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See detailElectrochemistry of lanthanum and uranium chlorides in organic media: Deposition of lanthanum and uranium
Martinot, Lucien; Lopes, L.; Marien, José ULg et al

in Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry (2002), 253(3), 407-412

Molten salts have been widely used for the electrochemical preparation of lanthanum and uranium metals at high temperature. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a similar process in ... [more ▼]

Molten salts have been widely used for the electrochemical preparation of lanthanum and uranium metals at high temperature. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a similar process in dimethylformamide (DMF) and in the mixture gamma-butyrolactone/tetrahydrofuran (gamma-BL/THF) The best conditions for the preparation were deduced from preliminary transient electrochemistry experiments and from secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements involving SIMS mappings and SIMS depth profile analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and a non polymerizable analogue
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Kroonen, D.; Mertens, Marc et al

in Polymer (1998), 39(1), 23-29

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the ... [more ▼]

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the pyrrolidone substituent of N-VP is also involved in the anodic reaction in addition to the polymerizable vinyl double bond. This additional reaction in the potential range of interest was confirmed by the electrochemical oxidation of a non polymerizable analogue of N-VP, i.e. N-methylpyrrolidone. Therefore, at least two mechanisms can contribute to the electrodeposition of a polymer film in a solvent of poly N-VP: electrografting and polymer branching and/or crosslinking by species stemming from the electrooxidation of the pyrrolidone rings. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochromic TiO2, ZrO2 and TiO2-ZrO2 thin films by dip-coating method
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : B (2009), 165(3), 212-216

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing ... [more ▼]

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing temperatures were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Electrochromic behavior of the three kind materials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the basic electrochromic characteristics were determined. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis.
Bailleul, Benjamin; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Breyton, Cecile et al

in Photosynthesis Research (2010), 106(1-2), 179-89

In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an ... [more ▼]

In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient (Deltamu(H)(+)), which comprises a gradient of electric potential (DeltaPsi) and of proton concentration (DeltapH). The Deltamu(H)(+) has a central role in the photosynthetic process, providing the energy source for ATP synthesis. It is also involved in many regulatory mechanisms. The DeltapH modulates the rate of electron transfer and triggers deexcitation of excess energy within the light harvesting complexes. The DeltaPsi is required for metabolite and protein transport across the membranes. Its presence also induces a shift in the absorption spectra of some photosynthetic pigments, resulting in the so-called ElectroChromic Shift (ECS). In this review, we discuss the characteristic features of the ECS, and illustrate possible applications for the study of photosynthetic processes in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic
Zodi, Salim; Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Michon, Clémence et al

in Separation & Purification Technology (2011), 81

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current ... [more ▼]

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150 A/m2). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of the aromaticity of the treated effluent. The process was also very efficient for the removal of lignin-based pollution, characterized by the fluorescence of humic substances. Arsenic was selected as an example of a non-organic micropollutant and was also satisfactorily removed (from 4 to 0.5 lg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained after the electrocoagulation treatment were also evaluated. The sludge aptitude to settling is better with Fe electrodes than with Al electrodes. The experimental results obtained in the present study indicate that electrocoagulation treatment can be very effective and was capable of improving the paper mill wastewaters’ quality downstream of the biological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic
Zodi, Salim; Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Michon, Clémence et al

in Separation & Purification Technology (2011), 81

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current ... [more ▼]

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150 A/m 2 ). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of aromaticity of the treated effluent. The process was also very efficient for the removal of lignin-based pollution, characterized by the fluorescence of humic substances. Arsenic was selected as an example non-organic micropollutant and was also satisfactorily removed (from 4 to 0.5 lg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained after the electrocoagulation treatment were also evaluated. The sludge aptitude to settling is better with Fe electrodes than with Al electrodes. The experimental results obtained in the present study indicate that electrocoagulation treatment can be very effective and capable of improving the paper mill wastewaters’ quality downstream of the biological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailElectroconvulsive therapy for depression in a patient with an intracranial arachnoid cyst.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Thiry, Jean-Christophe; Monville, Jean-Francois et al

in Journal of ECT (2009), 25(1), 64-6

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been frequently considered relatively contraindicated in patients with space-occupying lesions in the brain. After the 7 cases available in the literature, we describe ... [more ▼]

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been frequently considered relatively contraindicated in patients with space-occupying lesions in the brain. After the 7 cases available in the literature, we describe the safe use of ECT in a depressive patient with arachnoid cyst. We provide a comprehensive review on this clinical association, and we conclude that even if the few data available are reassuring, careful neurological evaluation before the ECT treatment is indicated. [less ▲]

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See detailL'électroconvulsivothérapie en 2008.
Servais, Sophie ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Mikolajczak, Gladys ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

L’électroconvulsivothérapie (anciennement dénommée sismothérapie, électronarcose ou électrochoc) est une technique thérapeutique utilisée dans certaines affections psychiatriques. Elle consiste en la ... [more ▼]

L’électroconvulsivothérapie (anciennement dénommée sismothérapie, électronarcose ou électrochoc) est une technique thérapeutique utilisée dans certaines affections psychiatriques. Elle consiste en la réalisation d’une crise convulsive généralisée induite par le passage d’un courant électrique transcrânien. S’il est vrai que cette méthode continue de stigmatiser l’imaginaire collectif en suscitant effroi et méfiance (modèle de barbarie thérapeutique pour certains, traitement obsolète pour d’autres), elle se révèle, au contraire, être un traitement souvent très efficace, dans certains cas irremplaçable, et dans l’ensemble très bien toléré. Ainsi, ces dernières années ont vu un regain d’intérêt pour l’ECT. Elle constitue, aujourd’hui, la plus ancienne des somathérapies psychiatriques toujours en vigueur. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrodeposition of metals and magnetic alloys onto conducting polymeric substrates
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Licour, C. et al

in Journal De Chimie Physique Et De Physico-Chimie Biologique (1998), 95(6), 1491-1493

A new composite material prepared by mixing polycarbonate with carbon black has been tested as new kind of cathode, This material has been compared with a conducting polymer precipitated onto ... [more ▼]

A new composite material prepared by mixing polycarbonate with carbon black has been tested as new kind of cathode, This material has been compared with a conducting polymer precipitated onto polycarbonate, both in aqueous and organic solutions. We report some examples of electrodeposition of magnetic alloys (Lanthanides/Transition metals) in Formamide, In this medium, the use of thin polypyrrole films cathodes had remained impossible, The preparation of amorphous and magnetic alloys onto PC/carbon black is evidenced by RES. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrodeposition of mixed adherent thin films of poly(ethyl acrylate) and polyacrylonitrile onto nickel
Baute, Noëlle; Geskin, Victor M; Lazzaroni, Roberto et al

in e-Polymers (2004), (63), 1-20

Adherent thin polymer films have been prepared by sequential electrodeposition of ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel. Their composition has been studied by IR spectroscopy and time of ... [more ▼]

Adherent thin polymer films have been prepared by sequential electrodeposition of ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel. Their composition has been studied by IR spectroscopy and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry. Morphology and thickness have been analyzed by atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry, respectively, and compared to single component films of PEA and PAN. No microphase separation was detected in the mixed PEA/PAN films. These show a granular morphology comparable to that of PAN films. The grains contain the two constitutive polymers, as confirmed by the selective thermal degradation of PEA. [less ▲]

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See detailElectroencephalogram approximate entropy influenced by both age and sleep
Lee, Gerick; Fattinger, Sara; Mouthon, Anne-Laure et al

in Frontiers in Neuroinformatics (2013), 7(33),

The use of information-based measures to assess changes in conscious state is an increasingly popular topic. Though recent results have seemed to justify the merits of such methods, little has been done ... [more ▼]

The use of information-based measures to assess changes in conscious state is an increasingly popular topic. Though recent results have seemed to justify the merits of such methods, little has been done to investigate the applicability of such measures to children. For our work, we used the approximate entropy (ApEn), a measure previously shown to correlate with changes in conscious state when applied to the electroencephalogram (EEG), and sought to confirm whether previously reported trends in adult ApEn values across wake and sleep were present in children. Besides validating the prior findings that ApEn decreases from wake to sleep (including wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep) in adults, we found that previously reported ApEn decreases across vigilance states in adults were also present in children (ApEn trends for both age groups: wake > REM sleep > non-REM sleep). When comparing ApEn values between age groups, adults had significantly larger ApEn values than children during wakefulness. After the application of an 8 Hz high-pass filter to the EEG signal, ApEn values were recalculated. The number of electrodes with significant vigilance state effects dropped from all 109 electrodes with the original 1 Hz filter to 1 electrode with the 8 Hz filter. The number of electrodes with significant age effects dropped from 10 to 4. Our results support the notion that ApEn can reliably distinguish between vigilance states, with low-frequency sleep-related oscillations implicated as the driver of changes between vigilance states. We suggest that the observed differences between adult and child ApEn values during wake may reflect differences in connectivity between age groups, a factor which may be important in the use of EEG to measure consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailElectroencephalographic profiles for differentiation of disorders of consciousness.
Malinowska, U; Chatelle, Camille ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in BioMedical Engineering OnLine (2013), 12

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is best suited for long-term monitoring of brain functions in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Mathematical tools are needed to facilitate efficient ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is best suited for long-term monitoring of brain functions in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Mathematical tools are needed to facilitate efficient interpretation of long-duration sleep-wake EEG recordings. METHODS: Starting with matching pursuit (MP) decomposition, we automatically detect and parametrize sleep spindles, slow wave activity, K-complexes and alpha, beta and theta waves present in EEG recordings, and automatically construct profiles of their time evolution, relevant to the assessment of residual brain function in patients with DOC. RESULTS: Above proposed EEG profiles were computed for 32 patients diagnosed as minimally conscious state (MCS, 20 patients), vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS, 11 patients) and Locked-in Syndrome (LiS, 1 patient). Their interpretation revealed significant correlations between patients' behavioral diagnosis and: (a) occurrence of sleep EEG patterns including sleep spindles, slow wave activity and light/deep sleep cycles, (b) appearance and variability across time of alpha, beta, and theta rhythms. Discrimination between MCS and VS/UWS based upon prominent features of these profiles classified correctly 87 % of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Proposed EEG profiles offer user-independent, repeatable, comprehensive and continuous representation of relevant EEG characteristics, intended as an aid in differentiation between VS/UWS and MCS states and diagnostic prognosis. To enable further development of this methodology into clinically usable tests, we share user-friendly software for MP decomposition of EEG (http://braintech.pl/svarog) and scripts used for creation of the presented profiles (attached to this article). [less ▲]

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See detailL'électroencéphalographie dans l'étude de la conscience
Cologan, Victor ULg

Conference (2010, March 17)

Présentation au grand public de l'étude électrophysiologique du patient cérébrolésé, en particulier par les techniques d'électroencéphalographie.

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See detailElectroencéphalographie du prématuré et du nouveau-né à terme
Dubru, Jean-Marie ULg; Leroy, Patricia; Misson, Jean-Paul ULg

in Percentile (1998), 3

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See detailElectrografting and LbL deposition for the elaboration of antimicrobial coatings
Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Cécius, Michaël; Jérôme, Christine ULg

Poster (2010, November 29)

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See detailElectrografting method for forming and regulating a strong adherent nanostructured polymer coating
Jérôme, Robert ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Serwas, Harry ULg et al

Patent (2008)

Electrografting method for forming and regulating a strongly adherent nanostructured polymer coating onto an electro-conductive surface profile characterized in that the surface profile is regulated by ... [more ▼]

Electrografting method for forming and regulating a strongly adherent nanostructured polymer coating onto an electro-conductive surface profile characterized in that the surface profile is regulated by electrodeposition of nanometre- and/or micrometre-scale nuclei onto the surface profile prior to or simultaneously to the formation of the polymer coating. [less ▲]

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