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See detailThe effects of happy and angry expressions on identity and expression memory for unfamiliar faces
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Comblain, Christine et al

in Cognition & Emotion (2003), 17(4), 609-622

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were ... [more ▼]

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were made both for identity and expression memory. Results showed that faces were better recognised when presented with a happy rather than an angry expression, but only when learning was intentional. This was mainly due to an increase of the I remember" responses for happy faces when encoding was intentional rather than incidental. In contrast, memory for emotional expressions was not different for happy and angry faces whatever the encoding conditions. We interpret these findings according to the social meaning of emotional expressions for the self. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of haptoglobin polymorphisms and deficiency on susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and on severity of murine colitis.
Marquez, L.; Shen, C.; Cleynen, I. et al

in Gut (2011), 61(4), 528-534

BackgroundHaptoglobin (Hp) is a haemoglobin-binding protein with immunomodulatory properties. Its gene (16q22) harbours a common polymorphism with two different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2. Genotype Hp22 has ... [more ▼]

BackgroundHaptoglobin (Hp) is a haemoglobin-binding protein with immunomodulatory properties. Its gene (16q22) harbours a common polymorphism with two different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2. Genotype Hp22 has been shown to be over-represented in different immune diseases. Results in Crohn's disease (CD) are contradictory.AimsTo determine whether Hp plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease, both genetically and functionally.Methods1061 patients with CD, 755 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 152 with primary sclerosing cholangitis, as well as 452 healthy controls, were genotyped using touch-down PCR. To confirm association results, 464 CD trios and 151 UC trios were genotyped. Serum Hp concentrations were determined in 62 individuals of different genotype. Colitis was induced in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and oxazolone (Oxa). Cytokine production was evaluated by mRNA quantification in colonic tissue and ELISA on supernatants of mesenteric lymph node cells.ResultsPrevalence of Hp2 was higher in CD and UC than in controls. In the confirmatory cohorts, Hp2 was over-transmitted to the affected offspring. Serum Hp concentrations were higher in individuals with genotypes Hp11 and Hp21 than in those with Hp22 (1.38 vs 0.89 g/l). DSS- and Oxa-induced colitis were more severe in Hp-deficient mice than in control mice and accompanied by higher concentrations (although not statistically significantly different) of tissue mRNA for cytokines. Interleukin-17 production was significantly higher in the presence of Hp-deficient serum compared with wild-type serum.ConclusionsThe Hp gene may play a role in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Its implication in other immune diseases underscores the common pathways between these diseases. Experimental models of colitis showed that Hp has a protective role in inflammatory colitis, most likely by inhibiting the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.
Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Metayer-Coustard, S. et al

in Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology (2010), 157(3), 281-7

In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens ... [more ▼]

In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of high and low inspired fractions of oxygen on horse erythrocyte membrane properties, blood viscosity and muscle oxygenation during anaesthesia
Portier, Karine; Crouzier, David; Guichardant, Michel et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2009), 36(4), 287-298

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six ... [more ▼]

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six healthy (ASA I) geldings, aged 4.5-9.5 years and weighing 510-640 kg(-1). After 30 minutes breathing air as carrier gas for isoflurane, horses were assigned randomly to breathe air as carrier gas (CG0.21) or oxygen as carrier gas (CG1.00) for a further 90 minutes. After an interval of 1 month each horse was re-anaesthetized with the other carrier gas for the 90 minute test period. Ventilation was controlled throughout anaesthesia. Arterial blood was sampled to measure gas tensions, lactate, cholesterol, vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha), half haemolysis time, half erythrolysis time, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Muscle blood flow and oxygenation were evaluated by near infrared spectroscopy and coloured Doppler. After the first 30 minutes horses were hypoxemic. Subsequently the CG1.00 group became hyperoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 240 mmHg) whereas the CG0.21 group remained hypoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 60 mmHg) and had increased lactate concentration. No significant changes in vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, or 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) concentrations were detected. During the 90 minute test period the CG0.21 group had increased resistance to free-radical-mediated lysis in erythrocytes, whereas the CG1.00 group had slightly decreased resistance of whole blood to haemolysis. CG0.21 induced a progressive muscle deoxygenation whereas CG1.00 induced an increase in muscle oxygen saturation followed by progressive deoxygenation towards baseline. During isoflurane anaesthesia in horses, the hyperoxia induced by changing from air to oxygen induced minimal damage from reactive oxygen species. Using air as the carrier gas decreased skeletal muscle oxygenation compared with using oxygen [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of high-frequency jet ventilation on arterial baroreflex regulation of heart rate.
Rouby, J. J.; Houissa, M.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1987), 63(6), 2216-22

Fifteen anesthetized mechanically ventilated patients recovering from multiple trauma were studied to compare the effects of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and continuous positive-pressure ... [more ▼]

Fifteen anesthetized mechanically ventilated patients recovering from multiple trauma were studied to compare the effects of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV) on arterial baroreflex regulation of heart rate. Systolic arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were measured using indwelling catheters. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and mean airway pressure were continuously monitored. Lung volumes were measured using two linear differential transformers mounted on thoracic and abdominal belts. Baroreflex testing was performed by sequential intravenous bolus injections of phenylephrine (200 micrograms) and nitroglycerin (200 micrograms) to raise or lower systolic arterial pressure by 20-30 Torr. Baroreflex regulation of heart rate was expressed as the slope of the regression line between R-R interval of the ECG and systolic arterial pressure. In each mode of ventilation the ventilatory settings were chosen to control mean airway pressure and arterial PCO2 (PaCO2). In HFJV a tidal volume of 159 +/- 61 ml was administered at a frequency of 320 +/- 104 breaths/min, whereas in CPPV a tidal volume of 702 +/- 201 ml was administered at a frequency of 13 +/- 2 breaths/min. Control values of systolic arterial pressure, R-R interval, mean pulmonary volume above apneic functional residual capacity, end-expiratory pulmonary volume, right atrial pressure, mean airway pressure, PaCO2, pH, PaO2, and temperature before injection of phenylephrine or nitroglycerin were comparable in HFJV and CPPV. Baroreflex regulation of heart rate after nitroglycerin injection was significantly higher in HFJV (4.1 +/- 2.8 ms/Torr) than in CPPV (1.96 +/- 1.23 ms/Torr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of histamine H3 receptor modulators on sedative effects induced by ethanol
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 93-93

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See detailEffects of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 Proteins on Survival, Adhesion, Migration and Invasion of Trophoblastic Cells
Boulenouar, S.; Weyn, C.; Van Noppen, M. et al

in Carcinogenesis (2010), 31(3), 473-80

Amongst high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 infection is the most prevalent causative factor for cervical cancer. Beside other mucosal targets, HPV-16 was reported to infect the placenta and to ... [more ▼]

Amongst high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 infection is the most prevalent causative factor for cervical cancer. Beside other mucosal targets, HPV-16 was reported to infect the placenta and to replicate in trophoblastic cells. Since these cells share invasive properties of tumoral cells, they represent an ideal model to investigate several oncogenic processes. In the present work, we analyzed the impacts of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 oncoproteins on the trophoblastic model. Our results showed that E5 impaired the viability of trophoblastic and cervical cell lines but E6 and E7, favouring cell growth, neutralised the E5 cytotoxic effect. In addition, E5 decreased the adhesiveness of trophoblastic cells to the tissue culture plastic and to endometrial cells similarly as previously described for E6 and E7. E5 and E6 plus E7 increased also their migration and their invasive properties. Cells expressing HPV-16 early proteins under the control of the LCR endogenous promoter displayed growth advantage and were also more motile and invasive compared to control cells. Interestingly, the E-cadherin was down regulated in trophoblastic cells expressing E5, E6 and E7. NF-kB and AP-1 activities were also enhanced. In conclusion, HPV-16 early proteins enhanced trophoblastic growth and intensify the malignant phenotype by impairing cell adhesion leading to increased cellular motile and invasive properties. HPV-16 E5 participated, with E6 and E7, in these changes by impairing Ecadherin expression, a hallmark of malignant progression. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of hull modification on design parameters of medium speed monohuhll passenger ferries
Hetharia, Wolter; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Hage, André ULg

in ICSOT : Developments in ship design & construction (2012, November 01)

Developments in ship design & construction

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See detailEffects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.
Schotsmans, E. M.; Denton, J.; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg et al

in Forensic Science International (2011)

Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition ... [more ▼]

Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of hydrogen partial pressure on fermentative biohydrogen production by a chemotropic Clostridium bacterium in a new horizontal rotating cylinder reactor
Beckers, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; MAsset, Julien et al

in Energy Procedia (2012)

In order to produce fermentative biohydrogen at high yields and production rates, efficient bioreactors have to be designed. A new reactor called anaerobic biodisc reactor allowed the production of ... [more ▼]

In order to produce fermentative biohydrogen at high yields and production rates, efficient bioreactors have to be designed. A new reactor called anaerobic biodisc reactor allowed the production of biohydrogen from glucose with the selected Clostridium sp. strain at high yields (2.49 molH2•molglucose-1) and production rates (598 mlH2•medium-1•h-1). The bacteria were fixed on a rotating support enabling efficient gas transfer from the liquid to the phase. It allowed the metabolism of the bacteria to produce more hydrogen. Moreover, an increase of the total pressure 0.18 bar lowered the yields of 19.5% while a decrease of 0.11 bar increased the yields of 7%. Our work concludes on the importance of providing good liquid to gas transfers in the biohydrogen-producing reactors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of hydrogen partial pressure on fermentative biohydrogen production by a chemotropic Clostridium bacterium in a new horizontal rotating cylinder reactor
Beckers, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Hamilton, Christopher ULg et al

Poster (2011, December)

The fermentative production of hydrogen using chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria offers a new way to produce “green” energy from a large variety of renewable resources and organic wastes. In order to produce ... [more ▼]

The fermentative production of hydrogen using chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria offers a new way to produce “green” energy from a large variety of renewable resources and organic wastes. In order to produce hydrogen at high yields and production rates, efficient bioreactors must be designed. A new reactor called “horizontal rotating cylinder bioreactor” allows the production of biohydrogen from glucose with the selected Clostridium sp. strain at high yields (1,9molH2·molglucose-1) and production rates (48,6mmolH2·lmilieu-1.molhexose-1·h-1). The rotative cylinder where the bacteria are fixed enables efficient gas transfer (mainly hydrogen) from the liquid phase where it is produced by the bacteria. This is an important way to allow the bacteria metabolism to shift in a fermentation pathway that produces more hydrogen. This was confirmed by varying the total pressure in the bioreactor. An increase of the total pressure 0,18bar lowered the yields of 19,5% while a decrease of 0,11bar increased the yields of 7%. Our work concludes the importance of providing good liquid to gas transfers in the biohydrogen-producing reactors in order to reach higher yields and production rates. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Hyperchloremia on Blood Oxygen Binding in Healthy Calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Detry, B.; Beerens, Dominique ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1998), 85(4), 1267-1272

Three different levels of hyperchloremia were induced in healthy Friesian calves to study the effects of chloride on blood oxygen transport. By infusion, the calves received either 5 ml/kg of 0.9% NaCl ... [more ▼]

Three different levels of hyperchloremia were induced in healthy Friesian calves to study the effects of chloride on blood oxygen transport. By infusion, the calves received either 5 ml/kg of 0.9% NaCl (low-level hyperchloremia; group A), 5 ml/kg of 7.5% NaCl (moderate hyperchloremia; group B), or 7.5 ml/kg of 7.5% NaCl (high-level hyperchloremia; group C). Blood was sampled from the jugular vein and the brachial artery. Chloride concentration, hemoglobin content, arterial and venous pH, PCO2, and PO2 were determined. At each time point (0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min), the whole blood oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured under standard conditions. In groups B and C, hyperchloremia was accompanied by a sustained rightward shift of the OEC, as indicated by the significant increase in the standard PO2 at 50% hemoglobin saturation. Infusion of hypertonic saline also induced relative acidosis. The arterial and venous OEC were calculated, with body temperature, pH, and PCO2 values in arterial and venous blood taken into account. The degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and the venous compartments [O2 exchange fraction (OEF%)] and the amount of oxygen released at tissue level by 100 ml of bovine blood (OEF vol%) were calculated from the arterial and venous OEC combined with the PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. The chloride-induced rightward shift of the OEC was reinforced by the relative acidosis, but the altered PO2 values combined with the lower hemoglobin concentration explained the absence of any significant difference in OEF (% and vol%). We conclude that infusion of hypertonic saline induces hyperchloremia and acidemia, which can explain the OEC rightward shift observed in arterial and peripheral venous blood. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy and Diseased Animals
Cambier, Carole ULg; Ratz, V.; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(5), 303-316

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the ... [more ▼]

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the mechanisms behind the possible clinical efficacy of such treatment. The review focuses successively on haemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. How hypertonic saline solutions affect oxygen transport by haemoglobin is also considered. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of hypoxia on stress proteins in the piglet brain at birth
Chiral, M.; Grongnet, J. F.; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Pediatric Research (2004), 56(5), 775-782

Newborn piglets were submitted to normobaric hypoxia (5% O-2, 95% N-2) for either 1 or 4 h. The effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain were characterized through a time-course analysis of levels of ... [more ▼]

Newborn piglets were submitted to normobaric hypoxia (5% O-2, 95% N-2) for either 1 or 4 h. The effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain were characterized through a time-course analysis of levels of various proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSP27, 70, and 90), hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2), and caspase-3. The expression of these proteins was determined at different stages of recovery up to 72 h in cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus by Western blot analysis in hypoxic maintained animals that were made hypoxic at either 20 or 37degreesC. In all regions of the brain, HIF-1alpha and HSP27 expression were strongly increased until 22 h of recovery. No significant changes were observed for HSP70, HSP90, and HO-2. A small elevation of expression of nNOS was observed at early stages in the cerebellum and the cortex with no change in the hippocampus. Expression of caspase 3 was strongly increased in the cortex 24 and 48 h after hypoxia but unchanged in the hippocampus. These results are presented in terms of the porcine model of nonischemic hypoxia and its delayed neuronal effects on the cerebral outcome. Because of their recently established biochemical and functional interactions, the expression of the main HSPs, HIF-1alpha, OS, and caspase-3 after hypoxia are delineated. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of hypoxia on stress proteins of the piglet brain at birth
Chiral, Magali; Grongnet, Jean-François; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2003)

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See detailEffects of immunization against somatostatin on growth performances and growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor I and insulin plasma levels in young bulls.
Renaville, Robert ULg; Sneyers, M.; Massart, Serge et al

in Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale (1994), 20(4),

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See detailEffects of immunization against somatostatin on growth performances and growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and insulin plasma levels in young animals
Renaville, Robert ULg; Fernadez, J. J.; Sneyers, Myriam et al

in Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale (1994), 20

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