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See detailThe endocrine control of energy homeostasis in chickens
Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Song, Zhigang et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2013)

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See detailThe endocrine control of energy homeostasis in chickens.
Song, Zhigang; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Wang, Yufeng et al

in General and comparative endocrinology (2013), 190

Energy homeostasis (balance) depends on the relationship between the amount of consumed feed energy and energy expenditure. Coordination of energy expenditure and feed intake (appetite) is necessary for ... [more ▼]

Energy homeostasis (balance) depends on the relationship between the amount of consumed feed energy and energy expenditure. Coordination of energy expenditure and feed intake (appetite) is necessary for the regulation of body composition. The hypothalamus integrates peripheral and central signals to generate satiety or hunger. Birds and mammals utilize common signaling molecules but some molecules possess different/opposite functions. If relevant, particular differences with the mammalian regulatory system are highlighted in this review. For example, obestatin had no significant effect on feed intake of chicks, but it was claimed to decrease food intake in mammalian species. Ghrelin displayed appetite-stimulating effects in mammals but appetite-decreasing effects in birds. Recently, the function of the hypothalamic AMPK signaling pathway on feed intake regulation has received considerable attention in poultry. Alpha-lipoic acid might exert its appetite-decreasing effect by the AMPK signaling pathway. This review discusses the central regulation of energy homeostasis, role of (an)orexigenic peptides, effect of feed deprivation on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression and provides a model for involvement of AMPK in the regulation of avian energy balance. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine correlates of the breeding asynchrony between two corsican populations of blue tits (Parus caeruleus)
Caro, S. P.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Thomas, D. W. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2005), 140(1), 52-60

Analyses of the development of the reproductive system in seasonally breeding birds in the framework of long-term ecological studies are rare. Here, we present the first results of such a study in two ... [more ▼]

Analyses of the development of the reproductive system in seasonally breeding birds in the framework of long-term ecological studies are rare. Here, we present the first results of such a study in two Corsican populations of a European passerine bird, the blue tit (Parus caeruleus). The two study populations occupy different oak habitats and are separated by only 25 km. Despite their close proximity, they show a one-month difference in onset of egg laying, even after controlling for altitude. This micro-geographic difference in breeding date appears adaptive because both study populations raise chicks when food is most plentiful. In our study, males reached their maximum song activity during the egg-laying stage while maximal testosterone levels and testes sizes were reached 2-3 weeks before egg laying. The rate of development of the reproductive system in males was much faster in the earlier population, in spite of a similar onset of gonad development and song activity for the two study populations. No change in the volume of the song-control nuclei (HVC and RA) could be detected during the study period. Development of brain nuclei was completed 2-3 months before the beginning of intense sexual activity. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine disrupting effects of zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol at the level of nuclear receptor binding and steroidogenesis.
Frizzell, C; Ndossi, D; Verhaegen, S et al

in Toxicology Letters (2011), 206(2), 210-217

The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a secondary metabolite of fungi which is produced by certain species of the genus Fusarium and can occur in cereals and other plant products. Reporter gene assays ... [more ▼]

The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a secondary metabolite of fungi which is produced by certain species of the genus Fusarium and can occur in cereals and other plant products. Reporter gene assays incorporating natural steroid receptors and the H295R steroidogenesis assay have been implemented to assess the endocrine disrupting activity of ZEN and its metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL). alpha-ZOL exhibited the strongest estrogenic potency (EC(50) 0.022+/-0.001 nM), slightly less potent than 17-beta estradiol (EC(50) 0.015+/-0.002 nM). ZEN was ~70 times less potent than alpha-ZOL and twice as potent as beta-ZOL. Binding of progesterone to the progestagen receptor was shown to be synergistically increased in the presence of ZEN, alpha-ZOL or beta-ZOL. ZEN, alpha-ZOL or beta-ZOL increased production of progesterone, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol hormones in the H295R steroidogenesis assay, with peak productions at 10 muM. At 100 muM, cell viability decreased and levels of hormones were significantly reduced except for progesterone. beta-ZOL increased estradiol concentrations more than alpha-ZOL or ZEN, with a maximum effect at 10 muM, with beta-ZOL (562+/-59 pg/ml)>alpha-ZOL (494+/-60 pg/ml)>ZEN (375+/-43 pg/ml). The results indicate that ZEN and its metabolites can act as potential endocrine disruptors at the level of nuclear receptor signalling and by altering hormone production. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine disruptors and breast cancer risk
Meurisse, M.; Plomteux, Guy ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg et al

Poster (2000)

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See detailEndocrine disruptors in food: potential impact on human health
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2007), 151(1), 44-54

Several scientific studies revealed that substances with hormonal (or antihormonal) activity are widely distributed in the environment as well as in food, either as natural constituents (as phytoestrogens ... [more ▼]

Several scientific studies revealed that substances with hormonal (or antihormonal) activity are widely distributed in the environment as well as in food, either as natural constituents (as phytoestrogens), or as substances of anthropogenic origin (for example, Several observations concerning both the wild fauna and humans indicate that these products with hormonal activity are endocrine disruptors. Numerous ecotoxicological studies evidenced important disturbances of the fertility of the wild fauna in zones contaminated by pesticides. In humans, epidemiological studies revealed a significant increase of certain cancers (among others, that of the testicles) and a decrease of the male fertility. Substances with estrogenic activity are often considered, but other hormonal effects are more and more frequently discovered (i.e. anti-androgenic). Numerous worries appear concerning the long-term effects on human health linked to a chronic exposure to these substances by food ingestion. It is urgent to review, not only on the actual contamination of our food by endocrine disruptors (in terms of identification and quantification of every individual chemical), but also the potentially toxic activity of food containing a mixture of contaminants present at levels below their individual toxicity threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine Disruptors: A Most Relevant Issue for the Pediatric Endocrinologist.
BOURGUIGNON, Jean-Pierre ULg; Soder, Olle

in Hormone Research in Paediatrics (2013)

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See detailEndocrine disruptors: A relevant issue for neuroendocrinology also!
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Levine, Jon E.

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2014), 35(1), 1

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See detailEndocrine effects of castration followed by androgen replacement and ACTH injections in the male domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.).
Deviche, P.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Heyns, W. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (1980), 41(1), 53-61

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See detailEndocrine factors and AMPKα1 are involved in the spread of hatch and subsequent neonatal performance of broiler chicks
Wang, Yufeng; Li, Yue; Willems, Els et al

Poster (2012)

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See detailEndocrine Incidentalomas : Pituitary
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2007, May)

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See detailThe endocrine milieu and CD4 T-lymphocyte polarization during pregnancy
Polese, Barbara ULg; Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Arakioti, Eleni et al

in Frontiers in Endocrinology (2014), 5(Article 106), 1-11

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has ... [more ▼]

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has been expanded to include CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Pregnancy hormones exert very significant modulatory properties on the maternal immune system. In this review, we describe mechanisms by which the endocrine milieu modulates CD4 T cell polarization during pregnancy. We first focused on Treg and Th17 cells and on their importance for pregnancy. Secondly, we review the effects of pregnancy hormones [progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2)] on immune cells previously described, with a particular attention to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The importance of Treg cells for pregnancy is evidenced. They are recruited before implantation and are essential for pregnancy maintenance. Decreased number or less efficient Treg cells are implicated in fertility disorders. As for Th17 cells, the few available studies suggest that they have a negative impact on fertility. Th17 frequency is increased in infertile patients. With the combination of its pro-effects on Th2 and Treg cells and anti-effects on Th1 and Th17 cells, P4 contributes to establishment of a favorable environment for pregnancy. E2 effects are more dependent on the context but it seems that E2 promotes Treg and Th2 cells while it inhibits Th1 cells. hCG positively influences activities of Treg and uterine natural killer cells. This embryo signal is an essential actor for the success of pregnancy, both as the endocrine factor regulating P4 secretion by the ovarian corpus luteum, but also as a paracrine agent during implantation as well as an angiogenic and immunologic mediator during the course of gestation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) immune properties begin to be studied but its positive impact on Treg cells suggests that LH could be a considerable immunomodulator in the mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine patterns following trenbolone acetate-zeranol and trenbolone acetate-oestradiol implantation in beef cattle
Fabry, Jules; Renaville, Robert ULg; Halleux, Vincent et al

in Journal of Animal Science (1983), 57(supll 1), 334-335

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See detailEndocrine profiles, haematology and pregnancy outcomes of late pregnant Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls giving a high or low incidence of stillbirth
Kornmatitsuk, B.; Dahl, E.; Ropstad, E. et al

in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (2004), 45(1-2), 47-68

The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of ... [more ▼]

The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of stillbirth are unknown. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate possible causes of stillbirth and to study possible physiological markers for predicting stillbirth. Twenty Swedish Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls with breeding values for a high risk of stillbirth (n = 12) (experimental group) and a low risk of stillbirth (n = 8) (control group, group B) were selected based on information in the Swedish A1-data base. The experimental group consisted of 2 subgroups of heifers (groups A1 and A2) inseminated with 2 different bulls with 3.5% and 9% higher stillbirth rates than the average, and the control group consisted of heifers pregnant with 5 different bulls with 0%-6% lower stillbirth rates than the average. The bull used for group A1 had also calving difficulties due to large calves as compared to the bull in group A2 showing no calving difficulties. The heifers were supervised from 6-7 months of pregnancy up to birth, and the pregnancies and parturitions were compared between groups regarding hormonal levels, haematology, placental characteristics and calf viability. In group A1, 1 stillborn, 1 weak and 4 normal calves were recorded. In group A2, 2 stillborn and 4 normal calves were registered. All animals in the control group gave birth to a normal living calf without any assistance. The weak calf showed deviating profiles of body temperature, saturated oxygen and heart rates, compared with the normal living calves. No differences of the placentome thickness, measured in vivo by Ultrasonography were seen between the groups. The number of leukocytes and differential cell counts in groups A1 and A2 followed the profiles found in the control group. In group A1, a slight decrease of oestrone sulphate (E1S04) levels was found in the animal delivering a stillborn calf from the first 24-h blood sampling at 6 weeks to the second at 3 weeks prior to delivery, while the levels of E1S04 at both periods in the animal delivering a weak calf followed the profile in animals delivering a normal living calf. During late pregnancy and at the time of parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals delivering a stillborn or weak calf (from group A1) followed the normal profiles found in animals delivering a normal living calf. In group A2, low levels of E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) over 24 h at both 3 and 6 weeks prior to parturition (<1.5 nmol/L) were recorded in animals delivering a stillborn calf During late pregnancy and parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs were slightly lower during 30-50 days prior to delivery and increased with a lower magnitude at the time of parturition. In conclusion, our results indicate that the aetiology behind stillbirth varies depending on the AI-bulls used and is associated with dystocia or low viability of the calves. Deviating profiles of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in animals delivering a stillborn calf not caused by dystocia were observed, suggesting placental dysfunction as a possible factor. The finding suggests that the analyses of E1SO4 and PAGs could be used for monitoring foetal well-being in animals with a high risk of stillbirth at term. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine regulation of hepatic somatomedin C (IGF1) production in young calves
Coxam, V.; Davicco, M. J.; Opmeer, F. et al

in Fetal & Neonatal Development (1988)

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See detailEndocrine regulation of postpartum ovarian activity in cattle: a review
Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (1986), 26(6), 1219-1239

The problem of postpartum anoestrus is a real one because it results in prolongation of the time between calvings. The interval between the calving and resumption of cyclic ovarian activity depends on ... [more ▼]

The problem of postpartum anoestrus is a real one because it results in prolongation of the time between calvings. The interval between the calving and resumption of cyclic ovarian activity depends on several factors, i.e., amount of feeding before and after parturition, level of milk yield, age of the animal, calving difficulty, presence of a bull in the herd, season and its photoperiodism and particularly the suckling or lactating status of the cow. The anoestrus period is longer in suckled cows (30 to 110 days) than in milked cattle (20 to 70 days). The physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is still far from clear. Nevertheless, some events are very well demonstrated. The pulsatile release of LH and GnRH and the pituitary sensitivity to GnRH increase gradually after calving. They are inhibited by suckling, which acts more on LH and GnRH release than on their synthesis. Suckling or the presence of a calf can exercise its action via oestrogens. Suckling inhibits oestrogen synthesis by follicular cells and diminishes their feed-back positive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The suckling effect depends on oestrogen concentrations and on time after calving. The progressive LH release induces the synthesis of progesterone. After calving, the first luteal phase is shorter and the progesterone plasma concentrations are lower than what is observed during a normal cycle. Amongst some hypotheses proposed, premature luteolysis induced by uterine prostaglandins offers a new and very interesting field of research related to the utero-ovarian relationship after calving. The effects of FSH, prolactin and glucocorticoids hormones are much less understood. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine study of social behaviour in Oreochromis aureus.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Skoufas, G.; Byamungu, N. et al

Poster (1993)

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See detailEndocrine, paracrine and autocrine factors in the maturation and functional development of the testis
Closset, Jean ULg; Dombrowicz, David; Vandenbroeck, Marc et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1989), 144(1-2), 196-7

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See detailEndocrine-disrupting chemicals : an Endocrine Society scientific statement
Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Giudice, Linda C. et al

in Endocrine Reviews (2009), 30(4), 293-342

There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone ... [more ▼]

There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control or reproduction. In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society, we present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology. Results from animal models, human clinical observations, and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health. The mechanisms of EDCs involve divergent pathways including (but not limited to) estrogenic, antiandrogenic, thyroid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, retinoid, and actions through other nuclear receptors; steroidogenic enzymes; neurotransmitter receptors and systems; and many other pathways that are highly conserved in wildlife and humans, and which can be modeled in laboratory in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, EDCs represent a broad class of molecules such as organochlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals, plastics and plasticizers, fuels, and many other chemicals that are present in the environment or are in widespread use. We make a number of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clinical research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness. [less ▲]

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