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See detailDistinct pathological signatures after lethal avian H5N1 and swine H1N1 influenza infections suggest variable pathogenesis.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Habyarimana, Adélite; Van de Paar, Els et al

in International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2010)

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See detailDistinct pathways in the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human fibroblasts by relaxation of mechanical tension.
Lambert, Charles ULg; Colige, Alain ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Matrix Biology (2001), 20(7), 397-408

The aim of the work was to analyze, on a comparative basis, the signaling pathways operating in the regulation of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expressed by human dermal fibroblasts submitted ... [more ▼]

The aim of the work was to analyze, on a comparative basis, the signaling pathways operating in the regulation of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expressed by human dermal fibroblasts submitted to mechanical stress relaxation by cytochalasin D (CD) and in a retracting collagen gel (RCG). The mRNA steady-state level of MMPs was measured by a quantitative RT-PCR procedure using a synthetic RNA as internal standard. In monolayer, most MMPs were barely detected, except MMP-2. Disruption of the actin stress fibers by CD induced a moderate increase of MMP-2 mRNA and a much larger stimulation of MMP-3, -9, -13 and -14 mRNAs. In RCG, a significant up-regulation of these MMPs was also observed although to a lower extent than in CD-treated monolayers. Among the investigated MMPs, the MMP-8 and -11 were not reproducibly detected. MMP-2 was processed to its active form both by CD and in RCG. The CD-induced up-regulation of gene expression was largely repressed by blocking protein synthesis by cycloheximide for all the MMPs, by inhibiting the tyrosine-kinases of the src family by herbimycin A for all MMPs, except MMP-2, and by inhibiting the TPA-inducible PKC isoforms by bisindoyl maleimide for all MMPs, except MMP-14. The up-regulation induced by stress relaxation in RCG was protein synthesis-dependent for MMP-2 and MMP-13, tyrosine kinases-dependent for MMP-3 and MMP-13, as previously described for MMP-1. Inhibiting TPA-inducible PKC did not affect any MMP in RCG except MMP-13, which was strongly induced. The processing of MMP-2 was tyrosine kinases-dependent but PKC-independent. Inhibitors of the ERK1,2 and p38 MAP kinases pathways diversely affected the MMPs expression. Inhibiting the Rho-kinase activity by Y-27632 was inactive. These results point to the potent regulation operated by the status of the cytoskeleton on the cell phenotype, and to distinct regulatory pathways involved in the control of different MMPs expression. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct regions of the medial prefrontal cortex are associated with self-referential processing and perspective taking
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Ruby, Perinne; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2007), 19(6), 935-944

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) appears to play a prominent role in two fundamental aspects of social cognition, that is, self-referential processing and perspective taking. However, it is currently ... [more ▼]

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) appears to play a prominent role in two fundamental aspects of social cognition, that is, self-referential processing and perspective taking. However, it is currently unclear whether the same or different regions of the MPFC mediate these two interdependent processes. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study sought to clarify the issue by manipulating both dimensions in a factorial design. Participants judged the extent to which trait adjectives described their own personality (e.g., 'Are you sociable?') or the personality of a close friend (e.g., 'Is Caroline sociable?') and were also asked to put themselves in the place of their friend (i.e., to take a third-person perspective) and estimate how this person would judge the adjectives, with the target of the judgments again being either the self (e.g., 'According to Caroline, are you sociable?') or the other person (e.g., 'According to Caroline, is she sociable?'). We found that self-referential processing (i.e., judgments targeting the self vs. the other person) yielded activation in the ventral and dorsal anterior MPFC, whereas perspective taking (i.e., adopting the other person's perspective, rather than one's own, when making judgments) resulted in activation in the posterior dorsal MPFC; the interaction between the two dimensions yielded activation in the left dorsal MPFC. These findings show that self-referential processing and perspective taking recruit distinct regions of the MPFC and suggest that the left dorsal MPFC may be involved in decoupling one's own from other people's perspectives on the self. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct Signal Transduction Pathways Mediate Nuclear Factor-Kappab Induction by Il-1beta in Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Piette, Jacques ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (1997), 159(11), 5264-72

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells, while it occurs independently of any oxidative stress in epithelial transformed cells. Indeed, inhibition of receptor internalization as well as NH4Cl and chloroquine blocked IL-1beta-mediated induction of NF-kappaB in OVCAR-3 and in other epithelial cell lines but not in lymphoid cells, indicating that distinct pathways are involved. Conversely, while we observed phospholipase A2 activity in both cell types following IL-1beta stimulation, specific inhibitors of this enzyme inhibited NF-kappaB induction only in lymphoid cells. Moreover, expression of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme was not detected in epithelial cells, and inhibition of this enzyme blocked NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta only in lymphoid cells. This study thus indicates that the activation of NF-kappaB following IL-1beta treatment involves the activation of phospholipase A2 and 5-LOX and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in lymphoid cells, while in epithelial cells, another pathway predominates and could involve the acid sphingomyelinase. Moreover, arachidonic acid could induce NF-kappaB in epithelial and lymphoid cells, but this activation involved the 5-LOX enzyme and the production of ROIs only in lymphoid cells. The inefficiency of the ROI pathway in epithelial cells is probably the consequence of both low ROI production due to undetectable expression of 5-LOX and rapid degradation of hydrogen peroxide due to high catalase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct T cell subsets and cytokine production in cultures derived from transformation zone and squamous intraepithelial lesion biopsies of the uterine cervix.
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Renard, Isabelle; Al-Saleh, Walid et al

in American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2003), 49(1), 6-13

PROBLEM: The characterization of lymphocytes issued from squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and from the transformation zone (TZ), where the majority of SIL occur, is important to understand the role ... [more ▼]

PROBLEM: The characterization of lymphocytes issued from squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and from the transformation zone (TZ), where the majority of SIL occur, is important to understand the role of immunity in SIL development. METHOD OF STUDY: We compared lymphocyte populations of the TZ and SIL with those of normal exocervix, using a technique allowing for the isolation of lymphocytes, either from the epithelium or from the underlying stroma of small biopsies. RESULTS: The majority of cells derived from the epithelium of all biopsies were CD8+ T cells. Some SIL-derived cultures were characterized by an increased proportion of activated TCRgammadelta+. The production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was significantly higher in lymphocyte cultures from the normal TZ in comparison with the exocervix. A decreased percentage of effector T cells was observed in cultures derived from the stroma of normal TZ (TCRgammadelta+) or SIL (CD8+) in comparison with the exocervix. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a low proportion of effector T cells and IL10 production could contribute to the predisposition of the TZ to the development of SIL and to the progression of SIL to cervical cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct tissue cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in canine sino-nasal aspergillosis and idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Peters, I. R.; Helps, C. R. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2007), 117

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (LPR) and sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) are among the most common causes of nasal discharge in dogs. The pathogenesis of both diseases is poorly understood. Some ... [more ▼]

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (LPR) and sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) are among the most common causes of nasal discharge in dogs. The pathogenesis of both diseases is poorly understood. Some have proposed that LPR is a chronic inflammatory response to an inhaled irritant, pollutant or allergen, but others suggest that most cases of LPR constitute undiagnosed cases of SNA. Local immune dysfunction is thought to permit opportunist infection in canine SNA. This study investigates the nature of the local tissue immune response mounted in canine LPR and SNA in order to determine whether these diseases have similar or distinct pathogenesis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was carried out on RNA isolated from nasal biopsies from diseased and control dogs, using specific assays designed to amplify messenger RNA (mRNA), encoding a panel of cytokines and chemokines. SNA was associated with significantly increased expression of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p19, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, eotaxin-2 and all four monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) relative to controls. LPR was associated with significantly increased expression of mRNA encoding IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p19, IL12p40, IL-18, TNF-alpha, TGF-(3, MCP-2 and MCP-3 relative to controls. There was significantly more expression of mRNA encoding IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-(3 and all MCPs, and significantly less expression of IL-5 in dogs with SNA than in dogs with LPR. Thus, the profile of cytokine and chemokine gene expression in the nasal mucosa is different in dogs with LPR when compared to dogs with SNA. A partial Th2 immune response appears to be mounted in the nasal mucosa of dogs with LPR, whereas the mucosal immune response in canine SNA is of the Th1 type. Increase in IL-10 and TGF-(3 transcripts in dogs with SNA is thought to be implicated in the failure to clear the Aspergillus infection. These results constitute the first evidence that the pathogenesis of canine LPR and SNA is distinct. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinction
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Glinoer, Anthony; Saint-Amand, Denis (Eds.) Lexique Socius (2014)

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See detailLa distinction auctoriale entre petits : les auteurs de Physiologies
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Scientific conference (2011, March 26)

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See detailDistinction Between Cultivated And Wild Chicory Gene Pools Using Aflp Markers
Van Cutsem, P.; Du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Boutte, C. et al

in Theoretical & Applied Genetics = Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik (2003), 107(4),

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See detailDistinction by micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrical analysis of copper phthalocyanine blue polymorphs in oil-based and acrylic samples
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Learner, Tom et al

in Van den berg, K.J.; Burnstock, A.; de Tagle, A. (Eds.) et al Issues in Contemporary Oil Paints (2014)

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue, commonly named phthalo blue is the most important synthetic organic blue pigment in the 20th and 21st century artists paints. Phthalo blue, which is adopted by artists ... [more ▼]

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue, commonly named phthalo blue is the most important synthetic organic blue pigment in the 20th and 21st century artists paints. Phthalo blue, which is adopted by artists since 1936, is a polymorphous pigment. Currently, the alpha, beta and epsilon CuPc polymorphs are used in artists paint formulations. The identification of the CuPc crystal form provides technical and chronological information relevant for studying artworks. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) is a very valuable technique for the detection of phthalo blue in paint layers. However, the spectral interpretation is not straightforward concerning the CuPc polymorph distinction. To overcome the problem we have previously developed a procedure combining RS and chemometrical analysis. The experimental results that we obtained have demonstrated its efficiency for predicting the CuPc crystal form in unknown paint samples. In the present work, this procedure was applied on oil-based and acrylic paints from Sam Francis’ studio and the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) Reference Collection. [less ▲]

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See detailLa distinction des biens et la propriété immobilière - Chronique de jurisprudence 2001-2008
Salvé, Arianne ULg

in Commission Université-Palais (2008), 104

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See detailLa distinction entre employés et ouvriers en droit allemand, belge, français et italien
François, Lucien ULg

Book published by Faculté de droit de Liège et Martinus Nijhoff (1963)

In the four jurisdictions, labour law has granted a different status to workers said to be "white collar" and others said to be "blue collar workers". Therefore labour law had to formulate a criterion ... [more ▼]

In the four jurisdictions, labour law has granted a different status to workers said to be "white collar" and others said to be "blue collar workers". Therefore labour law had to formulate a criterion precise enough to put each particular case in one of these two categories. This required desperate efforts because the distinction is grounded partly in real situations but also on biases which distort the perception of reality. By studying the way in which lawyers have reasoned, one can compare various ways of approaching a same problem and note the unease of these lawyers and their approach stripped of what the peculiar features through which these phenomena manifest themselves in each country may accidentally present. - Le droit du travail de ces quatre pays a donné des statuts juridiques différents aux travailleurs dits ouvriers et aux travailleurs dits employés. Il a donc dû élaborer un critère assez précis pour pouvoir ranger chaque cas individuel dans une de ces deux catégories. Effort presque désespéré parce que la distinction repose non seulement sur la différence des situations réelles, mais aussi sur des préjugés qui ont faussé la perception de la réalité. L'étude de la façon dont on a raisonné permet de comparer diverses manières d'aborder un même problème et d'apercevoir l'embarras et les méthodes des juristes dépouillés de ce que les traits particuliers par lesquels ils se manifestent dans chaque pays peuvent comporter d'accidentel. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinction entre patients bons synthetiseurs et bons absorbeurs pour optimiser le traitement hypo- cholesterolemiant.
Radermecker, Régis ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2006), 2(76), 1910-5

The inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by a statin enhances intestinal absorption of both cholesterol and various phytosterols. The atherogenic role of phytosterols, well proven in hypersitosterolemia ... [more ▼]

The inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by a statin enhances intestinal absorption of both cholesterol and various phytosterols. The atherogenic role of phytosterols, well proven in hypersitosterolemia, is now suspected in patients with premature coronary artery disease. The cholestanol/cholesterol ratio can be used as a marker of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Individuals with elevated ratio ("high absorbers") have less favourable cholesterol-lowering response and cardiovascular protection with statin therapy as compared to individuals with low ratio ("high synthesizers"). They may benefit of an adjunct therapy with phytostanols or ezetimibe, both being capable to reduce plasma concentrations of cholesterol and of phytosterols. [less ▲]

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See detailLa distinction. Réflexions au sujet de (quelques textes récents de) Nathalie Heinich
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2008)

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See detailDistinctive Anatomical Features of the Branchial Basket in four Carapidae Species (Ophidiiformi, Paracanthopterygii)
Vandewalle, Pierre ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Poulicek, Mathieu ULg et al

in European Journal of Morphology (1998), 36(3), 153-164

The present study focuses on the branchial basket in four Carapidae species: Carapus acus , Encheliophis boraborensis , Encheliophis homei and Encheliophis gracilis . The aim is to highlight the skeletal ... [more ▼]

The present study focuses on the branchial basket in four Carapidae species: Carapus acus , Encheliophis boraborensis , Encheliophis homei and Encheliophis gracilis . The aim is to highlight the skeletal and muscular features of the branchial basket, especially those that are believed to be related to their way of life and/or to be linked to the presence of primary sound-producing muscles. The space occupied by the primary sound-producing muscles between the neurocranium and the branchial basket gives rise to distinctive skeletal and muscular features. They prevent the 1st pharyngobranchials from becoming attached to the neurocranium in the normal way. These do not seem to play any role in the suspension of the upper pharyngeal jaws, as it is usually the case in teleosteans. The 1st epibranchials are separated from the 2nd pharyngobranchials. Ossified interarcual elements jointed to the 2nd pharyngobranchials and 1st epibranchials are found in the position usually occupied by the latter. The presence of primary sound-producing muscles gives rise to the need for the reorganisation of the musculature which is seen in particular with regards to the levatores branchiales. These are not found on the neurocranium but on the hyomandibular. The general skeletal and muscular data and the observations of the stomach contents suggest that the action of the branchial basket is restricted to carrying food in Carapus acus , Encheliophis boraborensis and Encheliophis homei , whereas it could also play a role in the work of cutting up soft food in Encheliophis gracilis . [less ▲]

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See detailDistinctive aspects of laboratory testing to evaluate mineral and bone metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease
Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cheriet, Sarah; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

in Joint Bone Spine (2012), 79(suppl 2), 99-103

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See detailA distinctive marginal marine palynological assemblage from the Pridoli of Northwestern Saudi Arabia
Al-Hajri, S.; Verniers, J.; Paris, F. et al

Conference (2008)

This paper describes a rare occurrence of a rich and diverse palynological assemblage from a controversial stratigraphic unit in well EW8 in northwestern Saudi Arabia. The composition of this assemblage ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a rare occurrence of a rich and diverse palynological assemblage from a controversial stratigraphic unit in well EW8 in northwestern Saudi Arabia. The composition of this assemblage strongly suggests a Pridoli age and therefore it is referred here to the Tawil Formation. The assemblage encountered contains very characteristic chitinozoans, acritarchs, tasmanities, scolecodontsm, eurypterid cuticle and common land-derived miospores and hilate cryptospores. Chitinozoans such as Margachitina elegans, Ancyrochitina fragilis brevis, Ancyrochitina fragilis, Sphaerochitina sphaerocephala, Urnochitina urna, Pseudochlathrochitina carmenchui and Lagenochitina brevicollis confer the Pridoli age assignment. This assemblage of chitinozoans correlates very well with Assemblage D from the Alternances Gréso-Argileuses Formation of the A1-61 well in northwestern Libya. Among the acritarchs present are: Cymbosphaeridium pilar, Leoniella carminae,Diexallophasis spp., Tunisphaeridium cf caudatum, Leiofusa estrecha and Eupoikilofusa striatifera. <br /> <br />Furthermore, the join occurrence of U. urna, P. carmenchui and M. elegans is clearly indicative of the middle part of the Pridoli as in the Libyan well A1-61, and in many wells in Algeria. This corresponds to what is considered to be a transgressive mid Pridoli event in the Algerian Sahara, with non marine intervals bracketing this brief marine sea level rise. This event is likely to have extended into all of north Gondwana including Arabia. [less ▲]

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