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See detailDifferential effects of cocaine and dopaminergic agonists on hypokinesia induced by dopaminergic antagonists
Terry, P.; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series (1996), 142

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See detailDifferential Effects of Cocaine on Dopamine Neuron Firing in Awake and Anesthetized Rats
Koulchitsky, Stanislav ULg; DE BACKER, Benjamin ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (2012), 37

Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine), a natural alkaloid, is a powerful psychostimulant and a highly addictive drug. Unfortunately, the relationships between its behavioral and electrophysiological effects are ... [more ▼]

Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine), a natural alkaloid, is a powerful psychostimulant and a highly addictive drug. Unfortunately, the relationships between its behavioral and electrophysiological effects are not clear. We investigated the effects of cocaine on the firing of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, both in anesthetized and awake rats, using pre-implanted multielectrode arrays and a recently developed telemetric recording system. In anesthetized animals, cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced a general decrease of the firing rate and bursting of DA neurons, sometimes preceded by a transient increase in both parameters, as previously reported by others. In awake rats, however, injection of cocaine led to a very different pattern of changes in firing. A decrease in firing rate and bursting was observed in only 14% of DA neurons. Most of the other DA neurons underwent increases in firing rate and bursting: these changes were correlated with locomotor activity in 52% of the neurons, but were uncorrelated in 29% of them. Drug concentration measurements indicated that the observed differences between the two conditions did not have a pharmacokinetic origin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cocaine injection differentially affects the electrical activity of DA neurons in awake and anesthetized states. The observed increases in neuronal activity may in part reflect the cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation found ex vivo in these neurons. Our observations also show that electrophysiological recordings in awake animals can uncover drug effects, which are masked by general anesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of context on psychomotor sensitization to ethanol and cocaine
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Caroline; Dieupart, Julie et al

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2016), 27(2 & 3), 173-181

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to ... [more ▼]

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to cocaine is context dependent as its expression is reduced in an environment that was not paired with cocaine administration. In contrast, the effects of the test context on ethanol sensitization remain unclear. In the present study, female OF1 mice were repeatedly injected with 1.5 g/kg ethanol to test for both the effects of context novelty/familiarity and association on ethanol sensitization. A first group of mice was extensively pre-exposed to the test context before ethanol sensitization and ethanol injections were paired with the test context (familiar and paired group). A second group was not pre-exposed to the test context, but ethanol injections were paired with the test context (nonfamiliar and paired group). Finally, a third group of mice was not pre-exposed to the test context and ethanol was repeatedly injected in the home cage (unpaired group). Control groups were similarly exposed to the test context, but were injected with saline. In a second experiment, cocaine was used as a positive control. The same behavioral procedure was used, except that mice were injected with 10 mg/kg cocaine instead of ethanol. The results show a differential involvement of the test context in the sensitization to ethanol and cocaine. Cocaine sensitization is strongly context dependent and is not expressed in the unpaired group. In contrast, the expression of ethanol sensitization is independent of the context in which it was administered, but is strongly affected by the relative novelty/familiarity of the environment. Extensive pre-exposure to the test context prevented the expression of ethanol sensitization. One possible explanation is that expression of ethanol sensitization requires an arousing environment. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Effects of D1 and D2 Dopamine-Receptor Agonists and Antagonists on Appetitive and Consummatory Aspects of Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Castagna, C.; Ball, G. F.

in Physiology & Behavior (1997), 62(3), 571-80

Pharmacological studies in Japanese quail based on behavioral tests with a variety of dopaminergic compounds suggest that the activation of D2 dopamine receptors inhibits, and the activation of D1 ... [more ▼]

Pharmacological studies in Japanese quail based on behavioral tests with a variety of dopaminergic compounds suggest that the activation of D2 dopamine receptors inhibits, and the activation of D1 dopamine receptors enhances, appetitive and consummatory components of male sexual behavior. This hypothesis was tested by studying the behavioral effects of specific D1 and D2 dopaminergic-receptor agonists and antagonists in castrated male Japanese quail chronically treated with exogenous testosterone (subcutaneous Silastic implants). The effects of 5 compounds were tested: 1 D1 (SKF38393) and 2 D2 (PPHT and quinpirole) agonists, and 1 D1 (SCH23390) and 1 D2 (Spiperone) antagonist. All compounds were tested at a low and a high dose (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, for all drugs, except spiperone where the doses were 2 and 10 mg/kg). A consistent effect of all drugs on consummatory sexual behavior was observed: it was stimulated by the D1 agonist and the D2 antagonist, but inhibited by the D1 antagonist and the D2 agonists. Far fewer effects of the treatments were detected on the measures of appetitive behavior. Measures of appetitive behavior were decreased by the 2 D2 agonists, but not affected by the other treatments. These data suggest that male copulatory behavior in quail is stimulated by dopamine acting on D1 receptors, but inhibited by activation of the D2 receptor subtype. The partial dissociation observed between the effects of the same treatments on appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior also suggests that these 2 behavioral systems may be controlled by the action of dopamine on different neuronal systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of drawing and indirect dopamine agonists on the induction of gnawing in C57BI/6J mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Witkin, J. M.

in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1995), 273(1), 7-15

Compared the ability of indirect dopamine (DA) agonists to induce gnawing behavior (GB) in male C57BL/6J mice with that of direct DA agonists acting at DA D-sub-1 or D-sub-2 receptor subtypes. Eight Ss ... [more ▼]

Compared the ability of indirect dopamine (DA) agonists to induce gnawing behavior (GB) in male C57BL/6J mice with that of direct DA agonists acting at DA D-sub-1 or D-sub-2 receptor subtypes. Eight Ss were used per dose. Holes left by Ss on corrugations of packing cardboard were used as an objective index of GB. Indirect DA agonists, including DA releasers such as fencamfamine and amfonelic acid and DA uptake inhibitors such as cocaine and nomifensine, produced dose-dependent increases in GB. None of the direct agonists (e.g., apomorphine, quinpirole) increased GB. The dopaminergic nature of GB was confirmed in studies in which a host of compounds (e.g., nicotine, caffeine, dizocilpine) with primary actions at nondopaminergic sites did not induce GB. Given the general contrast between the effects of direct and indirect DA agonists, this procedure could serve as a rapid in vivo method of distinguishing direct- from indirect-acting DA agonists. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of global versus local testosterone on singing behavior and its underlying neural substrate.
Alward, Beau A.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory F.

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2013), 110(48), 19573-8

Steroid hormones regulate multiple but distinct aspects of social behaviors. Testosterone (T) has multiple effects on learned courtship song in that it regulates both the motivation to sing in a ... [more ▼]

Steroid hormones regulate multiple but distinct aspects of social behaviors. Testosterone (T) has multiple effects on learned courtship song in that it regulates both the motivation to sing in a particular social context as well as the quality of song produced. The neural substrate(s) where T acts to regulate the motivation to sing as opposed to other aspects of song has not been definitively characterized. We show here that T implants in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) of castrated male canaries (Serinus canaria) increase song rate but do not enhance acoustic features such as song stereotypy compared with birds receiving peripheral T that can act globally throughout the brain. Strikingly, T action in the POM increased song control nuclei volume, consistent with the hypothesis that singing activity induces neuroplasticity in the song control system independent of T acting in these nuclei. When presented with a female canary, POM-T birds copulated at a rate comparable to birds receiving systemic T but produced fewer calls and songs in her presence. Thus, POM is a key site where T acts to activate copulation and increase song rate, an appetitive sexual behavior in songbirds, but T action in other areas of the brain or periphery (e.g., HVC, dopaminergic cell groups, or the syrinx) is required to enhance the quality of song (i.e., stereotypy) as well as regulate context-specific vocalizations. These results have broad implications for research concerning how steroids act at multiple brain loci to regulate distinct sociosexual behaviors and the associated neuroplasticity. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine and somatostatin and their second messengers on the mRNA levels of gonadotropin IIb subunit and growth hormone in the teleost fish, tilapia
Melamed, P.; Gur, G.; Elizur, A. et al

in Neuroendocrinology (1996)

In cultured pituitary cells of tilapia, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10 nM 4-24 h), elevation of cyclic AMP (by 10 microM forskolin or 0.2 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine: IBMX 0.5-36 h) or ... [more ▼]

In cultured pituitary cells of tilapia, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10 nM 4-24 h), elevation of cyclic AMP (by 10 microM forskolin or 0.2 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine: IBMX 0.5-36 h) or activation of protein kinase C (PKC; by 12.5 nM tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate: TPA, 0.5-24 h) all increased gonadotropin (GtH) II beta steady state mRNA levels by three to four-fold. The involvement of PKA and PKC in the GnRH stimulatory effect on both GtH release and GtH II beta mRNA levels was corroborated by use of the PKA and PKC inhibitors, H89 and GF109203X, respectively (100 nM) which attenuated the GnRH effect. Incubation with actinomycin D (8 microM, 4-21 h) after preexposure for 24 h to either forskolin (10 microM) or TPA (12.5 nM), revealed that rates of transcript degradation were slower in forskolin-treated cells (T 1/2 = 14.1 h) than in control or TPA-treated cells (T 1/2 = 8.47 or 8.38 h), suggesting a stabilizing effect on the mRNA. Dopamine (DA; 10 microM, 4-36 h) had no apparent effect on steady state mRNA levels of GtH II beta, but reduced GtH release by as much as 75%. Steady state levels of growth hormone (GH) mRNA were not affected by exposure to GnRH (10 nM, 4-24 h), although GH release was more than doubled. Similarly, activation of PKC (by TPA 12.5 nM, 1.5-36 h), which was shown to be essential for the GnRH-stimulatory effect on GH release, did not alter levels of the GH transcript, but increased GH release by more than fivefold. DA (10 microM, 4-24 h) moderately increased GH transcript levels (160%) with similar kinetics but lower potency than direct elevation of cAMP (by 10 microM forskolin or 0.2 mM IBMX, 0.5-36 h) which increased transcript levels by more than fourfold. The involvement of PKA in the DA effect was confirmed when the PKA inhibitor H89 (100 nM, 15 min prior to DA exposure) attenuated the DA effect on GH mRNA levels. Exposure of cells to actinomycin D (8 microM, 2-16 h) after treatment with forskolin (10 microM, 24 h) led to a slower rate of transcript degradation than in control cells (T 1/2 = 6.5 h vs. T 1/2 = 4.36 h), suggesting that cAMP also elicits a stabilizing effect on GH mRNA. Somatostatin (100 nM, 0.5-36 h) had no clear effect on GH transcript levels, but reduced GH release by as much as 90%. These results suggest that activation of either cAMP-PKA or PKC pathways can, possibly by different mechanisms, stimulate mRNA levels of the GtH II beta gene, but that only the cAMP-PKA pathway stimulates GH mRNA levels. It would appear therefore that GnRH, although stimulating GH release, does not regulate GH transcription in this fish. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of high CO2 during the First half of incubation on embryonic chick development according to broiler breeder age and storage time
Witters, A.; Debonne, M.; Everaert, Nadia ULg et al

in Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews (2008)

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See detailDifferential effects of hypoxia on étoposide induced apoptosis according to the cancer cell lines
Cosse, Jean-Philippe ULg; Sermeus, Audrey; Vannuvel, Kayleen et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailDifferential effects of hypoxia on étoposide induced apoptosis according to the cancer cell lines
Cosse, Jean-Philippe ULg; Sermeus, Audrey; Vannuvel, Kayleen et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailDifferential effects of hypoxia on etoposide-induced apoptosis according to the cancer cell lines
Cosse, Jean-Philippe ULg; Sermeus, Audrey; Vannuvel, Kayleen et al

in Molecular Cancer (2007)

Background: It is more and more recognized that hypoxia plays a role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms underlying this resistance still need deeper understanding ... [more ▼]

Background: It is more and more recognized that hypoxia plays a role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms underlying this resistance still need deeper understanding. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia on this process since hypoxia is one of the hallmarks of tumor environment. Results: The effect of hypoxia on the apoptosis induced by etoposide, one drug commonly used in chemotherapy, was investigated using three different cancer cell lines. Gene expression changes were also studied in order to delineate the mechanisms responsible for the hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. We observed that hypoxia differentially influenced etoposide-induced cell death according to the cancer cell type. While hypoxia inhibited apoptosis in hepatoma HepG2 cells, it had no influence in lung carcinoma A549 cells and further enhanced it in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Etoposide increased p53 activity in all cell lines while hypoxia alone decreased it only in HepG2 cells. Hypoxia had no influence on the etoposide-induced p53 activity in A549, increased p53 abundance in MCF-7 cells but markedly decreased p53 activity in HepG2 cells. Using low density DNA arrays to detect the expression of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis, etoposide and hypoxia were shown to each influence the expression of numerous genes, many of the ones influenced by etoposide being p53 target genes. Again, the influence of hypoxia on the etoposideinduced changes was different according to the cell type. Conclusion: These results evidenced that there was a striking parallelism between the effect of hypoxia on the etoposide-induced p53 stabilization as well as p53 target gene expression and its effect on the etoposide-induced apoptosis according to the cell type. They are very interesting not only because they provide one possible mechanism for the induction of chemoresistance under hypoxic conditions in cells like HepG2 but also because they indicate that not all cell types respond the same way. This knowledge is of importance in designing adequate treatment according to the type of tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of olanzapine and risperidone on plasma adiponectin levels over time: Results from a 3-month prospective open-label study.
Wampers, M.; Hanssens, L.; van Winkel, R. et al

in European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (2012), 22

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), especially clozapine and olanzapine, are associated with an increased metabolic risk. Recent research showed that plasma adiponectin levels, an adipocyte-derived ... [more ▼]

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), especially clozapine and olanzapine, are associated with an increased metabolic risk. Recent research showed that plasma adiponectin levels, an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases insulin sensitivity, vary in the same way in schizophrenic patients as in the general population according to gender, adiposity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different SGAs differentially affect plasma adiponectin levels independent of body mass index (BMI) and MetS status. 113 patients with schizophrenia (65.5% males, 32.3years old) who were free of antipsychotic medication were enrolled in this open-label prospective single-center study and received either risperidone (n=54) or olanzapine (n=59). They were followed prospectively for 12weeks. Average daily dose was 4.4mg/day for risperidone and 17.4mg/day for olanzapine. Plasma adiponectin levels as well as fasting metabolic parameters were measured at baseline, 6weeks and 12weeks. The two groups had similar baseline demographic and metabolic characteristics. A significant increase in body weight was observed over time. This increase was significantly larger in the olanzapine group than in the risperidone group (+7.0kg versus +3.1kg, p<0.0002). Changes in fasting glucose and insulin levels and in HOMA-IR, an index of insulin resistance, were not significantly different in both treatment groups. MetS prevalence increased significantly more in the olanzapine group as compared to the risperidone groups where the prevalence did not change over time. We observed a significant (p=0.0015) treatment by time interaction showing an adiponectin increase in the risperidone-treated patients (from 10,154 to 11,124ng/ml) whereas adiponectin levels decreased in olanzapine treated patients (from 11,280 to 8988ng/ml). This effect was independent of BMI and the presence/absence of MetS. The differential effect of antipsychotic treatment (risperidone versus olanzapine) on plasma adiponectin levels over time, independent of changes in waist circumference and antipsychotic dosing, suggests a specific effect on adipose tissues, similar to what has been observed in animal models. The observed olanzapine-associated reduction in plasma adiponectin levels may at least partially contribute to the increased metabolic risk of olanzapine compared to risperidone. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of picrotoxin and RO 15-1788 on high and low ethanol concentrations on rat locus coeruleus in vitro.
Verbanck, P. M.; Seutin, Vincent ULg; Massotte, Laurent ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (1992), 211(1), 15-21

In an in vitro electrophysiological single-cell recording model, ethanol had an inhibitory effect on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons at both low (0.1 mmol/l) and high (500 mmol/l) concentrations. In order to ... [more ▼]

In an in vitro electrophysiological single-cell recording model, ethanol had an inhibitory effect on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons at both low (0.1 mmol/l) and high (500 mmol/l) concentrations. In order to test if the benzodiazepine-GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptor complex could be implicated in this effect, we tested the interaction of these ethanol concentrations with picrotoxin (100 mmol/l) and RO 15-1788 (10 nmol/l). RO 15-1788 reversed the inhibitory effect induced by ethanol 500 mmol/l, but not by ethanol 0.1 mmol/l; picrotoxin reversed the effects of both concentrations. This indicates that the mechanisms of action of ethanol on LC neurons are not the same for high and low concentrations. Furthermore, the effect of concentrations related to a behavioral effect (greater than 10 mmol/l) was reversed by a low-calcium medium that abolishes transmitter release. Therefore, the inhibition induced by ethanol 500 mmol/l seems to be due to the release of an endogenous benzodiazepine-like compound. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of testosterone on neuronal populations and their connections in a sensorimotor brain nucleus controlling song production in songbirds: a manganese enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging study
Van Meir, V.; Verhoye, M.; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Neuroimage (2004), 21(3), 914-923

Nucleus HVC (formerly called high vocal center) of songbirds contains two types of projecting neurons connecting HVC respectively to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, RA, or to area X. These two ... [more ▼]

Nucleus HVC (formerly called high vocal center) of songbirds contains two types of projecting neurons connecting HVC respectively to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, RA, or to area X. These two neuron classes exhibit multiple neurochemical differences and are differentially replaced by new neurons during adult life: high rates of neuronal replacement are observed in RA-projecting neurons only. The activity of these two types of neurons may also be modulated differentially by steroids. We analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging the effect of testosterone on the volume of RA and area X and on the dynamics of Mn2+ accumulation in RA and area X of female starlings that had been injected with MnCl2 through a permanent cannula implanted in HVC. Repeated visualization 6 weeks apart (before and after testosterone treatment) identified a volume increase of both nuclei in testosterone-treated birds associated with a concomitant decrease in controls. Following testosterone treatment, the total amount of Mn2+ transported to RA and area X increased but the dynamics of accumulation, reflecting in part the activity of HVC neurons, was specifically altered in area X but not in RA. These data indicate that testosterone differentially affects the RA- and area X-projecting neurons in HVC. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ME-MRI) thus provides repeated measures of connected brain areas and demonstrates testosterone-dependent regionally specific changes in brain activity and functional connectivity. The slow time scales investigated by this technique (compared to functional MRI) appear ideally suited for characterizing slow processes such as those involved in brain plasticity and learning. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of testosterone on protein synthesis activity in male and female quail brain
Dermon, C. R.; Stamatakis, A.; Giakoumaki, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2004), 123(3), 647-666

In Japanese quail, testosterone (T) increases the Nissl staining density in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in relation to the differential activation by T of copulatory behavior. The effect of T on ... [more ▼]

In Japanese quail, testosterone (T) increases the Nissl staining density in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in relation to the differential activation by T of copulatory behavior. The effect of T on protein synthesis was quantified here in 97 discrete brain regions by the in vivo autoradio-graphic C-14-leucine (Leu) incorporation method in adult gonadectomized male and female quail that had been treated for 4 weeks with T or left without hormone. T activated male sexual behaviors in males but not females. Overall Leu incorporation was increased by T in five brain regions, many of which contain sex steroid receptors such as the POM, archistriatum and lateral hypothalamus. T decreased Leu incorporation in the medial septum. Leu incorporation was higher in males than females in two nuclei but higher in females in three nuclei including the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Significant interactions between effects of T and sex were seen in 13 nuclei: in most nuclei (n=12), T increased Leu incorporation in males but decreased it in females. The POM boundaries were defined by a denser Leu incorporation than the surrounding area and incorporation was increased by T more in males (25%) than in females (15%). These results confirm that protein synthesis in brain areas relevant to the control of sexual behavior can be affected by the sex of the subjects or their endocrine condition and that T can have differential effects in the two sexes. These anabolic changes should reflect the sexually differentiated neurochemical mechanisms mediating behavioral activation. (C) 2003 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential elevation of matrix metalloproteinase expression in women exposed to levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for a short or prolonged period of time
Labied, Soraya ULg; Galant, C.; Nisolle, Michelle ULg et al

in Human Reproduction (2009), 24(1), 113-121

BACKGROUND: The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is an effective contraceptive and has many non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is commonly associated with irregular ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is an effective contraceptive and has many non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is commonly associated with irregular endometrial bleeding. Metalloproteinases contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling and regulate bleeding during the menstrual cycle. Enhanced metalloproteinase expression participates in the pathogenesis of breakthrough bleeding. Thus the objective of this study was to compare matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in endometrium during luteal phase and in short-term (1 month) and long-term (> or =6 months) LNG-IUS users. METHODS: MMP expression was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Gelatinase activity was determined by gelatin zymography. RESULTS: MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9 and -12 mRNAs levels were increased, whereas that of MMP-26 was decreased in the endometrium of LNG-IUS users. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7 and -9 were localized by immunohistochemistry in all biopsies in the short-term group but in only 0-27% in the control group. The incidence of positive immunostaining for MMP-2 and -3 decreased significantly in the long-term compared with short-term LNG-IUS users. MMP-26 was localized in all biopsies from the control group but in only 14 and 25% from the short- and long-term LNG-IUS groups, respectively. In both LNG groups, the numbers of macrophages (the major source of MMP-12) was increased. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-1, active MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-12 are more prevalent in the short-term LNG-IUS group, suggesting their important contribution to ECM breakdown and transient bleeding. The decrease in the percentage of women expressing MMP-2 and -3 might contribute to the decreased occurrence of unwanted spotting and bleeding in long-term LNG-IUS users. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Equations of Stiffened Panels
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering (2001)

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See detailDifferential Equations of Stiffened Panels and Fourier Series Expansion
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Richir, Thomas

in The Annals of “Dunarea De Jos” University of Galati (2005) (2005)

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See detailDifferential Equations of Stiffened Panels of Ship Structures & Fourier Series Expansions
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Ship Technology Research = Schiffstechnik (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (4 ULg)