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See detailEndocrine disruptors: A relevant issue for neuroendocrinology also!
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Levine, Jon E.

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2014), 35(1), 1

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See detailEndocrine effects of castration followed by androgen replacement and ACTH injections in the male domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.).
Deviche, P.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Heyns, W. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (1980), 41(1), 53-61

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See detailEndocrine factors and AMPKα1 are involved in the spread of hatch and subsequent neonatal performance of broiler chicks
Wang, Yufeng; Li, Yue; Willems, Els et al

Poster (2012)

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See detailEndocrine Incidentalomas : Pituitary
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2007, May)

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See detailThe endocrine milieu and CD4 T-lymphocyte polarization during pregnancy
Polese, Barbara ULg; Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Arakioti, Eleni et al

in Frontiers in Endocrinology (2014), 5(Article 106), 1-11

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has ... [more ▼]

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has been expanded to include CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Pregnancy hormones exert very significant modulatory properties on the maternal immune system. In this review, we describe mechanisms by which the endocrine milieu modulates CD4 T cell polarization during pregnancy. We first focused on Treg and Th17 cells and on their importance for pregnancy. Secondly, we review the effects of pregnancy hormones [progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2)] on immune cells previously described, with a particular attention to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The importance of Treg cells for pregnancy is evidenced. They are recruited before implantation and are essential for pregnancy maintenance. Decreased number or less efficient Treg cells are implicated in fertility disorders. As for Th17 cells, the few available studies suggest that they have a negative impact on fertility. Th17 frequency is increased in infertile patients. With the combination of its pro-effects on Th2 and Treg cells and anti-effects on Th1 and Th17 cells, P4 contributes to establishment of a favorable environment for pregnancy. E2 effects are more dependent on the context but it seems that E2 promotes Treg and Th2 cells while it inhibits Th1 cells. hCG positively influences activities of Treg and uterine natural killer cells. This embryo signal is an essential actor for the success of pregnancy, both as the endocrine factor regulating P4 secretion by the ovarian corpus luteum, but also as a paracrine agent during implantation as well as an angiogenic and immunologic mediator during the course of gestation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) immune properties begin to be studied but its positive impact on Treg cells suggests that LH could be a considerable immunomodulator in the mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine patterns following trenbolone acetate-zeranol and trenbolone acetate-oestradiol implantation in beef cattle
Fabry, Jules; Renaville, Robert ULg; Halleux, Vincent et al

in Journal of Animal Science (1983), 57(supll 1), 334-335

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See detailEndocrine profiles, haematology and pregnancy outcomes of late pregnant Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls giving a high or low incidence of stillbirth
Kornmatitsuk, B.; Dahl, E.; Ropstad, E. et al

in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (2004), 45(1-2), 47-68

The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of ... [more ▼]

The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of stillbirth are unknown. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate possible causes of stillbirth and to study possible physiological markers for predicting stillbirth. Twenty Swedish Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls with breeding values for a high risk of stillbirth (n = 12) (experimental group) and a low risk of stillbirth (n = 8) (control group, group B) were selected based on information in the Swedish A1-data base. The experimental group consisted of 2 subgroups of heifers (groups A1 and A2) inseminated with 2 different bulls with 3.5% and 9% higher stillbirth rates than the average, and the control group consisted of heifers pregnant with 5 different bulls with 0%-6% lower stillbirth rates than the average. The bull used for group A1 had also calving difficulties due to large calves as compared to the bull in group A2 showing no calving difficulties. The heifers were supervised from 6-7 months of pregnancy up to birth, and the pregnancies and parturitions were compared between groups regarding hormonal levels, haematology, placental characteristics and calf viability. In group A1, 1 stillborn, 1 weak and 4 normal calves were recorded. In group A2, 2 stillborn and 4 normal calves were registered. All animals in the control group gave birth to a normal living calf without any assistance. The weak calf showed deviating profiles of body temperature, saturated oxygen and heart rates, compared with the normal living calves. No differences of the placentome thickness, measured in vivo by Ultrasonography were seen between the groups. The number of leukocytes and differential cell counts in groups A1 and A2 followed the profiles found in the control group. In group A1, a slight decrease of oestrone sulphate (E1S04) levels was found in the animal delivering a stillborn calf from the first 24-h blood sampling at 6 weeks to the second at 3 weeks prior to delivery, while the levels of E1S04 at both periods in the animal delivering a weak calf followed the profile in animals delivering a normal living calf. During late pregnancy and at the time of parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals delivering a stillborn or weak calf (from group A1) followed the normal profiles found in animals delivering a normal living calf. In group A2, low levels of E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) over 24 h at both 3 and 6 weeks prior to parturition (<1.5 nmol/L) were recorded in animals delivering a stillborn calf During late pregnancy and parturition, the levels of E1SO4 and PAGs were slightly lower during 30-50 days prior to delivery and increased with a lower magnitude at the time of parturition. In conclusion, our results indicate that the aetiology behind stillbirth varies depending on the AI-bulls used and is associated with dystocia or low viability of the calves. Deviating profiles of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in animals delivering a stillborn calf not caused by dystocia were observed, suggesting placental dysfunction as a possible factor. The finding suggests that the analyses of E1SO4 and PAGs could be used for monitoring foetal well-being in animals with a high risk of stillbirth at term. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine regulation of hepatic somatomedin C (IGF1) production in young calves
Coxam, V.; Davicco, M. J.; Opmeer, F. et al

in Fetal & Neonatal Development (1988)

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See detailEndocrine regulation of postpartum ovarian activity in cattle: a review
Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (1986), 26(6), 1219-1239

The problem of postpartum anoestrus is a real one because it results in prolongation of the time between calvings. The interval between the calving and resumption of cyclic ovarian activity depends on ... [more ▼]

The problem of postpartum anoestrus is a real one because it results in prolongation of the time between calvings. The interval between the calving and resumption of cyclic ovarian activity depends on several factors, i.e., amount of feeding before and after parturition, level of milk yield, age of the animal, calving difficulty, presence of a bull in the herd, season and its photoperiodism and particularly the suckling or lactating status of the cow. The anoestrus period is longer in suckled cows (30 to 110 days) than in milked cattle (20 to 70 days). The physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is still far from clear. Nevertheless, some events are very well demonstrated. The pulsatile release of LH and GnRH and the pituitary sensitivity to GnRH increase gradually after calving. They are inhibited by suckling, which acts more on LH and GnRH release than on their synthesis. Suckling or the presence of a calf can exercise its action via oestrogens. Suckling inhibits oestrogen synthesis by follicular cells and diminishes their feed-back positive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The suckling effect depends on oestrogen concentrations and on time after calving. The progressive LH release induces the synthesis of progesterone. After calving, the first luteal phase is shorter and the progesterone plasma concentrations are lower than what is observed during a normal cycle. Amongst some hypotheses proposed, premature luteolysis induced by uterine prostaglandins offers a new and very interesting field of research related to the utero-ovarian relationship after calving. The effects of FSH, prolactin and glucocorticoids hormones are much less understood. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine study of social behaviour in Oreochromis aureus.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Skoufas, G.; Byamungu, N. et al

Poster (1993)

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See detailEndocrine, paracrine and autocrine factors in the maturation and functional development of the testis
Closset, Jean ULg; Dombrowicz, David; Vandenbroeck, Marc et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1989), 144(1-2), 196-7

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See detailEndocrine-disrupting chemicals : an Endocrine Society scientific statement
Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Giudice, Linda C. et al

in Endocrine Reviews (2009), 30(4), 293-342

There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone ... [more ▼]

There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control or reproduction. In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society, we present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology. Results from animal models, human clinical observations, and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health. The mechanisms of EDCs involve divergent pathways including (but not limited to) estrogenic, antiandrogenic, thyroid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, retinoid, and actions through other nuclear receptors; steroidogenic enzymes; neurotransmitter receptors and systems; and many other pathways that are highly conserved in wildlife and humans, and which can be modeled in laboratory in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, EDCs represent a broad class of molecules such as organochlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals, plastics and plasticizers, fuels, and many other chemicals that are present in the environment or are in widespread use. We make a number of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clinical research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrinologie 2011: cliniques
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg

Learning material (2011)

Endocrinologie 2011 : Cas Cliniques D r H Valdes-Socin. Chef de Clinique. CHU de Liège. Clinicien-Chercheur FNRS Ce cours d’Endocrinologie 2011 est destiné aux étudiants de Médecine de l’Ulg de 3ème et ... [more ▼]

Endocrinologie 2011 : Cas Cliniques D r H Valdes-Socin. Chef de Clinique. CHU de Liège. Clinicien-Chercheur FNRS Ce cours d’Endocrinologie 2011 est destiné aux étudiants de Médecine de l’Ulg de 3ème et 4ème années de Master. Les objectifs de ce cours sont de favoriser chez les élèves, l’intégration de leurs aptitudes en Sémiologie, Clinique, Pathologie et Thérapeutique, à partir de cas cliniques réels, vus en consultation. Le premier cas est celui d’une femme de 22 ans avec hirsutisme et prise de poids progressive. L’examen physique confirme l’hirsutisme, à partir d’un score de Ferriman-Gallwey >15. Ce score élevé suggère la nécessité d’approfondir les explorations endocriniennes et rechercher notamment une source ovarienne et/ou surrénalienne de sécrétion d’androgènes. Une hyperandrogénie est retrouvée, avec un rapport LH/FSH élevé, suggérant un syndrome d’ovaires mycropolykistiques ; L’écho ovarien confirme cette présomption. Une prise en charge diététique est proposée, avec éviction de sucre rapides et un fractionnement des repas. En outre, un traitement par metformine, est instauré, afin d’améliorer la sensibilité à l’insuline. La prescription d’une pilule avec effet anti androgène est également à discuter. Les étudiants sont ensuite confrontés à plusieurs cas de patients dont l’aspect est évocateur d’un hirsutisme (acromégalie, cushing, hyperplasie de surrénale) ou d’une hypertrichose idiopathique. Le deuxième cas est celui d’une femme de 50 ans qui consulte pour asthénie, frilosité et prise de poids. L’examen physique met en évidence une pâleur cutanée. Le bilan biologique met en évidence une élévation de la TSH et un effondrement T3 et T4, associées à la présence d’autoanticorps anti-TPO. Il y a une anémie macrocytaire et une hypergastrinémie, associée à la présence d’autoanticorps dirigés contre la muqueuse gastrique. L’association d’une Thyroïdite de Hashimoto et d’une anémie de Biermer sur Gastrite auto-immune sera discutée. Dans notre expérience, ce syndrome, mieux connu comme syndrome Thyro-Gastrique, est présent dans plus de 10% des cas avec hypothyroïdie auto-immune. Il faut le différencier d’emblée des polyendocrinopathies auto-immunes (de type 1, 2 ou 3), plus rares. Sa reconnaissance précoce permet au clinicien d‘éviter une polynévrite ou une anémie par carence en vit B12. A partir d’une bonne surveillance gastroentérologique il sera évité, dans certains cas, la survenue d’une tumeur carcinoïde de l’estomac. (1-3) Le troisième cas clinique est celui d’une femme de 45 ans avec perte de poids. L’examen physique met en évidence une pigmentation de la peau et des muqueuses, une hypotension. Le bilan biologique met en évidence une élévation de l’ACTH et un effondrement du cortisol plasmatique. Il y a une atrophie des glandes surrénaliennes au CT scanner abdominal. Nous discuterons du syndrome d’Addison et de la nécessité d’une thérapeutique efficace, axée sur les différents glucocorticoides (hydrocortisone, dexaméthasone) et minéralocorticoïde (alfa fludrocortisone). L’association avec d’autres maladies autoimmunes endocriniennes doit être activement recherchée au diagnostic ainsi que le long du suivi du patient (polyendocrinopathies auto-immunes). Le quatrième volet de l’exposé est dédié à la reconnaissance, à travers l’examen physique, des formes congénitales de l’hypogonadisme, notamment chez le garçon. Nous conclurons en expliquant les différents mécanismes génétiques du syndrome de Kallmann, des mutations des sous unité beta des gonadotrophines (4-5) et du système kisspeptine-récepteur. Plus tôt le diagnostic d’hypogonadisme génétique sera posé, meilleures seront les chances de fertilité et la réponse au traitement de ce type de patients. (6) Références 1. H Valdes-Socin, L Lutteri, A Latta, L Vroonen, D Betea, P Petrossians, V Geenen, A Beckers. Prévalence de gastrite auto-immune et études histologiques dans une série prospective de 240 patients avec thyroïdite de Hashimoto. In XXVII Congrès de la SFE Abstract book. Annales d’Endocrinologie (Paris) 2010. 2. BES Award. Prix “Young Investigator” de la Société Belge d'Endocrinologie pour le travail: The Thyro-Gastric syndrome: its prevalence, clinical, pathological and predictive factors in a prospective series of 360 patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Abstract book. Belgian Endocrine Society (Louvain) 2011 Authors: Monica Tome Garcia, H Valdes-Socin. L Lutteri, Daniela Betea , L Vroonen P Petrossians, Vincent Geenen, Edouard Louis , A Beckers. Presented by Dr M Tome Garcia. 3. H Valdés-Socin, V Niarou, S Vandeva, L Bosquée, A Beckers. Syndromes paranéoplasiques endocriniens : diagnostic et prise en charge. Revue Médicale Suisse. Aout 2009 26;5(214):1668-74. 4. H Valdes-Socin, R Salvi , A Thiry, AF. Daly, F P. Pralong, R Gaillard, A Beckers. Testicular effects of isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency and reversal by long-term human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan;94(1):3-4. 5. H Valdes-Socin, R Salvi, A Daly, F Pralong, R Gaillard R and A Beckers. Hypogonadism in a patient with a mutation in the luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene.N Engl J Med. 2004 Dec 16;351(25):2619-25 6. H. Valdes-Socin , F.G. Debray, A.S. Parent, M.C. Lebrethon, J.P. Bourguignon, V. Bours A. Beckers. Comment je diagnostique un hypogonadisme hypogonadotrope congénital isolé? Rev Med Liège Rev Med Liege. 2010 Nov;65(11):634-41. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrinologie de la gestation chez les ruminants: les protéines placentaires
Zarrouk, Anissa; Remy, Benoît ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

The two main groups of placental proteins of ruminants are related in this paper: Placental lactogens and Pregnancy-Specific (-Associated) Proteins. Placental lactogens belong to the prolactin and growth ... [more ▼]

The two main groups of placental proteins of ruminants are related in this paper: Placental lactogens and Pregnancy-Specific (-Associated) Proteins. Placental lactogens belong to the prolactin and growth hormone family. They stimulate mammogenesis, fetal growth hormone family. They stimulate mammogenesis, fetal growth and maternal metabolism. Pregnancy-Specific proteins and Pregnancy-Associated glycoproteins belong to the aspartic proteinase family as pepsine, cathepsine D, E. These two groups of proteins are secreted in the maternal circulation by the binucleate cells after their migration to and fusion with the uterine cells. Their profiles were determined through RIA. Further investigations are in progress to rely secretory profiles with alterations of the trophoblastic function as occuring in embryonic mortality, abortion, fetal distress... [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrinologie en 2010:endocrinopathies autoimmunes, syndromes paranéoplasiques endocriniens et nouvelles causes d'hypopituitarisme
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg

Learning material (2010)

Ce cours d’Endocrinologie est destiné aux étudiants de Médecine de l’Ulg de 3ème et 4ème années de Master. Les objectifs de ce cours sont de favoriser chez les élèves, à partir de cas cliniques réels vus ... [more ▼]

Ce cours d’Endocrinologie est destiné aux étudiants de Médecine de l’Ulg de 3ème et 4ème années de Master. Les objectifs de ce cours sont de favoriser chez les élèves, à partir de cas cliniques réels vus en consultation, l’intégration de leurs aptitudes en Sémiologie, Clinique, Pathologie et Thérapeutique. Le premier cas est celui d’une femme de 75 ans qui consulte pour asthénie, frilosité et constipation. Le bilan biologique met en évidence une hypercholestérolémie, une anémie macrocytaire régénérative et une hypothyroïdie autoimmune. L’anémie macrocytaire est également explorée ,conduisant au diagnostic de déficit en vitamine B12 sur gastrite auto-immune. L’association de Thyroïdite de Hashimoto et Anémie de Biermer sur Gastrite auto-immune sera discutée. Dans notre expérience, ce syndrome, mieux connu comme syndrome ThyroGastrique, est présent dans plus de 10% des cas avec hypothyroïdie auto-immune. Il faut le différencier d’emblée des polyendocrinopathies auto-immunes (de type 1, 2 ou 3), plus rares. Sa reconnaissance précoce permet au clinicien d‘éviter une polynévrite ou une anémie par carence en vit B12. A partir d’une bonne surveillance gastroentérologique il sera évité, dans certains cas, la survenue d’ une tumeur carcinoïde de l’estomac.(1) Le deuxième cas clinique est celui d’un patient âgé de 91 ans qui est adressé pour exploration thyroïdienne dans le cadre d’une ophtalmopathie bilatérale avec perte d’acuité visuelle. Le bilan thyroïdien permet d’exclure une maladie de Basedow. Sur base des antécédents tabagiques, une radiographie de thorax est demandée. Celle-ci retrouve une masse pulmonaire de nature néoplasique. L’ophtalmopathie s’améliore après un premier traitement par corticoïdes, puis régresse après le traitement par radiothérapie de la tumeur pulmonaire. Ce sont des arguments en faveur d’une ophtalmopathie paranéoplasique. Cette ophtalmopathie est probablement d’étiologie autoi-immune, vu la réponse aux corticoïdes et à la radiothérapie. Le troisième cas clinique est celui d’une gynécomastie survenant chez un homme fumeur. Il s’agit également d’une manifestation paranéoplasique associée à une hypersécrétion de hCG, avec altération de la balance testostérone/oestrogènes. Le traitement chimiothérapique de la tumeur pulmonaire à petites cellules, s’accompagne d’une régression de la gynécomastie et d’une normalisation des taux plasmatiques de hCG chez le patient. Nous discuterons de l’intérêt diagnostique et thérapeutique d’une prise en charge adéquate des syndromes paranéoplasiques endocriniens.(2) Le quatrième cas est celui d’un triatloniste sur son vélo qui est renversé dans la voie publique. Il subit un polytraumatisme avec traumatisme crânien (traumatic brain injury ou TBI) sévère. Après de multiples hospitalisations avec épisodes de sepsis et hypotension, une insuffisance surrénalienne est suspectée. Une exploration endocrinienne approfondie conduit à diagnostiquer un panhypopituitarisme. Le traitement de l’hypopituitarisme avec substitution en hormones thyroïdiennes, testostérone, hydrocortisone et hormone de croissance améliore la revalidation et la qualité de vie du patient par la suite. Il sera discuté la prévalence du TBI en Belgique, la méconnaissance des complications endocriniennes après traumatisme crânien et les critères de dépistage actuels (3). Le dernier cas est celui d’une fille de 8 ans avec une leucémie lymphoblastique aigue. Elle est traitée par une greffe de moelle et par une radiothérapie crânienne prophylactique de 24 Gy. Au cours de l’adolescence il est observé un retard de croissance associé à une hypothyroïdie centrale, qui est traitée. La patiente est déclarée en rémission de sa leucémie et plus aucun suivi endocrinien est assuré. A l’âge de 30 ans on observe une ménopause précoce. Un hypopituitarisme est diagnostiqué et traité. Nous discuterons sur le revers des traitements oncologiques, avec notamment les complications neuroendocriniennes chez les survivants à un cancer. La physiopathologie de l’hypopituitarisme post radique sera également développée. Nous conclurons avec le concept récent que les troubles neuroendocriniens sont fréquents chez les survivants à un cancer et que des néoplasies secondaires sont possibles. Le suivi du patient oncologique nécessite ainsi d’une surveillance étroite de son médecin généraliste, de l’équipe oncologique et de l’endocrinologue. (4) Références 1. H Valdes-Socin, L Lutteri, A Latta, L Vroonen, D Betea, P Petrossians, V Geenen, A Beckers. Prévalence de gastrite auto-immune et études histologiques dans une série prospective de 240 patients avec thyroïdite de Hashimoto. In XXVII Congrès de la SFE Abstract book. Annales d’Endocrinologie (Paris) 2010. 2. H Valdés-Socin, V Niarou, S Vandeva, L Bosquée, A Beckers. Syndromes paranéoplasiques endocriniens : diagnostic et prise en charge. Revue Médicale Suisse. Aout 2009 26;5(214):1668-74. 3. H Valdes-Socin, L Vroonen, P Robe, D Martin, A Beckers. Hypopituitarisme consécutive aux dommages cérébraux: le trauma crânien et l’hémorragie sous-arachnoïdienne mis en cause. Rev Med Liège 2009 ;64(9),457-464. 4. H Valdés-Socin, MC Lebrethon, Y Beguin, M F Dresse, A Beckers. Troubles neuroendocriniens chez les survivants à un cancer : le revers de la médaille du traitement oncologique. Editions IPSEN, 2010 ; 1-18. 5. H Valdés-Socin, V Niarou, S Vandeva, L Bosquée, A Beckers. Syndromes paranéoplasiques endocriniens : diagnostic et prise en charge. Revue Médicale Suisse. Aout 2009 26;5(214):1668-74. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrinologie et immunologie au service des productions animales.
Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Burny, A.; Renaville, Robert ULg

in Agricontact (1997), (290),

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See detailEndocrinologie et vieillissement
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2012, February 10)

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See detailEndocrinology of normal and pathological development of the prostate
Bonnet, Pierre ULg; Bouffioux, Christian ULg

in Jakse, G.; Bouffioux, Christian; de Leval, Jean (Eds.) et al Benign prostatic hyperplasia: Conservative and Operative Management (1992)

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See detailEndocrinology of pregnancy and early pregnancy detection by reproductive hormones in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)
Ropstad, E.; Veiberg, V.; Sakkinen, H. et al

in Theriogenology (2005), 63(6), 1775-1788

The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood ... [more ▼]

The endocrinology was studied throughout pregnancy in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) located in Oulu, Finland (65 degrees N, 25 degrees E) with 13 captive, semi domestic adult females. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma progesterone (P4), estradiol (E,) and estrone sulphate (E1SO4), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PG-metabolite) and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG). The mean plasma P4 concentration peaked twice during gestation: at around 24 and three weeks prior to calving. In pregnant females the plasma PAG concentration increased over basal concentrations 21-30 days after the estimated day of conception and peaked at the time of calving. The concentrations of E, and E1SO4 remained low until 60 days before calving when a rapid increase was found for both hormones. The mean plasma concentration of PG-metabolite increased throughout pregnancy to a maximum at parturition. The estimated mean (range) gestation length was 216 (212-220) days. Judged from measures on reproductive organs collected from 86 free-ranging, semi-domestic female reindeer of unknown age presented for slaughter at Roros, Norway (63 degrees N, 11 degrees E) in the second week of December 1999, it was concluded that the breeding season lasted from early September until the end of November. The results also showed that plasma PAG concentration could provide a tool for detection of pregnancy in reindeer [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrinology of pregnancy in the cow: embryonic signals, placental hormones and proteins
Ayad, A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 212-226

The development, the establishment and the embryonic survival at early stages of gestation are depending on an intimate dialogue between the embryo and his mother. For the embryo part, it is especially ... [more ▼]

The development, the establishment and the embryonic survival at early stages of gestation are depending on an intimate dialogue between the embryo and his mother. For the embryo part, it is especially the trophoblast, or the future placenta, which plays a key role in initializing pregnancy. The placenta emits many signals of various chemical natures ( steroids, prostaglandins, peptides, proteins), some of them, e. g. the interferon tau, determine the maintenance of the corpus luteum at the beginning of gestation. Until now, although having raised many speculations, the earliest of these signals were not identified in peripheral circulation. Consequently, they cannot be used as a pregnancy diagnosis or to indicate embryonic mortality. However, since the eighties, the specific proteins "associated with pregnancy", produced by the trophoblastic cells are used as tool for breeding management. Most of these molecules are present in peripheral circulation. In this review, we will describe the major mechanisms associated with the maternal recognition of the gestation and their possible applications as pregnancy diagnosis tool in the cow. [less ▲]

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