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See detailEffects of lipopeptidesonmodel membranes
Deleu, Magali ULg

in 6th annual surface and colloid symposium: lipid-peptide interactions and biological function (2006)

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See detailEffects of localized fires on concrete slabs
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Toutlemonde, F. (Ed.) Proceedings of CONSEC'07 (2007)

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See detailEffects of long term soil organic matter restitution mode on soil heterotrophic respiration and soil biological properties.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg; Malchair, Sandrine ULg et al

Conference (2011, May 12)

For more than 50 years, an agricultural site divided in several plots is submitted to different organic matter restitution mode to the soil (crop residues, manure,...). The objectives of this study were ... [more ▼]

For more than 50 years, an agricultural site divided in several plots is submitted to different organic matter restitution mode to the soil (crop residues, manure,...). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether these different treatments may cause differences between treatments in terms of soil heterotrophic respiration, that would be of the same order of magnitude than differences in total soil organic carbon, (2) how temperature and soil moisture content affect soil heterotrophic respiration in the different treatments, and (3) how different soil biological properties (microbial biomass, metabolic diversity, labile carbon content) are affected in the different treatments. The results from a first measurement campaign carried out in 2010 are presented, together with the remaining questions at this stage of the study. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long term soil organic matter restitution mode on soil heterotrophic respiration and soil biological properties.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg; Malchair, Sandrine ULg et al

Poster (2011, July)

Soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) is the process by which CO2 is released during organic matter decomposition. It is generally expected that SHR can act as a positive feedback to global warming ... [more ▼]

Soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) is the process by which CO2 is released during organic matter decomposition. It is generally expected that SHR can act as a positive feedback to global warming, therefore leading to more CO2 release into the atmosphere. It is thus important to better understand this process. Particularly, agricultural soils may behave as important CO2 sources that are strongly influenced by soil and crop management (e.g. organic matter restitution modes, hereafter “OM-RM”). The present study aimed at determining if, after more than 50 years of application of different OM-RM, (1) significant differences of SHR fluxes can be observed between treatments, (2) SHR responses to temperature and soil moisture content can be affected by the OM-RM and (3) the experimental design is suitable to assess potential differences between treatments. The experimental field is situated in Liroux, near Gembloux in Belgium. At that site, a long term experiment with different OM-RM runs from 1959 onwards. For the present study, three contrasted treatments were considered: (1) exportation of all residues after harvest, (2) addition of manure once every three to four years and (3) restitution of residues after harvest. SHR flux measurements were carried out manually on fourteen occasions from 2 April to 30 July 2010, using a dynamic closed chamber system. Temperature and soil moisture content at 5 cm depth were also measured manually. Results showed that after more than 50 years of OM-RM application, no significant differences could be observed between the three treatments in terms of SHR fluxes and SHR responses to temperature or soil moisture, while the soil organic carbon content did vary significantly between them. The sensitivity to temperature was quite low in all treatments, with a mean Q10 value of 1,36. Besides, SHR fluxes were seen to be more responsive to increases in soil water content than to absolute soil moisture content values. Indeed, when soil moisture content increased between two consecutive measurement dates, the ratio of the corresponding SHR fluxes was larger than 1. Particularly dry conditions in 2010 may actually have caused the fluxes to be very low, making the assessment of differences between treatments more difficult. Moreover, soil dryness is likely to be responsible for the SHR flux increases after rain events, as caused by re-solubilization of organic compounds. Also, an important spatial variability was observed, which may have obscured the assessment of potential differences between treatments. Further investigations will consist in performing a new flux measurement campaign in 2011 that will take the spatial variability issue into account, and in monitoring microbial and soil properties in the different treatments, such as microbial biomass, metabolic activity and labile carbon. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long-term population fluctuations in a top predator on invertebrate community composition in Alpine ponds
Wissinger, Scott; Whiteman, Howard; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

Conference (2006)

At our remote study site in central Colorado, the population size of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum) has fluctuated cyclically over the past 20 years from fewer than 100 to over 5000 ... [more ▼]

At our remote study site in central Colorado, the population size of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum) has fluctuated cyclically over the past 20 years from fewer than 100 to over 5000 individuals. Comparative data between ponds with and without salamanders, and experimental studies suggest that this species is a keystone predator on benthic and planktonic prey communities. Here we present long-term community data that reveal taxon- and habitat-specific correlations in the population size of benthic and planktonic prey with fluctuations in salamander populations. Changes in the abundance of planktonic, but not benthic invertebrates in temporary habitats were correlated with fluctuations in the abundance of salamanders. In permanent ponds, we observed order-of-magnitude changes in benthic biomass that are negatively correlated with salamander abundance. Among the large-bodied and potentially most vulnerable benthic invertebrates (odonates, caddisflies, beetles, water bugs), several species exhibited negatively coupled cycles, but others fluctuated little or out of phase with changes in salamander abundance. The absence of major shifts in benthic community composition in permanent ponds is probably a result of conflicting predation pressures exerted by different year classes of salamanders. Salamander gut samples suggest that ontogenetic shifts in diet might explain why cyclic fluctuations in the abundance of this predator had only minor impacts on benthic community composition despite having major effects on invertebrate biomass. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long-term population fluctuations of a top predator on invertebrate communities in subalpine ponds in Colorado
Wissinger, S.; Whiteman, H.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

Conference (2006)

Experimental and comparative data from subalpine ponds with and without tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum) suggest that this species is a keystone predator on benthic and planktonic prey ... [more ▼]

Experimental and comparative data from subalpine ponds with and without tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum) suggest that this species is a keystone predator on benthic and planktonic prey communities. At our study site in central Colorado, the population size of salamanders has fluctuated cyclically over the past 20 years from fewer than 100 to over 5000 individuals. Here we present long-term benthic data that reveal taxon- and habitat-specific correlations with fluctuations in salamander populations. In temporary habitats, benthic biomass changed little during fluctuations in salamander abundance. In permanent ponds, we observed order-of-magnitude changes in benthic biomass that were negatively correlated with salamander abundance. Among the large-bodied and potentially most vulnerable taxa (odonates, caddisflies, beetles, water bugs), several species exhibited negatively coupled cycles, but others fluctuated little or out of phase with changes in salamander abundance. The absence of major shifts in benthic community composition in permanent ponds is probably a result of conflicting predation pressures exerted by different year classes of salamanders. Data on ontogenetic shifts in salamander diet help explain why cyclic fluctuations in the abundance of this predator had only minor impacts on benthic community composition despite having major effects on invertebrate biomass. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis: Results of a five-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Felsenberg, Dieter; Boonen, Steven et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2008), 58(6), 1687-95

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the effect of strontium ranelate on nonvertebral and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in a 5-year, double-blind, placebo ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the effect of strontium ranelate on nonvertebral and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 5,091 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were randomized to receive either strontium ranelate at 2 gm/day or placebo for 5 years. The main efficacy criterion was the incidence of nonvertebral fractures. In addition, incidence of hip fractures was assessed, by post hoc analysis, in the subset of 1,128 patients who were at high risk of fractures (age 74 years or older with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density T scores -2.4 or less). The incidence of new vertebral fractures was assessed, using the semiquantitative method described by Genant, in the 3,646 patients in whom spinal radiography (a nonmandatory procedure) was performed during the course of the study. Fracture data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. RESULTS: Of the 5,091 patients, 2,714 (53%) completed the study up to 5 years. The risk of nonvertebral fracture was reduced by 15% in the strontium ranelate group compared with the placebo group (relative risk 0.85 [95% confidence interval 0.73-0.99]). The risk of hip fracture was decreased by 43% (relative risk 0.57 [95% confidence interval 0.33-0.97]), and the risk of vertebral fracture was decreased by 24% (relative risk 0.76 [95% CI 0.65-0.88]) in the strontium ranelate group. After 5 years, the safety profile of strontium ranelate remained unchanged compared with the 3-year findings. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with strontium ranelate results in a sustained reduction in the incidence of osteoporotic nonvertebral fractures, including hip fractures, and vertebral fractures over 5 years. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Meunier, Pierre; Roux, C.; Ortolani, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2009), 20

Vertebral fractures are a major adverse consequence of osteoporosis. In a large placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, strontium ranelate reduced vertebral fracture risk by 33 ... [more ▼]

Vertebral fractures are a major adverse consequence of osteoporosis. In a large placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, strontium ranelate reduced vertebral fracture risk by 33% over 4 years, confirming the role of strontium ranelate as an effective long-term treatment in osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and loss of quality-of-life (QoL). Strontium ranelate (2 g/day) was shown to prevent bone loss, increase bone strength, and reduce vertebral and peripheral fractures. The preplanned aim of this study was to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate. METHODS: A total of 1,649 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were randomized to strontium ranelate or placebo for 4 years, followed by a 1-year treatment-switch period for half of the patients. Primary efficacy criterion was incidence of patients with new vertebral fractures over 4 years. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and QoL were also evaluated. RESULTS: Over 4 years, risk of vertebral fracture was reduced by 33% with strontium ranelate (risk reduction = 0.67, p < 0.001). Among patients with two or more prevalent vertebral fractures, risk reduction was 36% (p < 0.001). QoL, assessed by the QUALIOST(R), was significantly better (p = 0.025), and patients without back pain were greater (p = 0.005) with strontium ranelate than placebo over 4 years. Lumbar BMD increased over 5 years in patients who continued with strontium ranelate, while it decreased in patients who switched to placebo. Emergent adverse events were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: In this 4- and 5-year study, strontium ranelate is an effective and safe treatment for long-term treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Macrophage Transplantation in the Injured Adult Rat Spinal Cord: A Combined Immunocytochemical and Biochemical Study
Franzen, Rachelle ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1998), 51(3), 316-27

Early and robust invasion by macrophages may be one of the reasons why axonal regeneration is more effective in the PNS than in the CNS. Therefore, we have grafted autologous peritoneal macrophages ... [more ▼]

Early and robust invasion by macrophages may be one of the reasons why axonal regeneration is more effective in the PNS than in the CNS. Therefore, we have grafted autologous peritoneal macrophages labeled with fluorescent latex microspheres into spinal cord compression lesions. At various survival times, we have studied their effect on the expression of neuronal (neurofilaments [NF], calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and nonneuronal markers (myelin-associated glycoprotein [MAG], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], laminin) by using semiquantitative Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques. After 1 month, we observed a significant decrease of the expression of MAG as well as an important invasion of the lesion site by neurites, chiefly peptidergic axons of presumed dorsal root origin, in macrophage-grafted animals compared with controls. In addition, angiogenesis and Schwann cell infiltration were more pronounced after macrophage grafts, providing an increase in laminin, a favorable substrate for axonal regrowth. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNAs for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were detected in the transplanted cells, whereas results were negative for nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Thus, macrophage grafts may represent an interesting strategy to promote axonal regeneration in the CNS. Our study suggests that they may exert their beneficial effects by degrading myelin products, which inhibit axonal regrowth, and by promoting a permissive extracellular matrix containing notably laminin. No evidence for a direct synthesis of neurotrophic factors by the transplanted macrophages was found in this study, but resident glial cells could secrete such factors as a result of stimulation by macrophage-released cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of management of nitrogen fertilizers and conversion of cropping soils in fallow on nitrate pollution studie of the springs of roodt (Nospelt, Luxembourg).
Weinzaepflen, Emmanuelle; Vander Borght, Paul ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg

in Conference proceedings 3rd international conference on diffuse pollution (1998)

A management of nitrogen fertilizers and a conversion of cropping soil into fallow were developed to reduce the nitrate pollution of spring exploit to supply with drinking water the southwestern ... [more ▼]

A management of nitrogen fertilizers and a conversion of cropping soil into fallow were developed to reduce the nitrate pollution of spring exploit to supply with drinking water the southwestern Luxembourg. The methodological approach was based on in situ observations and includes a study of nitrates lost by leaching (measure of nitrogen profiles in experimental fields, use of vertical soil water cup ceramics) and study of the water quality of springs (measurements of nitrate concentrations). Since October 1995, the nitrate concentrations of polluted springs have been reduced by 25 mg l-1 due to the fallow and the reduction of nitrogen fertilizers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of management regimes and extreme climatic events on plant population viability in Eryngium alpinum
Andrello, Marco; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe ULg; BARBET-MASSIN, morgane et al

in Biological Conservation (2012), 147(1), 99-106

Extreme climatic events like the 2003 summer heatwave and inappropriate land management can threaten the existence of rare plants. We studied the response of Eryngium alpinum, a vulnerable species, to ... [more ▼]

Extreme climatic events like the 2003 summer heatwave and inappropriate land management can threaten the existence of rare plants. We studied the response of Eryngium alpinum, a vulnerable species, to this extreme climatic event and different agricultural practices. A demographic study was conducted in seven field sites between 2001 and 2010. Stage-specific vital rates were used to parameterize matrix population models and perform stochastic projections to calculate population growth rates and estimate extinction probabilities. Among management regimes, spring grazing and land abandonment decreased vital rates and population growth, while autumn grazing and late mowing had positive effects on population viability. The 2003 heatwave reduced fecundity rates and survival rates. Only spring grazed sites presented considerable extinction risk. Stochastic projections showed that an increased frequency of 2003-like events may exacerbate extinction risk, but extinction probability depends mainly on land management regimes. To better conserve E. alpinum populations, we recommend conversion of presently spring grazed and abandoned sites to late mowing or autumn grazing. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of mannose and mannose derivatives on the clearance of IgG antibody-coated erythrocytes in the rat
Malaise, Michel ULg; Hoyoux, C.; Franchimont, P. et al

in Immunology (1989), 68(1), 126-132

The effects of D-mannose, mannose dimers, mannan, or lactotransferrin [a glycoprotein containing mannose alpha-(1,6) linkages] infusion on the clearance of IgG-coated, 99mTc-labelled, autologous red blood ... [more ▼]

The effects of D-mannose, mannose dimers, mannan, or lactotransferrin [a glycoprotein containing mannose alpha-(1,6) linkages] infusion on the clearance of IgG-coated, 99mTc-labelled, autologous red blood cells (IgG-RBC) by the spleen and liver were investigated in the rat. Untreated autologous rat RBC labelled with 111In were simultaneously injected to correct for 99mTc present in the blood contained in each organ. In normal rats, the mean specific spleen uptake (per g) of IgG-RBC was about 10 times higher than the mean specific liver uptake (per g). Consistent with the clearance curves of IgG-RBC, the mean specific splenic uptake of those RBC significantly decreased after D-mannose, mannose dimers, mannan, or lactotransferrin injections, compared with that measured in normal rats or in control rats receiving i.v. physiological saline, 5% or 15% glucose. In contrast, the mean specific liver uptake of IgG-RBC remained unchanged under otherwise identical experimental conditions. The splenic blockade induced by mannan and mannose derivatives was dose-dependent, C3-independent and spontaneously reversible within 42 hr. Splenic macrophages isolated from mannose- or mannan-treated animals expressed a decreased receptor activity for the Fc domain of IgG, whereas no consistent effect on the C3 receptors was noted. These data show a transient and specific impairment of the Fc(IgG)-receptor function of rat splenic macrophages after the i.v. injection of D-mannose or of mannose derivatives. They support the concept that simple sugar compounds can exhibit immunoregulatory activities in vivo, as has been already shown in vitro. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of marginal iron overload on iron homeostasis and immune function in alveolar macrophages isolated from pregnant and normal rats.
Ward, Roberta J; Wilmet, Stephanie; Legssyer, Rachida et al

in Biometals (2009), 22(2), 211-23

The effects of changes in macrophage iron status, induced by single or multiple iron injections, iron depletion or pregnancy, on both immune function and mRNA expression of genes involved in iron influx ... [more ▼]

The effects of changes in macrophage iron status, induced by single or multiple iron injections, iron depletion or pregnancy, on both immune function and mRNA expression of genes involved in iron influx and egress have been evaluated. Macrophages isolated from iron deficient rats, or pregnant rats at day 21 of gestation, either supplemented with a single dose of iron dextran, 10 mg, at the commencement of pregnancy, or not, showed significant increases of macrophage ferroportin mRNA expression, which was paralleled by significant decreases in hepatic Hamp mRNA expression. IRP activity in macrophages was not significantly altered by iron status or the inducement of pregnancy +/- a single iron supplement. Macrophage immune function was significantly altered by iron supplementation and pregnancy. Iron supplementation, alone or combined with pregnancy, increased the activities of both NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). In contrast, the imposition of pregnancy reduced the ability of these parameters to respond to an inflammatory stimuli. Increasing iron status, if only marginally, will reduce the ability of macrophages to mount a sustained response to inflammation as well as altering iron homeostatic mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of marrow grafting on preleukemia cells and thymic nurse cells in C57BL/Ka mice after a leukemogenic split-dose irradiation.
Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg; Lenaerts, Patrick et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (1986), 77(5), 1079-85

A split-dose regimen of whole-body irradiation (4 X 175 rad at weekly intervals) induced thymic lymphomas in C57BL/Ka mice after a latent period of 3-9 months. Meanwhile, preleukemia cells arose in the ... [more ▼]

A split-dose regimen of whole-body irradiation (4 X 175 rad at weekly intervals) induced thymic lymphomas in C57BL/Ka mice after a latent period of 3-9 months. Meanwhile, preleukemia cells arose in the thymus and bone marrow and persisted until the onset of lymphomas. Simultaneously, thymic lymphopoiesis was impaired; thymocyte numbers were subnormal and thymic nurse cells disappeared in a progressive but irreversible fashion. The depletion of these lymphoepithelial complexes, which are normally involved in the early steps of thymic lymphopoiesis, was related to altered prothymocyte activity in bone marrow and to damaged thymic microenvironment, perhaps as a consequence of the presence of preleukemia cells. The grafting of normal bone marrow cells after irradiation prevented the development of lymphomas. However, marrow reconstitution did not inhibit the induction of preleukemia cells. They disappeared from the thymus during the second part of the latent period. At the same time, thymic lymphopoiesis was restored; thymocytes and nurse cell numbers returned to normal as a consequence of the proliferation of grafted marrow-derived cells within the thymus. The results thus demonstrated an intimate relationship between preleukemia cells and an alteration of thymic lymphopoiesis, which particularly involved the nurse cell microenvironment. Some preleukemia cells in marrow-reconstituted, irradiated mice derived from the unirradiated marrow inoculate. Thus these cells acquired neoplastic potential through a factor present in the irradiated tissues. The nature of this indirect mechanism was briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of Western operatic singing voices
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Journal of Voice (2014)

Objective: The operatic singing technique is frequently employed in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains ... [more ▼]

Objective: The operatic singing technique is frequently employed in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Methods: Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter and shimmer) and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. Results: The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique employed. Conclusions: This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of meloxicam compared to acetylsalicylic acid in human articular chondrocytes
Bassleer, Corinne; Magotteaux, Jacques ULg; Geenen, Vincent ULg et al

in Pharmacology (1997), 54

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See detailEffects of metabolism inhibitors, antiestrogens and antiandrogens on the androgen and estrogen induced sexual behavior in Japanese quail.
Alexandre, Corine; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Physiology & Behavior (1986), 38(4), 581-91

The relative contribution of androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone to the activation of sexual behavior was studied in Japanese quail by using inhibitors of testosterone metabolism ... [more ▼]

The relative contribution of androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone to the activation of sexual behavior was studied in Japanese quail by using inhibitors of testosterone metabolism, antiestrogens and antiandrogens. These compounds were tested in castrated birds whose sexual behavior had been activated by silastic implants of testosterone (T) or daily injections of testosterone propionate (TP) or diethylstilboestrol (DES). The aromatase inhibitor ATD only depressed T-induced behavior when injected at high doses and the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, 4MA was inactive in this respect. The antiestrogens, tamoxifen (TAM) and nitromifene citrate (CI-628) strongly depressed sexual behavior but they also drastically reduced the crowing behavior which is typically androgen-dependent which throws some doubts on the specificity of their action. The antiandrogens, flutamide and cyproterone acetate (CA), only had limited inhibitory effects on the copulatory behavior but similarly decreased only marginally the crowing. As they strongly depressed the cloacal gland growth, it can be ascertained that they were injected in sufficient amounts and their lack of action on crowing questions the ability of these compounds to inhibit brain processes even when they are androgen-dependent. Taken together with the results of previous experiments which tested the behavioral effects of the testosterone metabolites, the present data confirm the implication of both androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone in the activation of behavior. Their interaction remains, however, poorly defined and its understanding will probably require the identification of the biochemical processes which in the brain mediate the behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of metals on mouse B16 melanoma and 3T3 fibroblasts
Siwek, Brigitte; Bahbouth, E; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

Poster (1990, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)