Does Social Innovation vary with the Organisational Form? Exploring the Diversity of Fair Trade Social Enterprises in Europe
Conference (2009, September)
A common view in the literature on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise is to highlight the fact that social innovation crosses the organizational forms. But does that social innovation should be ... [more ▼]
A common view in the literature on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise is to highlight the fact that social innovation crosses the organizational forms. But does that social innovation should be considered regardless of the organizational form? Fair Trade (FT) offers a quite interesting example of both a social innovation and a field in which diverse organizational forms coexist. My research questions are twofold: (1) what are the different types of organizational forms that underlie social innovation in the FT sector?; (2) do these different forms bring different types of social innovation? The methodology consists of interviews with the leaders of 57 Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) in four European regions: Belgium, France (Rhône-Alpes), United Kingdom (England) and Italy (Rome). The findings show that the legal forms and governance models–the two elements of the organizational form considered here–can be combined into five categories of organizational forms: individual, manager-owned business, volunteer-based, multi-stakeholder cooperative and group. These categories seem to be linked, at least to a certain extent, to the age of the FTSE and to its goals. Certain forms seem to signal a particular type of social innovation. Volunteer-based FTSEs use education and advocacy as the main channel to pursue social change at the global level, and see the partnerships with the producers in the South as a vehicle to support the former goal. Individual and business-form FTSEs focus on offering benefits to the producers through a profitable commercial activity. And multi-stakeholder cooperatives and groups generally seek to combine both types of social innovation. However, nuances exist and lead to considering the organisational form as vehicles that may serve various purposes according to the context and the entrepreneurs’ profiles. I suggest three theoretical frameworks to interpret the diversity of organizational forms and its link with the logics of social innovation. Neo-institutional economics allow to see organizational diversity as the result of the production of different types of goods within the “FT bundle”. New institutionalism in organizational analysis emphasizes organizational diversity as the result of either weak (or non-existent) or multiple institutional logics. And institutional entrepreneurship highlights the ability of FTSEs to shape the environment in a way that legitimizes their own way of conceiving social innovation. I conclude that these three frameworks offer complementary explanations to organizational diversity and that the latter is an asset rather than an obstacle for carrying social innovation in multiple and complementary ways. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 141 (12 ULg)
Does spleen innervation influence TSE pathogenesis?
Jolois, Olivier ; ; et al
Poster (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Does spleen innervation influence TSE pathogenesis?”
Jolois, Olivier ; ; et al
Poster (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (3 ULg)
Does sulfide detoxication occur in the gills of the hydrothermal vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata?
Compère, Philippe ; ; et al
in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2002), 325Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Does sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?
Majerus, Steve ; Van der Linden, Martial ; Collette, Fabienne et al
in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747
We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]
We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULg)
Does terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-immunogold method detect DNA engaged in nucleolar transcription ?
Thiry, Marc ;
Conference (1994)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Does the 43 bp sequence from an 800 000 year old Cretan dwarf elephantid really rewrite the textbook on mammoths?
; Pagès, Marie ; et al
in Biology Letters (2007), 3
Pigmy elephants inhabited the islands from the Mediterranean region during the Pleistocene period but became extinct in the course of the Holocene. Despite striking distinctive anatomical characteristics ... [more ▼]
Pigmy elephants inhabited the islands from the Mediterranean region during the Pleistocene period but became extinct in the course of the Holocene. Despite striking distinctive anatomical characteristics related to insularity, some similarities with the lineage of extant Asian elephants have suggested that pigmy elephants could be most probably seen as members of the genus Elephas. Poulakakis et al. (2006) have recently challenged this view by recovering a short mtDNA sequence from an 800 000 year old fossil of the Cretan pigmy elephant (Elephas creticus). According to the authors of this study, a deep taxonomic revision of Cretan dwarf elephants would be needed, as the sequence exhibits clear affinities with woolly mammoth haplotypes. However, we point here many aspects that seriously weaken the strength of the ancient DNA evidence reported. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Does the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus modify the energy reserves and antitoxic defences of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli?
Gismondi, Eric ; ;
in Parasitology (2012), 139Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Does the achievement of an intermediate glycemic target reduce organ failure and mortality? A post-hoc analysis of the Glucontrol Trial
Penning, Sophie ; ; PREISER, Jean-Charles et al
in Journal of Critical Care (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (6 ULg)
Does the Allelopathic potential of the Tunisian barley root exudates affects simultaneously weeds and barley growth?
Bouhaouel, Imen ; ; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure et al
Conference (2013, May 21)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (10 ULg)
Does the artificial grammar learning paradigm involve the acquisition of complex information?
Meulemans, Thierry ; Van der Linden, Martial
in Psychologica Belgica (1997), 37(1-2), 69-88Detailed reference viewed: 66 (2 ULg)
Does the behavior of Crohn's disease change over time?
Louis, Edouard ; Reenaers, Catherine ; Belaiche, Jacques
in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2008), 14Detailed reference viewed: 32 (7 ULg)
Does the Budyko curve reflect a maximum power state of hydrological systems? A backward analysis
Westhoff, Martijn ; ; Archambeau, Pierre et al
Conference (2016, April)
Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we ... [more ▼]
Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we applied the thermodynamic principle of maximum power as the organizing principle. In a top-down approach we derived mathematical formulations of the relation between relative wetness and gradients driving runoff and evaporation for a simple one-box model. We did this in an inverse manner such that when the conductances are optimized with the maximum power principle, the steady state behaviour of the model leads exactly to a point on the asymptotes of the Budyko curve. Subsequently, we added dynamics in forcing and actual evaporations, causing the Budyko curve to deviate from the asymptotes. Despite the simplicity of the model, catchment observations compare reasonably well with the Budyko curves subject to observed dynamics in rainfall and actual evaporation. Thus by constraining the – with the maximum power principle optimized – model with the asymptotes of the Budyko curve we were able to derive more realistic values of the aridity and evaporation index without any parameter calibration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
Does the circadian modulation of dream recall modify with age?
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ; ; et al
in Sleep (2009), 32(9), 1201-9
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The ultradian NREM-REM sleep cycle and the circadian modulation of REM sleep sum to generate dreaming. Here we investigated age-related changes in dream recall, number of dreams, and ... [more ▼]
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The ultradian NREM-REM sleep cycle and the circadian modulation of REM sleep sum to generate dreaming. Here we investigated age-related changes in dream recall, number of dreams, and emotional domain characteristics of dreaming during both NREM and REM sleep. DESIGN: Analysis of dream recall and sleep EEG (NREM/REM sleep) during a 40-h multiple nap protocol (150 min of wakefulness and 75 min of sleep) under constant routine conditions. SETTING: Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen young (20-31 years) and 15 older (57-74 years) healthy volunteers INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Dream recall and number of dreams varied significantly across the circadian cycle and between age groups, with older subjects exhibiting fewer dreams (P < 0.05), particularly after naps scheduled during the biological day, closely associated with the circadian rhythm of REM sleep. No significant age differences were observed for the emotional domain of dream content. CONCLUSIONS: Since aging was associated with attenuated amplitude in the circadian modulation of REM sleep, our data suggest that the age-related decrease in dream recall can result from an attenuated circadian modulation of REM sleep. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)
Does the community-based management of the sacred crocodiles pond of Bazoulé ensure the Nile crocodile conservation ?
; Vermeulen, Cédric
Conference (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg)
Does the cover crop residue management affect the soil water availability for plants?
Chelin, Marie ; Parvin, Nargish ; Hiel, Marie-Pierre et al
Poster (2014, December 05)
Hydraulic processes and soil storage capacity may be affected by the crop residue management. Thus, a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of water as a consequence of different ... [more ▼]
Hydraulic processes and soil storage capacity may be affected by the crop residue management. Thus, a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of water as a consequence of different tillage methods is needed. The distribution of soil water content is basically studied thanks to soil moisture sensors such as time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes. However, this method requires the disturbance of the soil and only provides local information. Comparatively, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) slightly alters the soil structure. It has been considered as a proxy to assess the spatial and temporal variability of the soil water content. This study aims at assessing whether and to which extent the crop residue management influences soil water dynamics and the water availability for maize. Water content will be monitored from March to October 2014, under three crop residue managements: conventional tillage realized in the end of autumn, conventional tillage realized just before sowing, and strip tillage. A bare soil under conventional tillage will also be monitored so as to better understand the influence of the plant over the growing season. So as to better understand the dynamics of water in the soil-water-continuum, the influence of the crop residue management on the soil structure and the plant development will also be investigated. The soil water pattern will be daily monitored on a surface of two square meters through surface stainless steel electrodes, corresponding to three rows of seven maize plants. Five additional sticks with buried electrodes will be setup to get more detailed information near to the maize row. For each of the monitored zone, two TDR probes will help validating the data. In order to calibrate the relationship between electrical resistivity and soil water content, a dig will be dug, in which a set of four electrodes, one TDR probe and one temperature sensor will be placed at four different depths. Two suction cups placed on each of the monitoring zone will help getting the electrical conductivity of the soil solution. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (5 ULg)
Does the Direction of Ductal Blood Flow Affect Regional Circulatory Hemodynamics in Duct Dependent Congenital Heart Disease?
; Rigo, Vincent ;
in Pediatric Research (2003, April), 53(4 Part 2/2), 471Detailed reference viewed: 24 (10 ULg)
Does the facultative bacteria Serratia symbiotica influence the foraging strategies of aphid parasitoids?
; ; et al
Poster (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 57 (8 ULg)
Does the local embeddedness of energy production contribute to sustainable rural development? Some evidence and propositions concerning the spreading of wind energy parks in Belgium
Schmitz, Serge ; Vanderheyden, Vincent
in Ecological and Social innovation - 9th International conference of territorial intelligence, ENTI, Strasbourg 2010., Strasbourg : France (2010) - (2010, November)
Parce que l’énergie éolienne prend place à l’échelle locale, il semble important de penser aussi son développement à ce niveau. Quand le développement éolien est globalement perçu comme positif, des ... [more ▼]
Parce que l’énergie éolienne prend place à l’échelle locale, il semble important de penser aussi son développement à ce niveau. Quand le développement éolien est globalement perçu comme positif, des problèmes apparaissent au niveau local. Basée sur une revue de la littérature et sur cinq études de cas en Belgique, la communication souligne la transition spatiale de la production d’énergie suite à la multiplication des sites éoliens. Elle propose des pistes afin de mieux inclure la société locale dans le développement éolien [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (6 ULg)