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See detailEffect of the nature of the single-isomer anionic CD and the BGE composition on the enantiomeric separation of beta-blockers in NACE.
Rousseau, Anne ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Oprean, Radu et al

in Electrophoresis (2009), 30(16), 2862-8

The separation of ten beta-blockers has been investigated in NACE systems using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDMS-beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDAS-beta-CD ... [more ▼]

The separation of ten beta-blockers has been investigated in NACE systems using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDMS-beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDAS-beta-CD). The influence on enantioresolution, mobility difference and selectivity of the nature of both anionic CD and BGE anion as well as their concentrations were studied by means of a multivariate approach. A D-optimal design with 25 experimental points was applied. For all studied analytes, the enantiomeric resolution was shown to be significantly influenced by both CD nature and concentration. Except for two compounds, HDAS-beta-CD was found to give higher enantioresolution values than HDMS-beta-CD. The best enantioseparation for all compounds was achieved in the presence of a high chiral selector concentration and for most of them at a low BGE anion concentration. For each investigated compound, operating conditions leading to the best enantiomeric resolution were deduced. A generic NACE system was then recommended, namely 10 mM ammonium acetate and 40 mM HDAS-beta-CD in methanol acidified with 0.75 M formic acid. This generic system was able to completely resolve the enantiomers of all beta-blockers, with a R(s) value of at least 4. Finally, the optimal conditions obtained modelling resolution, mobility difference and selectivity were compared. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the number of subcultures on anatomical and biochemical characteristics of micropropagated strawberry shoots, in relation to their abnormal flowering.
Jemmali, A.; Boxus, P.; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1995), 60(3b),

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See detailEffect of the presence of females on the pituitary-testicular activity in male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
Delville, Y.; Sulon, J.; Hendrick, J. C. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (1984), 55(2), 295-305

Five experiments were carried out to study the role of the presence of a female on the reproductive endocrinology of male Japanese quail. In the first three experiments, exposure of an adult male raised ... [more ▼]

Five experiments were carried out to study the role of the presence of a female on the reproductive endocrinology of male Japanese quail. In the first three experiments, exposure of an adult male raised in long days to a female for l0 min or l week failed to increase plasma testosterone and LH levels; in fact a significant transitory decrease in plasma testosterone was observed, associated with a preceding increase in plasma corticosterone. These changes are interpreted as a result of the stress caused by repeated bleeding or by the continuous presence of a female in a limited space. In the last two experiments, an increase in the maturation rate of immature males could be observed in birds maintained in the continuous presence of females by comparison with birds kept in isolation. The paired males had larger cloacal glands and testes and higher plasma levels of testosterone and LH than the isolated one. This effect of the female was observed in long days (l6L:8D) as well as in marginally stimulating short days (l2L:l2D). [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of the protein level in a pre-starter diet on the post-hatch performance and activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase in muscle of neonatal broilers.
Everaert, Nadia ULg; Swennen, Quirine; Coustard, Sonia Metayer et al

in The British journal of nutrition (2010), 103(2), 206-11

The cytoplasmic serine/threonine ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) plays a critical role in controlling protein translation. There is evidence that amino acids regulate S6K1 and protein synthesis in ... [more ▼]

The cytoplasmic serine/threonine ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) plays a critical role in controlling protein translation. There is evidence that amino acids regulate S6K1 and protein synthesis in avian species, but the effect of dietary protein level on the activation of S6K1 in neonatal chicks is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of different protein levels, supplied during the first 5 d post-hatch, on body growth, breast muscle development and on the activation of S6K1 and its downstream target, the S6, in neonatal chicks. Chicks were fed a pre-starter diet during the first 5 d post-hatch containing low (19.6 % crude protein (CP); LP), medium (23.1 % CP; MP) or high (26.7 % CP) levels (HP) of protein. Weight gain of chicks fed the HP diet was higher (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the LP diet during day (d)3-d5 and the numerical advantage of this group was maintained from d2 to d7. On d2 and d3, greater levels of S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation and/or activity were observed in chicks receiving the HP diet compared with LP and MP diets, without differences between results of the latter two dietary treatments. In conclusion, the present results suggest that early protein nutrition impacts the development of broiler chicks. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Aerts, J. et al

in Poultry science (2014), 93(3), 564-73

When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The ... [more ▼]

When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method
Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2014), 558

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The ... [more ▼]

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er3 + and Eu3 + was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu3 + and Er3 + f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the Solvent Polarity on the Living Ligated Anionic Polymerization of tert-Butyl Methacrylate and Copolymerization with Methyl Methacrylate
Zune, Catherine; Archambeau, C.; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2001), 39(10), 1774-1785

An anionic polymerization of t-butyl methacrylate and a copolymerization with methyl methacrylate were initiated with an organolithium ligated with 10 equiv of LiCl. As a rule, the complexation of the ... [more ▼]

An anionic polymerization of t-butyl methacrylate and a copolymerization with methyl methacrylate were initiated with an organolithium ligated with 10 equiv of LiCl. As a rule, the complexation of the active species by LiCl masked the effect that the polarity of the solvent might have on the molecular structure of the chains. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the sowing date on physicochemical and fonctional properties of native starches extracted from European soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Lenartz, Jonathan; Massaux, Carine; Fernandez Pierna, J. A. et al

Conference (2007, May 02)

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See detailEffect of the sowing date on physicochemical and fonctional properties of native starches extracted from European soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Massaux, Carine; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Paridaens, A.-M. et al

in Weegels, P. L.; Courtin, C. M.; Arrachid, A. (Eds.) et al Consummer driven cereal innovation: where science meets industry (2008)

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See detailEffect of the transversus abdominis plane block on pain after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair
Adedjoumo, Moibi; Amabili, P.; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2009, September 19), 60(3), 205

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See detailEffect of the type and number of prostaglandin treatments on corpus luteum, the largest follicle and progesterone concentration in dairy cows
Repasi, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2005), 40(5), 436-442

Lactating dairy cows (n = 72) with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of >= 17 mm) determined by ultrasonography and having a follicle with a diameter of >= 10 min were randomly assigned to four groups ... [more ▼]

Lactating dairy cows (n = 72) with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of >= 17 mm) determined by ultrasonography and having a follicle with a diameter of >= 10 min were randomly assigned to four groups. Cows were treated with cloprostenol i.m. once or twice, or with dinoprost i.m. once or twice with an 8-h interval. The ovaries of each cow were scanned daily by transrectal ultrasonography to measure the changes in the areas of CL and the largest follicle and to determine the occurrence of ovulation. Oestrus was verified twice daily. In addition, blood sample was withdrawn from each cow daily for measuring progesterone (P4) concentrations. Significant decreases in the percentage changes relative to areas of CL and P4 concentrations or increases in the percentage changes in the area of the largest follicle on day 0 were detected in each group during the experiment. However, the type of the drug and the number of the treatments had no significant effect on those parameters. Cows ovulated with or without showing oestrus (group A) and cows exhibiting no oestrus and ovulation (group 13) were also evaluated. In contrast to the mean area of the CL and the mean concentration of P4 on day 0, the mean area of the largest follicles between, the two groups on day 0 differed significantly Significant decreases in the percentage changes relative to the area of the CL and P4 concentration or increases in the percentage changes relative to the area of the largest follicle during the experiment were detected in both groups; however, there were no group differences. Treatment of dairy cows with two injections of prostaglandins (cloprostenol or dinoprost) at an 8-h interval resulted in more cows being, observed in oestrus within 5 days after treatment and having significantly higher pregnancy rate than those treated with a single prostaglandin injection. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the use of dilute alkaline prior to Bacillus subtilis-based biocontrol steeping and germination conditions on red sorghum malt β-glucanase activities and residual β-glucans
Bwanganga Tawaba, Jean-Claude ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg et al

in Journal of Cereal Science (2013)

Malting is the ideal stage to deal with β-glucans. Their hydrolysis is very important as the diffusion of both hormones and hydrolytic enzymes in the endosperm of germinated grain depend on it. A high ... [more ▼]

Malting is the ideal stage to deal with β-glucans. Their hydrolysis is very important as the diffusion of both hormones and hydrolytic enzymes in the endosperm of germinated grain depend on it. A high malt β-glucanase activity is not a guarantee of an extensive hydrolysis of β-glucans. When Bacillus subtilis is used to control mould growth, red sorghum malt β-glucanase activity (measured using carboxymethylcellulose as the substrate) was improved without significantly affecting the hydrolysis of malt β-glucans. Thus, in order to reduce the residual β-glucans content, soaking in 0.2% NaOH was combined with a biocontrol. Soaking in 0.2% NaOH is recognized as capable of improving grain hydration by opening-up the endosperm cell walls. The combined use of 0.2% NaOH with Bacillus subtilis-based biocontrol treatments during red sorghum malting, leads to malt with increased β-glucanase activity and a significant reduction of residual β-glucans when compared with the 16 h biocontrol steeping without prior steeping in 0.2% NaOH. β-glucanase activity increases with increased germination temperature and time while, conversely, the residual β-glucans content of the malts decreases. Indeed, while the level of β-glucanase was not vastly different between the malts obtained after steeping in distilled water and those obtained after 8 h steeping in 0.2% NaOH followed by 8 h resteeping in distilled water (NaOH+H2O treatment), their residual β-glucans levels differ significantly. Bacillus subtilis-based treatment leads to malt with improved β-(1-3)- and β-(1-4)-glucanase activities without significantly improved malt β-(1-3),(1-4)-glucanase activity. While malts obtained after 84 h germination weren’t significantly different in terms of malt β-(1-3),(1-4)-glucanase activities for all steeping treatments, the use of 0.2% NaOH steeping prior to resteeping led to malts with improved β-glucans content. Combining the steeping in dilute alkaline and biocontrol enables taking advantage of the dilute alkaline effect on residual β-glucans content, due probably to the opening-up the cell walls and the improvement of water uptake, and that of the biocontrol (improvement of β-glucanase synthesis). [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the vector-axial-vector coupling on the vector-meson modes
Jaminon, Martine ULg; Mendez Galain, Ramon

in Nuclear Physics A (1993), 564

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See detailThe effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide on behavior of juvenile DBA/2J mice
Hills, Judith I.; Golub, Mari S.; Bettendorff, Lucien ULg et al

in Neurotoxicology & Teratology (2012), 34

Due to genetic defects or illness some individuals require higher amounts of thiamin than are typically provided by the diet. Lipid-soluble thiamin precursors can achieve high blood levels of thiamin and ... [more ▼]

Due to genetic defects or illness some individuals require higher amounts of thiamin than are typically provided by the diet. Lipid-soluble thiamin precursors can achieve high blood levels of thiamin and result in increased concentrations in the central nervous system. High intakes of thiamin have been reported as beneficial in children with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The current study examined the effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), a lipophilic precursor, on behavior in the juvenile male DBA/2J mouse. Mice given by oral gavage deionized water or deionized water providing 100mg or 340mg TTFD/kg body weight daily for 17days, starting at postnatal day 18, were tested for effects on operant learning, social interaction, general activity level, and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, as well as effects on growth and select organ weights. Results indicate lower activity and altered social interaction at both treatment levels and decreased acoustic startle at the 100mg/kg level. Compared to controls, percent weight gain was lower in the TTFD-treatment groups, but percent body length increase was not affected by TTFD treatment. TTFD treatment did not influence percent organ weights as percentage of body weights. TTFD treatment resulted in increased whole brain thiamin concentrations. These results support the concept that lipophilic thiamin precursors provided during early development can affect a number of behavioral parameters. In clinical trials with children with behavior disorders, attention should be given to preventing possible adverse gastrointestinal irritant effects associated with TTFD therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of three resuscitation procedures on respiratory and metabolic adaptation to extra uterine life in newborn calves
Uystepruyst, Christophe; Coghe, Joost; Dorts, Thierry et al

in Veterinary Journal (2002), 163(1), 30-44

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three resuscitation procedures on respiratory and metabolic adaptation to extra-uterine life during the first 24 h after birth in healthy newborn ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three resuscitation procedures on respiratory and metabolic adaptation to extra-uterine life during the first 24 h after birth in healthy newborn calves. Twenty-four newborn calves were randomly grouped into four categories: six calves did not receive any specific resuscitation procedure and were considered as controls (C); six received pharyngeal and nasal suctioning immediately after birth by use of a hand-powered vacuum pump (SUC); six received five litres of cold water poured over their heads immediately after birth (CW) and six were housed in a calf pen with an infrared radiant heater for 24 h after birth (IR). Calves were examined at birth, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after birth and the following measurements were recorded: physical and clinical examination, arterial blood gas analysis, pulmonary function tests using the oesophageal balloon catheter technique, arterial and venous blood acid-base balance analysis, jugular venous blood sampling for determination of metabolic, haematological and passive immune transfer variables. SUC was accompanied by improved pulmonary function efficiency and by a less pronounced decrease in body temperature. The "head shaking movement" and the subsequent temporary increase in total pulmonary resistance as well as the greater lactic acidosis due to CW were accompanied by more efficient, but statistically non-significant, pulmonary gas exchanges. IR allowed maintenance of higher body temperature without requiring increased catabolism of energetic stores. IR also caused a change in breathing pattern which contributed to better distribution of the ventilation and to slightly improved gas exchange. The results indicate that use of SUC, CW and IR modified respiratory and metabolic adaptation during the first 24 h after birth without side-effects. These resuscitation procedures should be recommended for their specific indication, i.e. cleansing of fetal fluid from upper airways, hypothermal stimulation of breathing and prevention of heat losses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of tibolone in postmenopausal women receiving tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Kroiss, R.; Fentiman, I. S.; Helmond, F. A. et al

in BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (2005), 112(2), 228-233

Objective To assess the effects of tibolone on climacteric symptoms, endometrium and serum lipid/lipoproteins in postmenopausal women receiving tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer. Design Double ... [more ▼]

Objective To assess the effects of tibolone on climacteric symptoms, endometrium and serum lipid/lipoproteins in postmenopausal women receiving tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer. Design Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre pilot study. Setting Hospital outpatient clinic. Sample Seventy postmenopausal women receiving tamoxifen following surgery for early breast cancer. Methods Women received 20 mg/day oral tamoxifen plus either 2.5 mg/day oral tibolone or placebo for 12 months. Main outcome measures Frequency and severity of hot flushes (diary cards); intensity of hot flushes and sweats (Landgren scale); interference of hot flushes and sweats with normal life; frequency and intensity of other climacteric symptoms; endometrial thickness and histology; vaginal bleeding; breast cancer recurrence and serum lipid/lipoproteins. Results Daily card data showed no change in the daily number of hot flushes with either tibolone or placebo (P= 0.219) after three months. There was a significant reduction in the severity of flushes with tibolone compared with placebo (-0.4 vs 0.2, P= 0.031). The Landgren scale showed a mean change in the number of hot flushes of -0.6 with tibolone and +1.1 with placebo after 12 months (P= 0.022). Endometrial biopsies were normal and vaginal bleeding was similar in both groups. A significant decrease in triglycerides (-23%vs 1.4%) and HDL (-12%vs 19%) was seen with tibolone compared with placebo after 12 months. Conclusion Tibolone prevented an increase in hot flushes in postmenopausal women given tamoxifen following surgery for breast cancer without untoward effects on the endometrium. Beneficial effects on serum lipid profile were noted. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of tibolone on breast cancer cell proliferation in postmenopausal ER+ patients: Results from STEM trial
Kubista, E.; Gomez, JVMP; Dowsett, M. et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2007), 13(14), 4185-4190

Purpose: Tibolone is a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator, approved for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. We have done an exploratory, double-blind, randomized ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Tibolone is a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator, approved for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. We have done an exploratory, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial to investigate the tissue-specific effects of 2.5 mg tibolone on breast cancer in postmenopausal women, in particular on tissue proliferation (STEM, Study of Tibolone Effects on Mamma carcinoma tissue). Experimental Design: Postmenopausal women with initially stage I/II, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) primary breast cancer, were randomly assigned to 14 days of placebo or 2.5 mg/d tibolone. Core biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained before and after treatment. Ki-67 and apoptosis index were analyzed in baseline and corresponding posttreatment specimen. Results: Of 102 enrolled patients, 95 had evaluable data. Baseline characteristics were comparable between both treatment groups. Breast cancer cases are mainly invasive (99%), stage I or II (42% and 50% respectively), and ER+ (99%). Median intratumoral Ki-67 expression at baseline was 13.0%, in the tibolone group and 17.8% in the placebo group, and decreased to 12.0% after 14 days of tibolone while increasing to 19.0% in the placebo group. This change from baseline was not significantly different between tibolone and placebo (Wilcoxon test; P = 0.17). A significant difference was observed between the treatment groups when the median change from baseline apoptosis index was compared between the treatment groups (tibolone, 0.0%; placebo, +0.3%; Wilcoxon test; P = 0.031). The incidence of adverse effects was comparable. Conclusions: In ER+ breast tumors, 2.5 mg/d tibolone given for 14 days has no significant effect on tumor cell proliferation. [less ▲]

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