium and employed in the public workforce. Materials and methods: A cohort of 3440 subjects employed by the Liege City Council was followed for 6 months. The City Council employees were invited to fill a monthly log of the data related to their utilization of health resources ( contacts with health professionals, medical examinations, drug use,...) due to OP. Information on work disability ( number of days of sick leave) and on informal care ( number of days off work incurred by active subjects in helping relatives or friends suffering from OP) was also collected. Results: Of those asked to participate in the study, 1,811 subjects filled in at least one questionnaire. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.46 months. Self-reported prevalence of OP at inclusion was 5.3%. OP subjects were significantly older (52.7 +/- 6.1 years) than normal subjects (45.5 +/- 9.8 years) ( p< 0.05) and included more women (85.3 vs. 55.9%). Direct costs came to E44.6 per OP patient-month: E10.9 was spent on contact with health professionals, E19.0 on medical examinations, E12.1 on drugs and E2.6 on hospitalizations. During this 6-month study, a total of 140 days of sick leave was recorded ( mean: 0.4 per OP patient-month). From a payer's perspective, this loss in productivity yielded a mean cost of E34.05 per OP patient-month. A mean number of days off work of 0.018 per active subject-month, attributable to informal care, was recorded. These days of inactivity represented, for the employer, a mean cost of E1.8 per active subject-month. Conclusion: The results of this survey of a large sample of active subjects confirm that OP-related expenditures, both for medical care and for loss of productivity, are significant. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and indirect pCO2 measurements in a wide range of pCO2 and salinity values
Frankignoulle, Michel; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Aquatic Geochemistry (2001), 7

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect ... [more ▼]

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect methods in an estuary where pCO2 values range from 500 to 8500 µatm and salinity from 0 to 30. Our results show that both methods are in excellent agreement in the whole estuary (r2 = 0.999, n = 1075, p < 0.0001). Thus, the NBS (US National Bureau of Standards) scale, although inadequate for seawater samples, is appropriate for estuarine waters and can be applied with confidence to calculate pCO2. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and indirect use of GFP whole cell biosensors for the assessment of bioprocess performances: design of milliliter scale-down bioreactors
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Neubauer, Peter; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Biotechnology Progress (2013), 29(1), 48-59

Substrate limitation responsive biosensors have been used for the development of a mini-bioreactor platform that can be used as a scale-down tool. Three green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional ... [more ▼]

Substrate limitation responsive biosensors have been used for the development of a mini-bioreactor platform that can be used as a scale-down tool. Three green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been chosen in Escherichia coli, i.e., uspA::gfp, csiE::gfp and yciG::gfp. Our previous studies have shown that these kinds of promoters are induced in response to substrate limitation and are significantly repressed when cultures are carried out in heterogeneous bioreactors. This sensitivity to substrate limitation has been confirmed in the case of the csiE and yciG biosensors. A mini-scale-down platform is proposed as a high throughput tool to rapidly investigate the usefulness of a given microbial biosensor. This platform is composed of shake flasks able to operate in fed-batch mode either using the slow release or the intermittent feeding principle. Local heterogeneities were reproduced at the level of these mini-bioreactors (operating under the intermittent feeding principle) and caused a decrease in GFP expression as in conventional scale-down reactors. The presence of GFP in supernatants was also noted and seems to be correlated with the substrate limitation signal for the three cultivation systems considered in this work (i.e., chemostat, conventional and mini-bioreactors) and with membrane permeability. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and neurally mediated effects of halothane on pulmonary resistance in vivo.
Warner, David O; Vettermann, Jörg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Anesthesiology (1990), 72(6), 1057-63

It has been suggested that halothane inhibits contraction of airway smooth muscle in vivo mainly by reducing reflex activity in nerves innervating the muscle with only minimal direct effects on the muscle ... [more ▼]

It has been suggested that halothane inhibits contraction of airway smooth muscle in vivo mainly by reducing reflex activity in nerves innervating the muscle with only minimal direct effects on the muscle itself. To examine possible mechanisms of action of halothane at clinically relevant concentrations the authors studied the effect of halothane on increases in pulmonary resistance (RL) produced by either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS, which caused neurally mediated constriction) or the inhalation of nebulized acetylcholine (ACh, which directly stimulated the smooth muscle cell) in nine mongrel dogs. The frequency of bilateral VNS and the dose of nebulized ACh were adjusted to produce approximately equal increases in RL. Halothane reduced the response to both types of stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion. At halothane concentrations greater than or equal to 0.4 MAC, the VNS response was significantly less than the ACh response. When tetrodotoxin was given to block neural activity, the ACh response was unchanged, confirming that neural activation did not contribute significantly to smooth muscle contraction in response to ACh. The authors conclude that in addition to neurally mediated effects, halothane at clinically used concentrations has significant direct effects on airway smooth muscle stimulated by ACh. The relative importance of each factor in vivo should depend on the stimulus that causes contraction of airway smooth muscle. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect block of SK2 and SK3 current by the sigma agonist 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine
Lamy, Cédric; Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Dilly, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2008, November 17)

Sigma receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system where they modulate neurotransmitter release, receptor function, ionic channel activity and calcium homeostasis. Two subtypes of sigma ... [more ▼]

Sigma receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system where they modulate neurotransmitter release, receptor function, ionic channel activity and calcium homeostasis. Two subtypes of sigma receptors have been identified (sigma-1 and sigma-2) with different pharmacological profiles, anatomical distribution and physiological functions. 1,3-Di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG) is a sigma-1 and sigma-2 agonist which is widely used to probe the function of these receptors. It has recently been shown that sigma-1 receptor activation reduces the opening of SK channels in the hippocampus. We have observed that DTG (100 µM) reduces the apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of dopaminergic neurons within a slice preparation by ~60%, an effect not observed with other sigma agonists. In addition, neither the selective sigma-1 antagonist BD 1047 (30 µM) nor haloperidol (1 µM) blocked the effect of DTG, which suggested that the inhibition of the AHP might result from a direct block of the underlying SK channels. Whole-cell recordings were made from HEK293 cells transiently transfected with rSK2 or hSK3 cDNA in symmetrical K+ conditions with currents activated by a [Cai] of 1 µM. Expressed SK2 and SK3 channels displayed a classical pharmacology, being blocked by apamin with mean IC50’s of 100 pM and 4 nM, respectively. In contrast, both channel subtypes were blocked with equal sensitivity by N-methyl-laudanosine (NML). DTG inhibited both SK2 and SK3 currents with the same potency (IC50’s were ~30 µM). A mutation that rendered both SK2 and SK3 insensitive to apamin and NML produced a current that was still sensitive to DTG. This direct block of SK channels may be important to consider in relation to the pharmacological effects of this compound. [less ▲]

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