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See detailEffects of glucosamine on differentiated human chondrocytes cultivated in clusters
Bassleer, C; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Franchimont, P

in Revista Espanola de Reumatologia : Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Reumatologia (1993), 20(S1), 95

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See detailEffects of glucose-lowering agents on vascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: A critical reappraisal.
Scheen, André ULg; Charbonnel, B.

in Diabetes & metabolism (2014)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with cardiovascular complications, especially coronary artery disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between major ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with cardiovascular complications, especially coronary artery disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between major cardiovascular events and glycaemia, and several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described that explain how hyperglycaemia induces vascular damage. However, randomized controlled trials investigating either an intensive glucose-lowering strategy vs standard care or the addition of a new glucose-lowering agent vs a placebo have largely failed to demonstrate any clinical benefits in terms of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. This lack of evidence has led some people to contest the clinical efficacy of lowering blood glucose in patients with T2DM, despite its positive effects on microvascular complications. This article analyzes the various reasons that might explain such discrepancies. There are still strong arguments in favour of targeting hyperglycaemia while avoiding other counterproductive effects, such as hypoglycaemia and weight gain, and of integrating the glucose-lowering approach within a global multi-risk strategy to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in T2DM. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glycerol on Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1 freeze-dried
Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël ULg; Pierart, C.; Weekers, F. et al

in International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. (2012), 8(2), 245-258

The storage stability of freeze-dried powders was studied by parameters such as loss of viability on the Plate Count Agar (PCA). Powder with glycerol (PG) contains 8.4x1010cfu/g before storage 1 ... [more ▼]

The storage stability of freeze-dried powders was studied by parameters such as loss of viability on the Plate Count Agar (PCA). Powder with glycerol (PG) contains 8.4x1010cfu/g before storage 1.1x1010cfug after 3 months at 4°C and 6.0x108cfu/g after 3 months at 20°C. The concentration of soluble proteins (mg/g) decrease during storage at 4°C from 3.77 to 0.80 after 90 days; and the ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (C18:3/C16:0 and C18:2/C16:0) decrease respectively from 0.05 to 0.04 and 0.007 to 0.004 after 3 months at 4°C. This ratio characterises the membrane fluidity. Powder without glycerol (PS) contains 1.1x1010 cfu/g before storage and 1.4 x 108 cfu/g after 3 months at 4°C and 1.4 x 107 cfu/g after 3 months at 20°C. The concentration of soluble proteins (mg/g) decrease during storage at 4°C from 4.08 to 0.42 after 90 days, the glutathione concentration decrease during storage at 4°C from 2.2 to 1.4. The beneficial effect of glycerol on fatty acid composition during freezedrying is shown and the ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (C18:2/C16:0 and C18:3/C16:0) decrease respectively from 0.019 to 0.004 and 0.054 to 0.036 after 90 days storage at 4°C. Analysis by flow cytometry was used to assess the physiological state in which cells are at the end of freeze-drying. We found 13.5% live cells, 36.1% dead cells and 50.4% cells in an intermediate state for powder with glycerol (PG) after freeze-drying. These results shows that glycerol play an important role in Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1 desiccation during freeze-drying, by maintaining a degree of viability after freeze-drying and during storage. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glycopyrrolate inhalation on pulmonary function in heaves-affected horses in crisis
Art, Tatiana ULg; De Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailEffects of gold compounds, free or incorporated in liposomes, on human synovial cells in culture
Lhoest-Gauthier, Marie -Paule; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Van Ophem, P. et al

in Archives de Biologie (1984), 95(4), 413-21

Two gold compounds with anti-inflammatory action are separately introduced into fluid negative liposomes : Aurol-sulfide (colloidal gold compound) into the aqueous phase of liposomes, Auranofin (soluble ... [more ▼]

Two gold compounds with anti-inflammatory action are separately introduced into fluid negative liposomes : Aurol-sulfide (colloidal gold compound) into the aqueous phase of liposomes, Auranofin (soluble organic compound) into the lipidic phase. Their effects are analysed in synovial cells in culture. Aurol-sulfide, given alone, rapidly enters into the cells where it is found inside membrane limited inclusions. Under our experimental conditions, this agent is atoxic and has no effect on the cell cycle. When transported inside liposomes, Aurol-sulfide is found free, at least in part, in the cytoplasm and rapidly induces cell degeneration. Auranofin, given alone, is very cytotoxic under some experimental conditions. On the contrary, synovial cells are less sensitive to Auranofin whe encapsulated in liposomes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of grassed buffer strip management on potential denitrification in a belgian agricultural watershed
Cors, Marie; Tychon, Bernard ULg

Conference (2003)

Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with ... [more ▼]

Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with nitrate uptake by plant growth- that reduces nitrate input in surface water. We investigated the Denitrifier Enzyme Activity (DEA) to test how the buffer strip management modifies the denitrification process. The experimental site is composed of a crop field and a 11 m wide grassed buffer strip at the border between the crop field and a tributary to the Attert river, South-East Belgium. Soil samples from the crop field and the buffer strip have been submitted to different imposed conditions combining glucose, nitrate and water saturation to investigate how antecedent water regime, nitrate and carbon content affect denitrification. The work included DEA measurements on undisturbed soil cores freshly sampled. Experiments on undisturbed soil cores identify the buffer strip as more effective in denitrification (p < 0.001) than the cropped field. However, experiments on samples conditioned under imposed carbon and/or nitrate contents emphasised the importance of micro-topography. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Growth and Breed on Direct Static Measurements of Chest Wall Compliance in Cattle
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1997), 62(1, Jan-Feb), 1-5

Chest wall compliance (CW) was measured in 59 conscious standing calves, aged six to 162 days, which were breathing air spontaneously through a face mask. The airways were occluded at the end of ... [more ▼]

Chest wall compliance (CW) was measured in 59 conscious standing calves, aged six to 162 days, which were breathing air spontaneously through a face mask. The airways were occluded at the end of inspiration in order to elicit the Hering-Breuer reflex, the effectiveness of which was ensured by the presence of a plateau on the tracings of airway opening and oesophageal pressure (Pes). CW was measured directly from the inspired volume of the occluded breath and changes in Pes generated by the recoil of the relaxed chest wall. This airway-occlusion technique yielded reproducible CW values similar to those measured by classical invasive methods. The ratio of CW to bodyweight in the growing calves (sCW) ranged from 2.2 to 11.5 ml cmH2O-1 kg-1 and was correlated negatively with age: (log sCW = 0.91-0.003 x age, r = 0.68), the rate of decline corresponding well to the multispecies allometric growth relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in adult-onset growth hormone deficiency: A 2-year open randomized controlled multicenter trial
Bex, M.; Abs, R.; Maiter, D. et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2002), 17(6), 1081-1094

Adult hypopituitary patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) show a significant decrease in bone mass and an increased fracture rate. Replacement therapy with GH increases bone turnover. Most of the ... [more ▼]

Adult hypopituitary patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) show a significant decrease in bone mass and an increased fracture rate. Replacement therapy with GH increases bone turnover. Most of the long-term data on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) have been acquired in open, noncontrolled trials involving limited numbers of patients. To determine whether long-term GH therapy is beneficial for bone despite the increased bone turnover, 100 patients (59 men and 41 women), aged 25-65 years (mean, 49.7 years) with adult-onset GHD were randomized to treatment with GH (40 men and 28 women; mean dose, 0.18 IU/kg per week) or to a nontreated control group (19 men and 13 women) for 24 months. Despite a similar increase in parameters of bone turnover (osteocalcin [OC], procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP], and pyridinolines ([PYD]) in male and female GH-treated patients compared with controls, the effects on BMC and BMD as evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were gender specific. A significant increase in spine BMC and BMD and total hip BMD and a decrease in BMD at the ultradistal radius over time was observed in male GH-treated patients compared with the evolution in controls (mean +/- SEM change at 24 months: + 6.8 +/- 1.1% and p = 0.009, +5.1 +/- 0.8% and p = 0.005, +3.5 +/- 0.7% and p = 0.02, and -2.6 +/- 0.8% and p = 0.008, respectively). No significant treatment effects were observed in female patients. Despite the increase in the total remodeling space induced by GH treatment, prolonged GH therapy in adult-onset GHD has a positive effect on bone balance, maintaining bone mass in women, and even increasing it in men over a 2 year-period. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of growth hormone therapy on bone metabolism in patients with adult-onset : a 2-year open randomized controlled multicentre trial
Bex, M.; Abs, R.; Maiter, D. et al

in The 6th International Pituitary Congress - Abstract book (1999)

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See detailEffects of Growth on Functional and Morphological Echocardiographic Variables in Friesian Calves
Amory, Hélène ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1991), 128(15), 349-54

For echocardiography to become a reliable tool for the diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of cardiac diseases in cattle, it is necessary to determine normal values of echocardiographic variables and ... [more ▼]

For echocardiography to become a reliable tool for the diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of cardiac diseases in cattle, it is necessary to determine normal values of echocardiographic variables and their changes during the growth of healthy animals. In this study, 53 echocardiographic protocols were collected from 17 healthy Friesian calves during their period of growth. The protocol consisted of the measurement or calculation of 10 dimensional and six functional variables from M-mode long axis views of the heart. The relationships between these variables and age, body-weight and body surface area were analysed. Most of the dimensional parameters increased significantly with body size and were best predicted by an allometric regression. However, the functional indices did not change with growth, and the normal values obtained in this study may be applied to calves of any body weight. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of happy and angry expressions on identity and expression memory for unfamiliar faces
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Comblain, Christine et al

in Cognition & Emotion (2003), 17(4), 609-622

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were ... [more ▼]

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were made both for identity and expression memory. Results showed that faces were better recognised when presented with a happy rather than an angry expression, but only when learning was intentional. This was mainly due to an increase of the I remember" responses for happy faces when encoding was intentional rather than incidental. In contrast, memory for emotional expressions was not different for happy and angry faces whatever the encoding conditions. We interpret these findings according to the social meaning of emotional expressions for the self. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of haptoglobin polymorphisms and deficiency on susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and on severity of murine colitis.
Marquez, L.; Shen, C.; Cleynen, I. et al

in Gut (2011), 61(4), 528-534

BackgroundHaptoglobin (Hp) is a haemoglobin-binding protein with immunomodulatory properties. Its gene (16q22) harbours a common polymorphism with two different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2. Genotype Hp22 has ... [more ▼]

BackgroundHaptoglobin (Hp) is a haemoglobin-binding protein with immunomodulatory properties. Its gene (16q22) harbours a common polymorphism with two different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2. Genotype Hp22 has been shown to be over-represented in different immune diseases. Results in Crohn's disease (CD) are contradictory.AimsTo determine whether Hp plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease, both genetically and functionally.Methods1061 patients with CD, 755 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 152 with primary sclerosing cholangitis, as well as 452 healthy controls, were genotyped using touch-down PCR. To confirm association results, 464 CD trios and 151 UC trios were genotyped. Serum Hp concentrations were determined in 62 individuals of different genotype. Colitis was induced in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and oxazolone (Oxa). Cytokine production was evaluated by mRNA quantification in colonic tissue and ELISA on supernatants of mesenteric lymph node cells.ResultsPrevalence of Hp2 was higher in CD and UC than in controls. In the confirmatory cohorts, Hp2 was over-transmitted to the affected offspring. Serum Hp concentrations were higher in individuals with genotypes Hp11 and Hp21 than in those with Hp22 (1.38 vs 0.89 g/l). DSS- and Oxa-induced colitis were more severe in Hp-deficient mice than in control mice and accompanied by higher concentrations (although not statistically significantly different) of tissue mRNA for cytokines. Interleukin-17 production was significantly higher in the presence of Hp-deficient serum compared with wild-type serum.ConclusionsThe Hp gene may play a role in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Its implication in other immune diseases underscores the common pathways between these diseases. Experimental models of colitis showed that Hp has a protective role in inflammatory colitis, most likely by inhibiting the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.
Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Metayer-Coustard, S. et al

in Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology (2010), 157(3), 281-7

In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens ... [more ▼]

In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of high and low inspired fractions of oxygen on horse erythrocyte membrane properties, blood viscosity and muscle oxygenation during anaesthesia
Portier, Karine; Crouzier, David; Guichardant, Michel et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2009), 36(4), 287-298

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six ... [more ▼]

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six healthy (ASA I) geldings, aged 4.5-9.5 years and weighing 510-640 kg(-1). After 30 minutes breathing air as carrier gas for isoflurane, horses were assigned randomly to breathe air as carrier gas (CG0.21) or oxygen as carrier gas (CG1.00) for a further 90 minutes. After an interval of 1 month each horse was re-anaesthetized with the other carrier gas for the 90 minute test period. Ventilation was controlled throughout anaesthesia. Arterial blood was sampled to measure gas tensions, lactate, cholesterol, vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha), half haemolysis time, half erythrolysis time, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Muscle blood flow and oxygenation were evaluated by near infrared spectroscopy and coloured Doppler. After the first 30 minutes horses were hypoxemic. Subsequently the CG1.00 group became hyperoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 240 mmHg) whereas the CG0.21 group remained hypoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 60 mmHg) and had increased lactate concentration. No significant changes in vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, or 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) concentrations were detected. During the 90 minute test period the CG0.21 group had increased resistance to free-radical-mediated lysis in erythrocytes, whereas the CG1.00 group had slightly decreased resistance of whole blood to haemolysis. CG0.21 induced a progressive muscle deoxygenation whereas CG1.00 induced an increase in muscle oxygen saturation followed by progressive deoxygenation towards baseline. During isoflurane anaesthesia in horses, the hyperoxia induced by changing from air to oxygen induced minimal damage from reactive oxygen species. Using air as the carrier gas decreased skeletal muscle oxygenation compared with using oxygen [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of high-frequency jet ventilation on arterial baroreflex regulation of heart rate.
Rouby, J. J.; Houissa, M.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1987), 63(6), 2216-22

Fifteen anesthetized mechanically ventilated patients recovering from multiple trauma were studied to compare the effects of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and continuous positive-pressure ... [more ▼]

Fifteen anesthetized mechanically ventilated patients recovering from multiple trauma were studied to compare the effects of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV) on arterial baroreflex regulation of heart rate. Systolic arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were measured using indwelling catheters. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and mean airway pressure were continuously monitored. Lung volumes were measured using two linear differential transformers mounted on thoracic and abdominal belts. Baroreflex testing was performed by sequential intravenous bolus injections of phenylephrine (200 micrograms) and nitroglycerin (200 micrograms) to raise or lower systolic arterial pressure by 20-30 Torr. Baroreflex regulation of heart rate was expressed as the slope of the regression line between R-R interval of the ECG and systolic arterial pressure. In each mode of ventilation the ventilatory settings were chosen to control mean airway pressure and arterial PCO2 (PaCO2). In HFJV a tidal volume of 159 +/- 61 ml was administered at a frequency of 320 +/- 104 breaths/min, whereas in CPPV a tidal volume of 702 +/- 201 ml was administered at a frequency of 13 +/- 2 breaths/min. Control values of systolic arterial pressure, R-R interval, mean pulmonary volume above apneic functional residual capacity, end-expiratory pulmonary volume, right atrial pressure, mean airway pressure, PaCO2, pH, PaO2, and temperature before injection of phenylephrine or nitroglycerin were comparable in HFJV and CPPV. Baroreflex regulation of heart rate after nitroglycerin injection was significantly higher in HFJV (4.1 +/- 2.8 ms/Torr) than in CPPV (1.96 +/- 1.23 ms/Torr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of histamine H3 receptor modulators on sedative effects induced by ethanol
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 93-93

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See detailEffects of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 Proteins on Survival, Adhesion, Migration and Invasion of Trophoblastic Cells
Boulenouar, S.; Weyn, C.; Van Noppen, M. et al

in Carcinogenesis (2010), 31(3), 473-80

Amongst high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 infection is the most prevalent causative factor for cervical cancer. Beside other mucosal targets, HPV-16 was reported to infect the placenta and to ... [more ▼]

Amongst high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 infection is the most prevalent causative factor for cervical cancer. Beside other mucosal targets, HPV-16 was reported to infect the placenta and to replicate in trophoblastic cells. Since these cells share invasive properties of tumoral cells, they represent an ideal model to investigate several oncogenic processes. In the present work, we analyzed the impacts of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 oncoproteins on the trophoblastic model. Our results showed that E5 impaired the viability of trophoblastic and cervical cell lines but E6 and E7, favouring cell growth, neutralised the E5 cytotoxic effect. In addition, E5 decreased the adhesiveness of trophoblastic cells to the tissue culture plastic and to endometrial cells similarly as previously described for E6 and E7. E5 and E6 plus E7 increased also their migration and their invasive properties. Cells expressing HPV-16 early proteins under the control of the LCR endogenous promoter displayed growth advantage and were also more motile and invasive compared to control cells. Interestingly, the E-cadherin was down regulated in trophoblastic cells expressing E5, E6 and E7. NF-kB and AP-1 activities were also enhanced. In conclusion, HPV-16 early proteins enhanced trophoblastic growth and intensify the malignant phenotype by impairing cell adhesion leading to increased cellular motile and invasive properties. HPV-16 E5 participated, with E6 and E7, in these changes by impairing Ecadherin expression, a hallmark of malignant progression. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of hull modification on design parameters of medium speed monohuhll passenger ferries
Hetharia, Wolter; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Hage, André ULg

in ICSOT : Developments in ship design & construction (2012, November 01)

Developments in ship design & construction

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See detailEffects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.
Schotsmans, E. M.; Denton, J.; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg et al

in Forensic Science International (2011)

Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition ... [more ▼]

Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. [less ▲]

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