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See detailEffects of inclusion of grazing period on performance of fattening bulls
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Gielen, Marc ULg; Limbourg, Pierre et al

in Proceeding of the general meeting of the European grassland Federation Wagenings (1994)

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See detailEffects of incorporation of modified silica nanoparticles on the mechanical and thermal properties of PMMA
Etienne, Stéphanie; Becker, Claude; Ruch, David et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (2007), 87(1), 101-104

Silica nanoparticles of various sizes have been incorporated by melt compounding in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix to enhance its thermal and mechanical properties. In order to improve ... [more ▼]

Silica nanoparticles of various sizes have been incorporated by melt compounding in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix to enhance its thermal and mechanical properties. In order to improve nanoparticles dispersion, PMMA grafted particles have been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from well-defined silica nanoparticles. This strategy was expected to ensure compatibility between both components of the PMMA nanocomposites. TEM analysis have been performed to evaluate the nanosilica dispersion whereas modified and non-modified silica/PMMA nanocomposites thermal stability and mechanical properties have been investigated by both thermogravimetric and dynamical mechanical analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of increased afterload on left ventricular performance and mechanical efficiency are not baroreflex-mediated
Kolh, Philippe ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Tchana-Sato, Vincent ULg et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2003), 24(6), 912-919

Objective: To assess baroreflex intervention during increase in left ventricular afterload, we compared the effects of aortic banding on the intact cardiovascular system and under hexamethonium infusion ... [more ▼]

Objective: To assess baroreflex intervention during increase in left ventricular afterload, we compared the effects of aortic banding on the intact cardiovascular system and under hexamethonium infusion. Methods: Six open-chest pigs, instrumented for measurement of aortic pressure and flow, left ventricular pressure and volume, were studied under pentobarbital-sufentanil anesthesia. Vascular arterial properties were estimated with a four-element windkessel model. Left ventricular contractility was assessed by the slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. Results: The effects of aortic banding on mechanical aortic properties were unaffected by autonomic nervous system inhibition. However, increase in peripheral arterial vascular resistance and in heart rate were prevented by hexamethonium. Aortic banding increased left ventricular contractility and stroke work. Left ventricular-arterial coupling remained unchanged, but mechanical efficiency was impaired. These ventricular changes were independent of baroreflex integrity. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that an augmentation in afterload has a composite effect on left ventricular function. Left ventricular performance is increased, as demonstrated by increase in contractility and stroke work, but mechanical efficiency is decreased. These changes are observed independently of baroreflex integrity. Such mechanisms of autoregulation, independent of the autonomic nervous system, are of paramount importance in heart transplant patients. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All fights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of infliximab therapy on transmural lesions as assessed by magnetic resonance enteroclysis in patients with ileal Crohn's disease.
Van Assche, Gert; Herrmann, Karin A.; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Journal of Crohn's & colitis (2013), 7(12), 950-7

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti TNF therapy induces mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease, but the effects on transmural inflammation in the ileum are not well understood. Magnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti TNF therapy induces mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease, but the effects on transmural inflammation in the ileum are not well understood. Magnetic resonance-enteroclysis (MRE) offers excellent imaging of transmural and peri-enteric lesions in Crohn's ileitis and we aimed to study its responsiveness to anti TNF therapy. METHODS: In this multi-center prospective trial, anti TNF naive patients with ileal Crohn's disease and with increased CRP and contrast enhanced wall thickening received infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6, and q8 weeks maintenance MRE was performed at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months and assessed based on a predefined MRE score of severity in ileal Crohn's Disease. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included; of those, 18 patients underwent MRE at week 2 and 15 patients at weeks 2 and 26 as scheduled. Inflammatory components of the MRE index decreased by >/=2 points and by >/=50% at week 26 (primary endpoint) in 40% and 32% of patients (per protocol and intention to treat analysis, respectively). The MRE index improved in 44% at week 2 and in 80% at week 26. Complete absence of inflammatory lesions was observed in 0/18 at week 2 and 13% (2/15) at week 26. The obstructive elements did not change. Clinical and CRP improvement occurred as early as wk 2, but only CDAI correlated with the MRE index. CONCLUSION: Improvement of MRE occurs from 2 weeks after infliximab therapy onwards and correlates with clinical response but normalization of MRE is rare. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of information and 50 Hz magnetic fields on cognitive performance and reported symptoms
Nevelsteen, Sophie ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Crasson, Marion ULg

in Bioelectromagnetics (2007), 28(1), 53-63

The aim of this study was to explore the role of expectancies and beliefs about the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (what the subject thought the effect was going to be) and the effects ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the role of expectancies and beliefs about the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (what the subject thought the effect was going to be) and the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (400 microT(rms)) acute exposure on cognitive performance, the reporting of physical symptoms and some psychological and physiological parameters. Seventy-four healthy male volunteers aged between 40 and 60 years of age were randomly assigned to one of five groups, which differed in (1) the type of information they were given concerning the expected magnetic field effect on performance in cognitive tests (positive = enhancement of the performance; negative = impairment of the performance; neutral) and (2) the type of exposure (real or sham). Three groups were sham exposed with positive (group+), negative (group-) and neutral information (group+/-); one group was really exposed with neutral information (group expo) and one group was not exposed, though they wore the helmet, and did not receive any field-related information (control group). All the volunteers, except the control group, were led to believe that they would be exposed to a magnetic field of 400 microT(rms). The experimental design respected a double blind procedure and the experimental session involved three steps (pre-testing, exposure, and post-testing). Various measurements were taken, including cognitive performance, psychological parameters such as mood, vigilance, and reporting of symptoms. Physiological parameters such as blood pressure and pulse rate were also recorded. The information given did not significantly modify beliefs. No significant difference was found among the five groups depending on the type of information and the type of exposure in cognitive performance, psychological and physiological parameters. In the context of the study, with our population, the type of information given failed to induce expected changes in parameters measured. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an acute exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (50 Hz, 400 microT(rms)) affects the parameters measured. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of infused sodium lactate on glucose and energy metabolism in healthy humans.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Cayeux, M. C. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (1995), 21(5), 345-52

To assess the effects of lactate on glucose metabolism, sodium lactate (20 mumol.kg-1.min-1) was infused into healthy subjects in basal conditions and during application of a hyperinsulinaemic (6 pmol.kg ... [more ▼]

To assess the effects of lactate on glucose metabolism, sodium lactate (20 mumol.kg-1.min-1) was infused into healthy subjects in basal conditions and during application of a hyperinsulinaemic (6 pmol.kg-1.min-1) euglycaemic clamp. Glucose rate of appearance (GRa) and disappearance (GRd) were measured from plasma dilution of infused U- 13C glucose, and glucose oxidation (G(ox)) from breath 13CO2 and plasma 13C glucose. In basal conditions, lactate infusion did not alter G(ox) (8.8 +/- 0.9 vs 9.2 +/- 1.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1), while GRa slightly decreased from 15.2 +/- 0.8 basal to 13.9 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg-1.min-1 after lactate (p < 0.05). During a hyperinsulinaemic clamp, hepatic glucose production was completely suppressed with or without lactate. Lactate decreased G(ox) from 17.1 +/- 0.4 to 13.4 +/- 1.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (p < 0.05), whereas GRd was unchanged (39.7 +/- 3.6 vs 45.6 +/- 2.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1. It is concluded that infusion of lactate in basal conditions does not increase GRa or interfere with peripheral glucose oxidation, and that during hyperinsulinaemia lactate decreases glucose oxidation but does not alter hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of infused sodium lactate on glucose metabolism in healthy human.
PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg; Tappy, L.; Schneiter, Ph et al

in Diabetologia (1993), 36(suppl 1), 143

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See detailEffects of Ingested Fructose and Infused Glucagon on Endogenous Glucose Production in Obese Niddm Patients, Obese Non-Diabetic Subjects, and Healthy Subjects
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Jequier, E. et al

in Diabetologia (1996), 39(5), 580-6

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In healthy subjects, however, EGP ... [more ▼]

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In healthy subjects, however, EGP remains constant during administration of gluconeogenic precursors. This study was performed in order to determine whether administration of fructose increases EGP in obese NIDDM patients and obese non-diabetic subjects. Eight young healthy lean subjects, eight middle-aged obese NIDDM patients and seven middle-aged obese non-diabetic subjects were studied during hourly ingestion of 13C fructose (0.3 g.kg fat free mass-1.h-1) for 3 h. Fructose failed to increase EGP (measured with 6,6 2H glucose) in NIDDM (17.7 +/- 1.9 mumol.kg fat free mass-1.min-1 basal vs 15.9 +/- 0.9 after fructose), in obese non-diabetic subjects (12.1 +/- 0.5 basal vs 13.1 +/- 0.5 after fructose) and in lean healthy subjects (13.3 +/- 0.5 basal vs 13.8 +/- 0.6 after fructose) although 13C glucose synthesis contributed 73.2% of EGP in lean subjects, 62.6% in obese non-diabetic subjects, and 52.8% in obese NIDDM patients. Since glucagon may play an important role in the development of hyperglycaemia in NIDDM, healthy subjects were also studied during 13C fructose ingestion + hyperglucagonaemia (232 +/- 9 ng/l) and during hyperglucagonaemia alone. EGP increased by 19.8% with ingestion of fructose + glucagon (p < 0.05) but remained unchanged during administration of fructose or glucagon alone. The plasma 13C glucose enrichment was identical after fructose ingestion both with and without glucagon, indicating that the contribution of fructose gluconeogenesis to the glucose 6-phosphate pool was identical in these two conditions. We concluded that during fructose administration: 1) gluconeogenesis is increased, but EGP remains constant in NIDDM, obese non-diabetic, and lean individuals; 2) in lean individuals, both an increased glucagonaemia and an enhanced supply of gluconeogenic precursors are required to increase EGP; this increase in EGP occurs without changes in the relative proportion of glucose 6-phosphate production from fructose and from other sources (i.e. glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis from non-fructose precursors). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Inhalation of Dust and Endotoxin on Respiratory Tracts of Pigs
Urbain, B.; Mast, J.; Beerens, Dominique ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1999), 60(9), 1055-1060

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of inhalation of feed flour dust and dustborne endotoxin on respiratory tracts of pigs. ANIMALS: 29 healthy Belgian Landrace pigs. PROCEDURE: Pigs housed in an ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of inhalation of feed flour dust and dustborne endotoxin on respiratory tracts of pigs. ANIMALS: 29 healthy Belgian Landrace pigs. PROCEDURE: Pigs housed in an environmental chamber were exposed for 6 days to feed flour dust (1 to 15 mg/m3) and dustborne endotoxins (50 to 2,500 ng/m3). Effects were evaluated by measuring albumin concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell composition of nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and blood, and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in blood and lavage fluids. Dustborne endotoxin was obtained by mixing endotoxins from Escherichia coli (serotype O127:B8) with feed flour before spraying the flour in the environmental chamber. RESULTS: Exposure did not affect cell composition of NL fluid or blood. Total cell counts of BAL fluids were increased in all groups exposed to dust. Macrophage counts were increased in pigs exposed to inhalable dust concentrations as low as 4.4 mg/m3, and lymphocyte counts were increased in groups exposed to high dust concentrations. Percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in blood and lavage fluids were unchanged. In all dust-exposed groups, albumin content of BAL fluid was increased, whereas LDH activity was unaffected. Macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration and edema in the bronchi were identified by light microscopy. Effects attributable to E. coli endotoxin exposure were not identified. CONCLUSIONS: Inhalation of feed flour dust did not affect nasal mucosa but did induce bronchial airway inflammation. Dustborne endotoxins did not have effects attributable to endotoxin alone. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inhaled dry powderipratropium broide on reconvery from exercise of horses with COPD
Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Bayly, Warwick M; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1999), 31(1), 20-24

The present study evaluated ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters during recovery from strenuous exercise in horses suffering from a crisis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... [more ▼]

The present study evaluated ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters during recovery from strenuous exercise in horses suffering from a crisis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine whether ipratropium dry powder inhalation (DPI) before exercise has an effect on these parameters. When 6 saddle horses, affected with COPD, developed airway obstruction, they inhaled placebo and ipratropium (2400 pghorse), the order being randomly chosen. Pulmonary function tests were then recorded 15 min after inhalation. Following these tests, the horses underwent a strenuous treadmill exercise, followed by a ecovery period that consisted of a 10 min walk. Measurements were made at the first and tenth min of recovery. Respiratory flow, 0 2 and C02 fractions in the respired gas, pleural pressure changes and heart rate were recorded. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were analysed or gas tensions, haemoglobin and plasma lactate concentrations. Oxygen consumption (Wz), C02 production, tidal volume, alveolar oxygen tension (PAOz), alveolar ventilation, the alveolar-pulmonary capillary oxygen difference ((A-a)dOz) and total pulmonary resistance (RL) were measured. The PA02 was the only parameter significantly improved during recovery following ipratropium DPI. This improvement was not accompanied by evidence of improvement of other ventilatory or cardiorespiratory parameters. The results showed that in horses suffering from a crisis of COPD, recovery is characterised by an exercise-induced bronchodilation. Secondly, ipratropium DPI at a dose of 2400 pghorse is an effective bronchoddator in these horses at rest but it has little effect on the airway calibre during the recovery period. It is suggested that the short term recovery period is still Muenced by exercise-induced adjustments that may exceed the bronchodilatory effect of inhaled ipratropium that are observed before exercise [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inhaled ipratropium bromide on breathing mechanics and gas exchange in exercising horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Bayly, W. M.; Duvivier, D. H.; Votion, D. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(1), 36-43

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their ... [more ▼]

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their exercise capacity. A cross-over protocol with an inert powder placebo (P) was used. Mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gases were determined before treatment, after treatment but pre-exercise, and during an incremental exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was also measured before and during exercise, and the time to fatigue recorded. Inhalation of IB reduced total pulmonary resistance (RL) and maximum intrapleural pressure changes (deltaPpl(max)) and increased dynamic compliance before exercise. The onset of exercise was associated with a marked decrease in RL in P-treated horses but not those receiving IB, so that RL during exercise was not affected by treatment. Although deltaPpl(max) was lower at 8,9 and 10 m/s with IB, there were no treatment-related changes in VO2, blood gases, time to fatigue or any other measurement of breathing mechanics. Therefore, although inhalation of IB prior to exercise may have improved deltaPpl(max), it had no apparent impact on the horses' capacity for exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide on Pulmonary Hemodynamics in a Porcine Model of Endotoxin Shock
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1999), 27(9), 1953-7

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary circulation in a porcine endotoxin shock model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary circulation in a porcine endotoxin shock model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large university medical center. SUBJECTS: Twelve pathogen-free pigs weighing 15 to 31 kg. INTERVENTIONS: After surgical preparation, all pigs received a 0.5 mg/kg endotoxin infusion over 30 mins. One hour after the start of endotoxin, NO inhalation (40 ppm) was initiated in six pigs, whereas the six remaining pigs served to control the progression of shock in this model. Consecutive changes in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, including characteristic resistance, vascular compliance, peripheral vascular resistance, and inductance, were continuously assessed during the experimental protocol using a four-element Windkessel model of the pulmonary circulation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Endotoxin insult resulted in a biphasic pulmonary artery pressure increase from 14 +/- 2 to 32 +/- 4 mm Hg. Inhaled NO reversed the resistance to blood flow in small pulmonary arteries from 596 +/- 69 to 424 +/- 36 dyne-sec/ cm5. In contrast, the vascular capacitance of the entire pulmonary circuit, which decreased from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 mL/mm Hg throughout endotoxin challenge, remained insensitive to NO administration. CONCLUSION: In endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension, inhaled NO may function as a modulator of distal pulmonary arterial tone but fails to act as a regulator of larger capacitance pulmonary vessels. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insecticide treatments on insect density and diversity in vegetable open fields.
Colignon, P.; Hastir, Pierre; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 403-411

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and allowed to reduce the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Among cultivated species in Wallonia, leguminous crops represent more than 85% of the vegetable production. To assess the impact of insecticide treatment on both pests (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) fields were investigated during all the production duration. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weakly from May to July. In each field, control untreated and treated plots were investigated. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined until the family level. Approximately 90.000 insects belonging to 59 major families (99% of captures) and 64 minor families were identified. These results showed that biodiversity in terms of family numbers was significantly higher in unsprayed plots. In addition, biodiversity and biomass (insect density) increased gradually during the season. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density was discussed in relation to aphicid (lambda-cyhalothrin, pirimicarb) treatments and the development of I.P.M. program in vegetable crops. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insulin therapy in insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients.
DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1993), 48

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See detailEffects of interaction of incubator CO2 levels and mixing hatching eggs of different embryo growth trajectory on embryo physiological and hatching parameters.
Tona, K.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Willemsen, H. et al

in British poultry science (2013), 54(4), 545-51

1. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of mixing eggs of different genotype and incubating with different CO2 concentrations on embryonic parameters. Half of the eggs were incubated ... [more ▼]

1. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of mixing eggs of different genotype and incubating with different CO2 concentrations on embryonic parameters. Half of the eggs were incubated in a CO2 controlled incubator (VCO2) during the first 10 d of incubation and the other half was incubated at standard incubation ventilation rate (SV). 2. From 10 to 18 d of incubation, thick albumen and embryos were weighed. Blood samples were collected at d 18 of incubation, at internal pipping and at hatch for determination of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and corticosterone concentration. During the last 2 d of incubation, hatching events of individual eggs were monitored every 2 h. 3. From 4 to 5 d of incubation in the SV group of Experiment 1, pH values of Ross strain chickens were lower than those of Isa Brown. From d 12 of incubation onwards, Ross embryos grew faster than those of Isa Brown. At 14 and 16 d of incubation, Ross eggs in the CO2 controlled incubator had lower albumen weights compared to all other treatments. 4. T3 concentrations in Ross embryos were higher than those of Isa Brown embryos. Chicken weight at hatch was in the following order: Isa Brown SV < Isa Brown VCO2 = Ross SV < Ross VCO2. 5. In Experiment 2, incubation time of VCO2 eggs until internal pipping, external pipping and hatch was significantly shorter than that of SV eggs. 6. It was concluded that mixing of hatching eggs of differential embryo developmental trajectory affects their hatching process. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of interleukin-1 beta and dexamethasone on the expression by chondrocytes of antioxidant enzymes
Mathy, Marianne ULg; Devel, Philippe; Sanchez, Christelle ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2004), 12(Suppl. B), 51-52

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See detailEffects of intraovarian application of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the superovulatory response of diary cattle.
Velazquez, M. A.; Hadeler, K. G.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2009), 44(S1), 38

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See detailEffects of intrapleural pressure changes on pulmonary haemodynamics measurements in unsedated cattle
Amory, Hélène ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1989)

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See detailEffects of intravascular volume expansion on lung fluid balance in a canine model of septic shock
D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; WAHLEN, C; HALLEUX, J et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1987), 15

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