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See detailElectrochemical Investigation of Nitinol/Tantalum Hybrid Surfaces Modified by Alkylphosphonic Self-Assembled Monolayers
Maho, Anthony ULg; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Combellas, Catherine et al

in Electrochimica Acta (2014), 116(0), 78-88

The surface characteristics of bare and modified nickel-titanium samples (NiTi) are investigated by spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical techniques. The successful electrodeposition of a ... [more ▼]

The surface characteristics of bare and modified nickel-titanium samples (NiTi) are investigated by spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical techniques. The successful electrodeposition of a tantalum coating on NiTi and the effective grafting of 1-dodecylphosphonic acid SAMs on both pristine and Ta-covered NiTi surfaces are evidenced and quantified by XPS and SEM. Cyclic voltammetry performed on the different NiTi-based electrodes highlights their specificities regarding electron transfer to a redox probe present in solution (here ruthenium(III) hexamine). Finally, the samples electrochemical characteristics at a local scale are investigated by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The impact of the surface modifications on mass transport of the redox probe is analyzed through approach curves in the feedback mode, while the recording of current maps in feedback as well as in substrate-generation/tip-collection modes leads to the qualitative identification of electrochemically-active areas corresponding to precursor pitting corrosion sites. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical strategies for the strengthening of polymer – metal interfaces
Baute, Noëlle; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (2001), 2001(5), 1097-1107

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability ... [more ▼]

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability of these polymer-metal interactions and some common approaches for alleviating this problem are briefly reviewed. Among the existing techniques, electrochemical processes offer the advantage of controlled interfacial reactions. Promising results have been reported by Strat-mann et al. and Le´cayon et al., who have emphasized the interest and opportunity to create strong chemical bonds between the organic coating and the metallic substrate. Their work is discussed in this review, along with results recently obtained in our group [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical study of the uranium exchange by polypyrrole-based resins
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Applied Polymer Science (1999), 74(14), 3473-3484

Electrochemical control of the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins was studied. The experimental conditions for this binding were optimized with respect to the uranium ions to be ... [more ▼]

Electrochemical control of the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins was studied. The experimental conditions for this binding were optimized with respect to the uranium ions to be fixed, the resin, and the solution. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical study of two tris-O-substituted calix[4]arenes: 25,27-dipropoxy-26-hydroxy-28-benzoyloxycalix[4]arene(partial cone) and 25,27-dibenzyl-26-hydroxy-28-benzoyloxy-calix[4]-arene (partial cone). Electro synthesis of the corresponding calix[4]arene-monoquinones
Louati, Alain; Spraula, Julien; Gabelica, Valérie ULg et al

in Electrochemistry Communications (2006), 8(5), 761-766

The anodic oxidation of 25,27-dipropoxy-26-hydroxy-28-benzoyloxycalix[4]arene 1 and 25,27-dibenzyl-26-hydroxy-28-benzoyloxycalix[4]arene 2 in dichloromethane was investigated by electrochemical and ... [more ▼]

The anodic oxidation of 25,27-dipropoxy-26-hydroxy-28-benzoyloxycalix[4]arene 1 and 25,27-dibenzyl-26-hydroxy-28-benzoyloxycalix[4]arene 2 in dichloromethane was investigated by electrochemical and spectroclectrochemical techniques. For both, the overall reaction is a two-electron oxidation of the phenolic group according to an ECE mechanism resulting in the ultimate formation of an observable phenoxylium cation. After reaction of the latter with traces of water and subsequent internal electron transfer, the corresponding calix[4]-monoquinones are formed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical study of uranium exchange on a polypyrrole resin
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry (1999), 240(3), 969-972

The ability to electrochemically control the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins has been studied. The optimization of the conditions for the fixation of uranium has been defined ... [more ▼]

The ability to electrochemically control the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins has been studied. The optimization of the conditions for the fixation of uranium has been defined while taking in account the nature of the fixed species, the nature of the resin and the nature of the solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical synthesis and characterization of the electronic structure of new conjugated polymers from dithienylene vinylene derivatives
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Maertens, Christophe; Mertens, Marc et al

in Synthetic Metals (1996), 83(2), 103-109

Highly conjugated thiophene derivatives, based on thienylene vinylene and thienylene vinylene phenylene units, have been synthesized in order to examine: (i) the effect of such regular conjugated monomer ... [more ▼]

Highly conjugated thiophene derivatives, based on thienylene vinylene and thienylene vinylene phenylene units, have been synthesized in order to examine: (i) the effect of such regular conjugated monomer structures on polymer formation; and (ii) the optical and electrochemical properties of the corresponding macromolecules. The all-trans monomers have been prepared by a Wittig reaction. The polymers have then been synthesized electrochemically. The polymers are electrochromic and can be reversibly doped both oxidatively and reductively. Their electrochemical behavior and optical properties have been analyzed on the basis of a series of quantum-chemical calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical synthesis of conjugated polymer wires and nanotubules
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Legras, Roger et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2000), 6(17), 3089-3093

Two electrochemical methods designed for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) wires and nanotubules are the topic of this paper. The concept that allows the morphology of PPy to be controlled is discussed ... [more ▼]

Two electrochemical methods designed for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) wires and nanotubules are the topic of this paper. The concept that allows the morphology of PPy to be controlled is discussed for each method, and the performances of the two complementary techniques are compared in terms of dimension, shape and conductivity of PPy. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical synthesis of new electroactive polymers from dithienylene-vinylene derivatives
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Maertens, Christophe; Mertens, Marc et al

in Synthetic Metals (1997, January), 84(1-3), 163-164

Highly conjugated thiophene derivatives, based on thienylene-vinylene and thieneylene-vinylene-phenylene units, have been synthesized in order to examine: (i) the effect of such regular conjugated monomer ... [more ▼]

Highly conjugated thiophene derivatives, based on thienylene-vinylene and thieneylene-vinylene-phenylene units, have been synthesized in order to examine: (i) the effect of such regular conjugated monomer structures on the polymerization; (ii) the optical and electrochemical properties of the corresponding conjugated polymers. The all-trans monomers have been prepared by a Wittig reaction and the polymers have then been synthesized electrochemically. The polymers are electrochromic and can be reversibly doped both oxidatively and reductively. Their electrochemical behavior and optical properties have been analysed on the basis of quantum-chemical calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole nanowires
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (1998), 37(18), 2488-2490

Through a hole in a poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) layer that is electrochemically grafted to the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode-that is the route that must be taken by a growing polypyrrole nanowire ... [more ▼]

Through a hole in a poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) layer that is electrochemically grafted to the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode-that is the route that must be taken by a growing polypyrrole nanowire in the electropolymerization of pyrrole. Chain growth is controlled by diffusion of the monomer through the DMF-swollen PEA layer, which acts as a template for the formation of nanowires (shown in the picture) with diameters of 400-1000 nm and lengths of up to 300 m. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemically Driven Sequential Machines: An Implementation of Copper Rotaxanes
Periyasamy, Ganga ULg; Collin, Jacques ULg; Sauvage, Jacques ULg et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2009), 15(6), 1310-1313

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See detailElectrochemically synthesized polypyrrole nanotubules : effects of different experimental conditions
Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Ferain, Etienne; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (1998), 34(12), 1767-1774

Nanotubules of polypyrrole (PPy) were electrochemically synthesized using the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) particle track-etched membranes (PTM) as templates. The influence of some conditions of ... [more ▼]

Nanotubules of polypyrrole (PPy) were electrochemically synthesized using the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) particle track-etched membranes (PTM) as templates. The influence of some conditions of electrosynthesis (electrochemical method, monomer concentration, electrolyte concentration and nature) on the kinetics of pyrrole electropolymerization and on the morphology of the obtained nanomaterials has been investigated. In particular, the empirical kinetics of the electrochemical generation of polypyrrole-perchlorate (PPy-ClO4) from aqueous solution, at 0.8 V (vs SCE) was followed by electrical charges measurement. The orders with respect to pyrrole and LiClO4 are 0.34 and 0.70 respectively. The electrogeneration of polypyrrole-polystyrenesulfonate (PPy-PSS) was also followed and shows that an increase of the electrolyte concentration increases the polymerization rate at constant potential. Finally, the morphology of PPy nanotubules doped with LiClO4 and NaPSS has been studied by high resolution emission SEM and by TEM. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry as a correlation tool candidate with catalytic activities in ruthenium(II)-catalysed atom transfer radical polymerisation ?
Richel, Aurore ULg; Tutusaus, Oscar; Viñas, Clara et al

in Polymer Preprints (2005), 46(2), 227-228

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See detailElectrochemistry as a correlation tool with the catalytic activities in [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PAr3)]-catalysed Kharasch additions
Richel, Aurore ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg; Noels, Alfred ULg

in Tetrahedron Letters (2006), 47

[RuCl2(p-cymene)] complexes containing triarylphosphine ligands with various substituents at the para position were used to catalyse the atom transfer radical addition of carbon tetrachloride to various ... [more ▼]

[RuCl2(p-cymene)] complexes containing triarylphosphine ligands with various substituents at the para position were used to catalyse the atom transfer radical addition of carbon tetrachloride to various olefins, and their catalytic activities were nicely correlated with their electrochemical parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry of lanthanum and uranium chlorides in organic media: Deposition of lanthanum and uranium
Martinot, Lucien; Lopes, L.; Marien, José ULg et al

in Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry (2002), 253(3), 407-412

Molten salts have been widely used for the electrochemical preparation of lanthanum and uranium metals at high temperature. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a similar process in ... [more ▼]

Molten salts have been widely used for the electrochemical preparation of lanthanum and uranium metals at high temperature. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a similar process in dimethylformamide (DMF) and in the mixture gamma-butyrolactone/tetrahydrofuran (gamma-BL/THF) The best conditions for the preparation were deduced from preliminary transient electrochemistry experiments and from secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements involving SIMS mappings and SIMS depth profile analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and a non polymerizable analogue
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Kroonen, D.; Mertens, Marc et al

in Polymer (1998), 39(1), 23-29

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the ... [more ▼]

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the pyrrolidone substituent of N-VP is also involved in the anodic reaction in addition to the polymerizable vinyl double bond. This additional reaction in the potential range of interest was confirmed by the electrochemical oxidation of a non polymerizable analogue of N-VP, i.e. N-methylpyrrolidone. Therefore, at least two mechanisms can contribute to the electrodeposition of a polymer film in a solvent of poly N-VP: electrografting and polymer branching and/or crosslinking by species stemming from the electrooxidation of the pyrrolidone rings. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochromic TiO2, ZrO2 and TiO2-ZrO2 thin films by dip-coating method
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : B (2009), 165(3), 212-216

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing ... [more ▼]

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing temperatures were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Electrochromic behavior of the three kind materials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the basic electrochromic characteristics were determined. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis.
Bailleul, Benjamin; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Breyton, Cecile et al

in Photosynthesis Research (2010), 106(1-2), 179-89

In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an ... [more ▼]

In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient (Deltamu(H)(+)), which comprises a gradient of electric potential (DeltaPsi) and of proton concentration (DeltapH). The Deltamu(H)(+) has a central role in the photosynthetic process, providing the energy source for ATP synthesis. It is also involved in many regulatory mechanisms. The DeltapH modulates the rate of electron transfer and triggers deexcitation of excess energy within the light harvesting complexes. The DeltaPsi is required for metabolite and protein transport across the membranes. Its presence also induces a shift in the absorption spectra of some photosynthetic pigments, resulting in the so-called ElectroChromic Shift (ECS). In this review, we discuss the characteristic features of the ECS, and illustrate possible applications for the study of photosynthetic processes in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic
Zodi, Salim; Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Michon, Clémence et al

in Separation & Purification Technology (2011), 81

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current ... [more ▼]

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150 A/m 2 ). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of aromaticity of the treated effluent. The process was also very efficient for the removal of lignin-based pollution, characterized by the fluorescence of humic substances. Arsenic was selected as an example non-organic micropollutant and was also satisfactorily removed (from 4 to 0.5 lg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained after the electrocoagulation treatment were also evaluated. The sludge aptitude to settling is better with Fe electrodes than with Al electrodes. The experimental results obtained in the present study indicate that electrocoagulation treatment can be very effective and capable of improving the paper mill wastewaters’ quality downstream of the biological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic
Zodi, Salim; Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Michon, Clémence et al

in Separation & Purification Technology (2011), 81

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current ... [more ▼]

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150 A/m2). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of the aromaticity of the treated effluent. The process was also very efficient for the removal of lignin-based pollution, characterized by the fluorescence of humic substances. Arsenic was selected as an example of a non-organic micropollutant and was also satisfactorily removed (from 4 to 0.5 lg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained after the electrocoagulation treatment were also evaluated. The sludge aptitude to settling is better with Fe electrodes than with Al electrodes. The experimental results obtained in the present study indicate that electrocoagulation treatment can be very effective and was capable of improving the paper mill wastewaters’ quality downstream of the biological treatment. [less ▲]

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