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See detailDefining optimal brightness temperature simulation adjustment parameters to improve Metop-A/AVHRR SST over the Mediterranean Sea
Tomazic, Igor ULiege; Le Borgne, Pierre; Roquete, Hervé

Conference (2013)

Sea surface temperature (SST) multispectral algorithms applied to infrared (IR) radiometer data exhibit regional biases due to the intrinsic inability of the SST algorithm to cope with the vast range of ... [more ▼]

Sea surface temperature (SST) multispectral algorithms applied to infrared (IR) radiometer data exhibit regional biases due to the intrinsic inability of the SST algorithm to cope with the vast range of atmospheric types, mainly influenced by water vapor and temperature profiles. Deriving a SST correction from simulated brightness temperatures (BT), obtained by applying a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) atmospheric profiles and first guess SST, is one of the solutions to reduce regional biases. This solution is envisaged in the particular case of Metop-A Advanced Very High resolution (AVHRR) derived SST. Simulated BTs show errors, linked to RTM, atmospheric profiles or guess field errors. We investigated the conditions of adjusting simulated to observed BTs in the particular case of the Mediterranean Sea over almost one year. Our study led to define optimal spatio/temporal averaging parameters of the simulation observation differences, both during day and night and summer and colder season. Each BT adjustment has been evaluated by comparing the corresponding corrected AVHRR SST to the AATSR SST, that we adopted as validation reference. We obtained an optimized result across all defined conditions for a spatial smoothing of 15 deg and a temporal averaging between 3 and 5 days. Specifically, time series analyses showed that a standard deviation based criterion favors spatial smoothing above 10 deg for all temporal averaging, while a bias based criterion favors shorter temporal averaging during daytime (< 5 days) and higher spatial smoothing (>10 deg) for nighttime. This study has shown also the impact of diurnal warming both in deriving BT adjustment and in validation results, leading to more appropriate separate BT adjustment for day and night in areas and seasons of intensive diurnal warming conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)
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See detailDefining Social Enterprise
Defourny, Jacques ULiege; Nyssens, Marthe

in Nyssens, Marthe (Ed.) Social Enterprise, at the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 460 (4 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDefining the "city museum". The creation process of a new museum category
Postula, Jean-Louis ULiege

Conference (2012, October 25)

As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, some major European cities developed museums to present their history. This movement has grown around the world throughout the twentieth century. The ... [more ▼]

As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, some major European cities developed museums to present their history. This movement has grown around the world throughout the twentieth century. The phenomenon is now more relevant than ever, as evidenced by numerous projects of creation and renovation of such institutions. Nevertheless, it took a long time before this kind of museum began to be considered as part of a specific museum category, with its own characteristics and challenges. It was only in 1993, at the Museum of London, that representatives of museums devoted to the study of cities met for the very first time, in order “to discuss [their] problems, to develop theories and to promote [their] special place in the museum movement worldwide” (Hebditch, Max, Key-note address, in Johnson, Nichola, ed., Reflecting cities. The proceedings of a symposium. London, Museum of London, 1993, p. 1). The expression “city museum” took shape for this occasion, with the creation at the end of the symposium of what can be seen as the ancestor of CAMOC, the International Association of City Museums, which faded in 2005. For almost two decades, the city museum has become the object of study of a large number – almost one per year – of international conferences and collections of articles bringing together academics, but mostly professionals who live and experience the museum every day. Practitioners appear therefore as the main producers of discourse on the city museum. This presentation examines the concept of city museum through its different uses and definitions within the museological literature, between 1993 and 2008. The analysis of these speeches will highlight the fact that there are no unanimously established uses of the expression among the authors. It will also show that, as a museum category, city museum is an object whose identity is still under construction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (3 ULiège)
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See detailDefining the Observables for Quarks and Gluons Orbital Angular Momentum Distributions
Liuti, S.; Courtoy, Aurore ULiege; Goldstein, G. R. et al

in Few-Body Systems (2015), 56(6-9), 325-330

We present a critical discussion of the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the ... [more ▼]

We present a critical discussion of the observables that have been recently put forth to describe quarks and gluons orbital angular momentum distributions. Starting from a standard parameterization of the energy momentum tensor in QCD one can single out two forms of angular momentum, a so-called kinetic term, generally associated with the Ji decomposition, and a canonical term from the Jaffe Manohar decomposition. Orbital angular momentum has been connected to a Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD), for the canonical term, and to a twist three Generalized Parton Distribution for the kinetic term. We argue that while the latter appears as an azymuthal angular modulation in the longitudinal target spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, due to parity constraints, the GTMD associated with canonical angular momentum cannot be measured in a similar set of experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailDefining the role of aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant endocrine treatment of early breast cancer
BUDZAR, A.; CHLEBOWSKI, R.; CUZICK, J. et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2006), 22

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See detailDefining thermal comfort boundaries for heating and cooling demand estimation in Iran's urban settlements
Roshan, GhR.; Farrokhzad, M.; Attia, Shady ULiege

in Building & Environment (2017), 121

Iran has diverse climate variability, comfort boundaries for each geographic region must be defined in order to present current architectural design recommendations and proper mechanical systems design to ... [more ▼]

Iran has diverse climate variability, comfort boundaries for each geographic region must be defined in order to present current architectural design recommendations and proper mechanical systems design to meet building's heating and cooling energy demand. Therefore, two components of the temperature and relative humidity of 148 stations with the longest common statistical period of twenty years (1994–2014), which have been in daily scale were selected to calibrate and redefine the thermal boundary conditions in Iran. Givoni chart was used to define and visualize the bioclimatic conditions in buildings. The results of this study indicate that only 18% of the 148 stations days, falls in the thermal comfort bioclimatic conditions. After calibration of the base comfort temperature, we found that the upper threshold of this component varies from at least 22.62 °C for Ardebil to 25.94 °C for Dorudzan station and the low threshold of this component belongs to Ardebil with at least 20.13 °C up to its maximum value with 22 °C which belongs to Dorudzan. Spatial distribution of cooling and heating days show that their maximum threshold has been for cores in Northeastern half of Iran, Iran's Western half and some Central parts of Iran and the minimum threshold of these two components belongs to the beaches of north and south of the country. The findings present updated thermal comfort boundaries that can be used by architects, engineers and policy makers to achieve, in turn, more energy efficient homes and high quality indoor and outdoor living environments. [less ▲]

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See detailDefining Zero Energy Buildings from a Cradle to Cradle Approach
Attia, Shady ULiege; De Herde, André

in Conference proceedings of Passive and Low Energy Architecture (PLEA) 2011 (2011, July)

Several bodies including the DOE, ASHRAE and the IEA SHC Task 40 are working on developing definitions for Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Most existing definitions are based on setting a performance ... [more ▼]

Several bodies including the DOE, ASHRAE and the IEA SHC Task 40 are working on developing definitions for Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Most existing definitions are based on setting a performance metric (quantity and quality) such as site energy, source energy, energy costs, or emissions, and a boundary for the energy source. However, the problem of most existing definitions is that they neglect the energy use during the whole building lifecycle, neglect the climatic context, neglect the urban or city scale, derive from a ‘zero’ or neutralizing notion, link the energy use to area separately from occupants and do not specify the intended definition audience they address e.g. policymakers or building developers or construction professionals. On the other hand, the cradle to cradle approach encourages the creation of ecologically positive footprint buildings where buildings are very efficient by design and by using suitable technologies to become energy positive. The cradle to cradle approach allows us to examine broader criteria including the embodied energy, environmental impact, energy storage and the management of plus energy. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss those problems and suggest a necessary shift to approach NZEB definition, from a cradle to cradle approach rather from a balance approach. This paper provides an overview of existing definitions and compares their impact toward cradle to cradle NZEBs. Finally, the paper sets three principles for defining NZEBs and suggests a definition, metric and calculation method from a cradle to cradle approach. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfinir l'économie sociale en Belgique
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULiege; Marée, Michel ULiege

in E-Note (2008), 4

Les différentes définitions de l’économie sociale qui coexistent en Belgique sont soumises à une analyse critique et systématique. Les auteurs identifient ce qui constitue le socle commun des différentes ... [more ▼]

Les différentes définitions de l’économie sociale qui coexistent en Belgique sont soumises à une analyse critique et systématique. Les auteurs identifient ce qui constitue le socle commun des différentes interprétations qu'on peut donner à ce concept et éclairent le débat sur les points de divergence. Ils montrent ensuite que les formes juridiques pressenties pour appartenir à l'économie sociale n'offrent pas une garantie complète de respect des principes qui fondent les définitions de l'économie sociale. Les auteurs concluent que la variabilité dans l'interprétation du concept d'économie sociale et l'insuffisance du critère juridique pour repérer les organisations d'économie sociale ne favorisent pas le développement d'un sentiment d'appartenance à ce troisième secteur. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfinir l'économie sociale en Belgique
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULiege; Marée, Michel ULiege

in E-note (2007), (4),

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (4 ULiège)
See detailDéfinir la jeunesse ? D'un bout à l'autre du monde
Gauthier, Madeleine; Guillaume, Jean-François ULiege

Book published by Les Presses de l'Université Laval (1999)

Cet ouvrage réunit des chercheurs d'un bout à l'autre du monde autour d'une même question, l'étude de la jeunesse. De quelle manière faut-il aborder cette période du cycle de vie dont on parle avec ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage réunit des chercheurs d'un bout à l'autre du monde autour d'une même question, l'étude de la jeunesse. De quelle manière faut-il aborder cette période du cycle de vie dont on parle avec abondance sans bien savoir comment la définir ? Les mots sont non seulement porteurs de sens, mais servent aussi à orienter l'action. Les notions d'insertion, d'intégration ou de socialisation héritées de la tradition sociologique sont aujourd'hui récupérées dans des politiques où les jeunes se sentent souvent happés. Le statut d'acteurs qu'on leur a reconnu au beau temps de l'action étudiante ne continue-t-il à s'appliquer que dans les sociétés où les jeunes sont majoritaires ? Les sociétés vieillissantes laissent-elles un peu de place aux jeunes pour l'élaboration de stratégies ? Les études qui portent aujourd'hui sur la jeunesse impliquent de démêler les intentions derrière les discours. Dans un contexte de mutation ou de (ré)invention du lien social, le pari à relever n'en est que plus passionnant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 160 (6 ULiège)
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See detailDéfinir le patrimoine culturel immatériel... une gageure ?
Lempereur, Françoise ULiege

in Rabaska : Revue d'Ethnologie de l'Amérique Française (2005), 3

In 2004, Bernard Genest and Camille Lapointe published a research paper about the intangible cultural heritage as a social and economical wealth, token of the Quebec Ministery of Culture policy. Françoise ... [more ▼]

In 2004, Bernard Genest and Camille Lapointe published a research paper about the intangible cultural heritage as a social and economical wealth, token of the Quebec Ministery of Culture policy. Françoise Lempereur shows the relevance of this document and analyses it. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (20 ULiège)
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See detailDéfinir les objectifs de l'éducation
de Landsheere, Viviane ULiege; de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege

Book published by Presses Universitaires de France - 4ième édition revue et augmentée (1982)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULiège)
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See detailDéfinir les objectifs de l'éducation
de Landsheere, Viviane ULiege; de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege

Book published by Thone - 3ème éd. (1978)

Detailed reference viewed: 935 (5 ULiège)
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See detailDéfinir les objectifs de l'éducation
de Landsheere, Viviane ULiege; de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege

Book published by Georges Thone (1975)

Detailed reference viewed: 255 (3 ULiège)
See detailDéfinir les objectifs de l'éducation
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege; de Landsheere, Viviane ULiege

Book published by Presses Universitaire de France (PUF) - 5ème éd. (1992)

Detailed reference viewed: 486 (7 ULiège)
See detailDéfinir les objectifs de l'éducation
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege

in Actes du Colloque "Etudes superieures... vers quels types d'hommes?" (1977)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULiège)
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See detailDefinir os objectivos da educaçao
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege; de Landsheere, Viviane ULiege

Book published by Moraes Editore - 2ème édition (1977)

Tres meses apos o seu lancamento no mercado, eis a 2.a edicao (1.° milhar) de um dos textos fundamentais para a formacao e consciencializacao metodologica de todos os educadores. Ao assinalar este exito a ... [more ▼]

Tres meses apos o seu lancamento no mercado, eis a 2.a edicao (1.° milhar) de um dos textos fundamentais para a formacao e consciencializacao metodologica de todos os educadores. Ao assinalar este exito a MORAES anuncia similtaneamente o proximo lancamento do ultimo livro de Gilbert de Landsheere : "La formation des enseignants demain". [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (9 ULiège)
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See detailDefinir os objetivos da educacao
de Landsheere, Viviane ULiege; de Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege

Book published by Livraria Martins Fontes (n.d.)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULiège)
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See detailDéfinir rigoureusement des trajectoires de développement pour chacune des compétences à la base de la formation
Tardif, Jacques; Poumay, Marianne ULiege; Georges, François ULiege

Conference (2014)

But de l'atelier: Présenter une démarche de conception et d’élaboration de trajectoires de développement de compétences inscrite dans une logique de professionnalisation graduelle de l’étudiant.

Detailed reference viewed: 202 (21 ULiège)